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Polska (2008)

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Polska 2008 roku

 Polska
Podzial administracyjny 16 provinces (wojewodztwa, singular - wojewodztwo); Dolnoslaskie wojewodztwo, Kujawsko-Pomorskie wojewodztwo, Lodzkie wojewodztwo, Lubelskie wojewodztwo, Lubuskie wojewodztwo, Malopolskie wojewodztwo, Mazowieckie wojewodztwo, Opolskie wojewodztwo, Podkarpackie wojewodztwo, Podlaskie wojewodztwo, Pomorskie wojewodztwo, Slaskie wojewodztwo, Swietokrzyskie wojewodztwo, Warminsko-Mazurskie wojewodztwo, Wielkopolskie wojewodztwo, Zachodniopomorskie wojewodztwo
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 15.5% (male 3,070,388/female 2,906,121)


15-64 years: 71.1% (male 13,639,012/female 13,761,154)


65 years and over: 13.3% (male 1,964,429/female 3,177,137) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo potatoes, fruits, vegetables, wheat; poultry, eggs, pork, dairy
Lotniska 123 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 83


over 3,047 m: 4


2,438 to 3,047 m: 30


1,524 to 2,437 m: 39


914 to 1,523 m: 7


under 914 m: 3 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 40


2,438 to 3,047 m: 1


1,524 to 2,437 m: 4


914 to 1,523 m: 13


under 914 m: 22 (2007)
Terytorium total: 312,685 sq km


land: 304,465 sq km


water: 8,220 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than New Meksyk
Tlo historyczne Polska is an ancient nation that was conceived near the middle of the 10th century. Its golden age occurred w the 16th century. During the following century, the strengthening of the gentry and internal disorders weakened the nation. In a series of agreements between 1772 and 1795, Rosja, Prussia, and Austria partitioned Polska amongst themselves. Polska regained its independence w 1918 only to be overrun by Niemcy and the Soviet Union w Swiat War II. It became a Soviet satellite state following the war, but its government was comparatively tolerant and progressive. Labor turmoil w 1980 led to the formation of the independent trade union "Solidarity" that over time became a political force and by 1990 had swept parliamentary elections and the presidency. A "shock therapy" program during the early 1990s enabled the country to transform its economy into one of the most robust w Central Europe, but Polska still faces the lingering challenges of high unemployment, underdeveloped and dilapidated infrastructure, and a poor rural underclass. Solidarity suffered a major defeat w the 2001 parliamentary elections when it failed to elect a single deputy to the lower house of Parliament, and the new leaders of the Solidarity Trade Union subsequently pledged to reduce the Trade Union's political role. Polska joined NATO w 1999 and the Unia Europejska w 2004. With its transformation to a democratic, market-oriented country largely completed, Polska is an increasingly active member of Euro-Atlantic organizations.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 9.94 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $80.53 billion


expenditures: $88.7 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Warsaw


geographic coordinates: 52 15 N, 21 00 E


time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)


daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday w marzec; ends last Sunday w pazdziernik
Klimat temperate z cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters z frequent precipitation; mild summers z frequent showers and thundershowers
Linia brzegowa 491 km
Konstytucja adopted by the National Assembly 2 kwiecien 1997; passed by national referendum 25 maj 1997; effective 17 pazdziernik 1997
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Polska


conventional short form: Polska


local long form: Rzeczpospolita Polska


local short form: Polska
Wspolczynnik zgonow 9.94 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $187.8 billion (30 czerwiec 2007)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Victor ASHE


embassy: Aleje Ujazdowskie 29/31 00-540 Warsaw


mailing address: American Embassy Warsaw, US Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5010 (pouch)


telephone: [48] (22) 504-2000


FAX: [48] (22) 504-2688


consulate(s) general: Krakow
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Wojciech FLERA; note - Robert KUPIECKI has been named the next Polish Ambassador to the US by the Polish Government


chancery: 2640 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009


telephone: [1] (202) 234-3800 through 3802


FAX: [1] (202) 328-6271


consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Polska has implemented the strict Schengen border rules to restrict illegal immigration and trade along its eastern borders z Bialorus and Ukraina
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $1.524 billion w available EU structural adjustment and cohesion funds (2004)
Ekonomia Polska has pursued a policy of economic liberalization since 1990 and today stands out as a success story among transition economies. In 2007, Produkt krajowy brutto grew an estimated 6.5%, based on rising private consumption, a jump w corporate investment, and EU funds inflows. Produkt krajowy brutto per capita is still much below the EU average, but is similar to that of the three Baltic states. Since 2004, EU membership and access to EU structural funds have provided a major boost to the economy. Unemployment is falling rapidly, though at roughly 11% w grudzien 2007, it remains well above the EU average. Tightening labor markets, and rising global energy and food prices, pose a risk to consumer price stability. In grudzien 2007 inflation reached 4.1% on a year-over-year basis, or higher than the upper limit of the National Bank of Polska's target range. Polska's economic performance could improve further if the country addresses some of the remaining deficiencies w its business environment. An inefficient commercial court system, a rigid labor code, bureaucratic red tape, and persistent low-level corruption keep the private sector from performing up to its full potential. Rising demands to fund health care, education, and the state pension system present a challenge to the Polish government's effort to hold the consolidated public sector budget deficit under 3.0% of Produkt krajowy brutto, a target which was achieved w 2007. The PO/PSL coalition government which came to power w listopad 2007 plans to further reduce the budget deficit z the aim of eventually adopting the euro. The new government has also announced its intention to enact business-friendly reforms, reduce public sector spending growth, lower taxes, and accelerate privatization. However, the government does not have the necessary two-thirds majority needed to override a presidential veto, and thus may have to water down initiatives w order to garner enough support to pass its pro-business policies.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 120.4 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 16.19 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 5.002 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 146.2 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: near Raczki Elblaskie -2 m


