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Puerto Rico (2002)

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 Puerto Rico
Administrative divisions none (commonwealth associated with the US); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 78 municipalities (municipios, singular - municipio) at the second order; Adjuntas, Aguada, Aguadilla, Aguas Buenas, Aibonito, Anasco, Arecibo, Arroyo, Barceloneta, Barranquitas, Bayamon, Cabo Rojo, Caguas, Camuy, Canovanas, Carolina, Catano, Cayey, Ceiba, Ciales, Cidra, Coamo, Comerio, Corozal, Culebra, Dorado, Fajardo, Florida, Guanica, Guayama, Guayanilla, Guaynabo, Gurabo, Hatillo, Hormigueros, Humacao, Isabela, Jayuya, Juana Diaz, Juncos, Lajas, Lares, Las Marias, Las Piedras, Loiza, Luquillo, Manati, Maricao, Maunabo, Mayaguez, Moca, Morovis, Naguabo, Naranjito, Orocovis, Patillas, Penuelas, Ponce, Quebradillas, Rincon, Rio Grande, Sabana Grande, Salinas, San German, San Juan, San Lorenzo, San Sebastian, Santa Isabel, Toa Alta, Toa Baja, Trujillo Alto, Utuado, Vega Alta, Vega Baja, Vieques, Villalba, Yabucoa, Yauco
Age structure 0-14 years: 23.5% (male 476,726; female 453,782)

15-64 years: 65.8% (male 1,249,850; female 1,353,438)

65 years and over: 10.7% (male 180,053; female 244,139) (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products sugarcane, coffee, pineapples, plantains, bananas; livestock products, chickens
Airports 30 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways total: 19

over 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 8

under 914 m: 5 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 12

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 10 (2002)
Area total: 9,104 sq km

land: 8,959 sq km

water: 145 sq km
Area - comparative slightly less than three times the size of Rhode Island
Background Populated for centuries by aboriginal peoples, the island was claimed by the Spanish Crown in 1493 following Columbus' second voyage to the Americas. In 1898, after 400 years of colonial rule that saw the indigenous population nearly exterminated and African slave labor introduced, Puerto Rico was ceded to the US as a result of the Spanish-American War. Puerto Ricans were granted US citizenship in 1917 and popularly elected governors have served since 1948. In 1952, a constitution was enacted providing for internal self-government. In plebiscites held in 1967, 1993, and 1998 voters chose to retain commonwealth status.
Birth rate 15.04 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budget revenues: $6.7 billion

expenditures: $9.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY99/00)
Capital San Juan
Climate tropical marine, mild; little seasonal temperature variation
Coastline 501 km
Constitution ratified 3 March 1952; approved by US Congress 3 July 1952; effective 25 July 1952
Country name conventional long form: Commonwealth of Puerto Rico

conventional short form: Puerto Rico
Currency US dollar (USD)
Death rate 7.82 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Debt - external $NA
Dependency status commonwealth associated with the US
Diplomatic representation from the US none (commonwealth associated with the US)
Diplomatic representation in the US none (commonwealth associated with the US)
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $NA
Economy - overview Puerto Rico has one of the most dynamic economies in the Caribbean region. A diverse industrial sector has surpassed agriculture as the primary locus of economic activity and income. Encouraged by duty-free access to the US and by tax incentives, US firms have invested heavily in Puerto Rico since the 1950s. US minimum wage laws apply. Sugar production has lost out to dairy production and other livestock products as the main source of income in the agricultural sector. Tourism has traditionally been an important source of income, with estimated arrivals of nearly 5 million tourists in 1999. Growth fell off in 2001, largely due to the slowdown in the US economy.
Electricity - consumption 19.062 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - production 20.497 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 99%

hydro: 1%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2000)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point: Cerro de Punta 1,338 m
Environment - current issues erosion; occasional drought causing water shortages
Ethnic groups white (mostly Spanish origin) 80.5%, black 8%, Amerindian 0.4%, Asian 0.2%, mixed and other 10.9%
Exchange rates the US dollar is used
Executive branch chief of state: President George W. BUSH of the US (since 20 January 2001); Vice President Richard B. CHENEY (since 20 January 2001)

head of government: Governor Sila M. CALDERON (since 2 January 2001)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor with the consent of the legislature

elections: US president and vice president elected on the same ticket for four-year terms; governor elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 7 November 2000 (next to be held 2 November 2004)

election results: Sila M. CALDERON (PPD) elected governor; percent of vote - 48.6%

note: residents of Puerto Rico do not vote for US president and vice president
Exports 0 kWh (2000)
Exports $38.5 billion f.o.b. (2000)
Exports - commodities pharmaceuticals, electronics, apparel, canned tuna, rum, beverage concentrates, medical equipment
Exports - partners US 88% (2000)
Fiscal year 1 July - 30 June
Flag description five equal horizontal bands of red (top and bottom) alternating with white; a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bears a large, white, five-pointed star in the center; design initially influenced by the US flag, but similar to the Cuban flag, with the colors of the bands and triangle reversed
GDP purchasing power parity - $43.9 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 1%

industry: 45%

services: 54% (1999 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $11,200 (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 2.2% (2001 est.)
Geographic coordinates 18 15 N, 66 30 W
Geography - note important location along the Mona Passage - a key shipping lane to the Panama Canal; San Juan is one of the biggest and best natural harbors in the Caribbean; many small rivers and high central mountains ensure land is well watered; south coast relatively dry; fertile coastal plain belt in north
Highways total: 14,400 km

paved: 14,400 km

unpaved: 0 km (1996)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Imports 0 kWh (2000)
Imports $27 billion c.i.f. (2000)
Imports - commodities chemicals, machinery and equipment, clothing, food, fish, petroleum products
Imports - partners US 60% (2000)
Independence none (commonwealth associated with the US)
Industrial production growth rate NA%
Industries pharmaceuticals, electronics, apparel, food products; tourism
Infant mortality rate 9.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 5.7% (2000 est.)
International organization participation Caricom (observer), ECLAC (associate), FAO (associate), ICFTU, Interpol (subbureau), IOC, WCL, WFTU, WHO (associate)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 76 (2000)
Irrigated land 400 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court; Appellate Court; Court of First Instance composed of two sections: a Superior Court and a Municipal Court (justices for all these courts appointed by the governor with the consent of the Senate)
Labor force 1.3 million (2000) (2000)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 3%, industry 20%, services 77% (2000 est.)
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land: 3.72%

permanent crops: 5.07%

other: 91.21% (1998 est.)
Languages Spanish, English
Legal system based on Spanish civil code and adapted US state laws
Legislative branch bicameral Legislative Assembly consists of the Senate (28 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the House of Representatives (51 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held 7 November 2000 (next to be held 2 November 2004); House of Representatives - last held 7 November 2000 (next to be held 2 November 2004)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PPD 19, PNP 8, PIP 1, other 1; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PPD 30, PNP 20, PIP 1

note: Puerto Rico elects, by popular vote, a resident commissioner to serve a four-year term as a nonvoting representative in the US House of Representatives; aside from not voting on the House floor, he enjoys all the rights of a member of Congress; elections last held 7 November 2000 (next to be held 2 November 2004); results - percent of vote by party - PPD 49.3%; seats by party - PPD 1; Anibal ACEVEDO-VILA elected resident commissioner
Life expectancy at birth total population: 75.96 years

male: 71.5 years

female: 80.66 years (2002 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 89%

male: 90%

female: 88% (1980 est.)
Location Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of the Dominican Republic
Map references Central America and the Caribbean
Maritime claims exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM
Merchant marine total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 19,046 GRT/22,582 DWT

ships by type: container 1 (2002 est.)
Military - note defense is the responsibility of the US
Military branches no regular indigenous military forces; paramilitary National Guard, Police Force
National holiday US Independence Day, 4 July (1776)
Nationality noun: Puerto Rican(s) (US citizens)

adjective: Puerto Rican
Natural hazards periodic droughts; hurricanes
Natural resources some copper and nickel; potential for onshore and offshore oil
Net migration rate -2.12 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Political parties and leaders National Democratic Party [Celeste BENITEZ]; National Republican Party of Puerto Rico [Luis FERRE]; New Progressive Party or PNP (pro-US statehood) [Carlos PESQUERA]; Popular Democratic Party or PPD (pro-commonwealth) [Sila M. CALDERON]; Puerto Rican Independence Party or PIP (pro-independence) [Ruben BERRIOS Martinez]
Political pressure groups and leaders Armed Forces for National Liberation or FALN; Armed Forces of Popular Resistance; Boricua Popular Army (also known as the Macheteros); Volunteers of the Puerto Rican Revolution
Population 3,957,988 (July 2002 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 0.51% (2002 est.)
Ports and harbors Guanica, Guayanilla, Guayama, Playa de Ponce, San Juan
Radio broadcast stations AM 72, FM 17, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios 2.7 million (1997)
Railways total: 96 km

narrow gauge: 96 km 1.000-m gauge,

note: rural, narrow-gauge system for hauling sugarcane; no passenger service (2001)
Religions Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant and other 15%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female

total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal; indigenous inhabitants are US citizens but do not vote in US presidential elections
Telephone system general assessment: modern system, integrated with that of the US by high-capacity submarine cable and Intelsat with high-speed data capability

domestic: digital telephone system; cellular telephone service

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat; submarine cable to US
Telephones - main lines in use 1.322 million (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 169,265 (1996)
Television broadcast stations 18 (plus three stations of the US Armed Forces Radio and Television Service) (1997)
Terrain mostly mountains, with coastal plain belt in north; mountains precipitous to sea on west coast; sandy beaches along most coastal areas
Total fertility rate 1.9 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate 9.5% (2000) (2000)
Waterways none
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