highest point: Rysy 2,499 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy situation has improved since 1989 due to decline w heavy industry and increased environmental concern by post-Communist governments; air pollution nonetheless remains serious because of sulfur dioxide emissions from coal-fired power plants, and the resulting acid rain has caused forest damage; water pollution from industrial and municipal sources is also a problem, as is disposal of hazardous wastes; pollution levels should continue to decrease as industrial establishments bring their facilities up to EU code, but at substantial cost to business and the government
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Kyoto Protocol, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94
Grupy etniczne Polish 96.7%, German 0.4%, Bialorusian 0.1%, Ukrainian 0.1%, other and unspecified 2.7% (2002 census)
Kurs waluty zlotych per US dollar - 2.81 (2007), 3.1032 (2006), 3.2355 (2005), 3.6576 (2004), 3.8891 (2003)


note: zlotych is the plural form of zloty
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Lech KACZYNSKI (since 23 grudzien 2005)


head of government: Prime Minister Donald TUSK (since 16 listopad 2007); Deputy Prime Ministers Waldemar PAWLAK (since 16 listopad 2007) and Grzegorz SCHETYNA (since 16 listopad 2007)


cabinet: Council of Ministers responsible to the prime minister and the Sejm; the prime minister proposes, the president appoints, and the Sejm approves the Council of Ministers


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); election last held 9 and 23 pazdziernik 2005 (next to be held w the fall 2010); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the Sejm


election results: Lech KACZYNSKI elected president; percent of popular vote - Lech KACZYNSKI 54%, Donald Tusk 46%
Eksport 16.19 billion kWh (2005)
Eksport $137.9 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 42.2 million cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 51,780 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary machinery and transport equipment 37.8%, intermediate manufactured goods 23.7%, miscellaneous manufactured goods 17.1%, food and live animals 7.6% (2003)
Eksport - partnerzy Niemcy 27.2%, Wlochy 6.6%, Francja 6.2%, UK 5.7%, Czechy 5.6%, Rosja 4.3% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; similar to the flags of Indonezja and Monako which are red (top) and white
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 4.1%


industry: 31.9%


services: 64% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 6.5% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 52 00 N, 20 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne historically, an area of conflict because of flat terrain and the lack of natural barriers on the North European Plain
Ladowiska helikopterow 7 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 3.1%


highest 10%: 27% (2002)
Narkotyki despite diligent counternarcotics measures and international information sharing on cross-border crimes, a major illicit producer of synthetic drugs dla the international market; minor transshipment point dla Southwest Asian heroin and Latin American cocaine to Western Europe
Import 5.002 billion kWh (2005)
Import $150.7 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 10.01 billion cu m (2005)
Import 480,300 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary machinery and transport equipment 38%, intermediate manufactured goods 21%, chemicals 14.8%, minerals, fuels, lubricants, and related materials 9.1% (2003)
Import - partnerzy Niemcy 29%, Rosja 9.6%, Wlochy 6.4%, Holandia 5.7%, Francja 5.4% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 11 listopad 1918 (republic proclaimed)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 10% (2007 est.)
Przemysl machine building, iron and steel, coal mining, chemicals, shipbuilding, food processing, glass, beverages, textiles
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 7.07 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 7.8 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 6.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 2.1% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ACCT (observer), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ESA (cooperating state), EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SECI (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNOMIG, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Nawadniane tereny 1,000 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the National Council of the Judiciary dla an indefinite period); Konstytucjaal Tribunal (judges are chosen by the Sejm dla nine-year terms)
Sila robocza 17.01 million (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 16.1%


industry: 29%


services: 54.9% (2002)
Granica total: 3,056 km


border countries: Bialorus 416 km, Czechy 790 km, Niemcy 467 km, Litwa 103 km, Rosja (Kaliningrad Oblast) 210 km, Slowacja 541 km, Ukraina 529 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 40.25%


permanent crops: 1%


other: 58.75% (2005)
Jezyki Polish 97.8%, other and unspecified 2.2% (2002 census)
System prawny based on a mixture of Continental (Napoleonic) civil law and holdover Communist legal theory; changes being gradually introduced as part of broader democratization process; limited judicial review of legislative acts, but rulings of the Konstytucjaal Tribunal are final; court decisions can be appealed to the European Court of Justice w Strasbourg; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction z reservations
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral National Assembly or Zgromadzenie Narodowe consists of the Senate or Senat (upper house) (100 seats; members are elected by a majority vote on a provincial basis to serve four-year terms), and the Sejm (lower house) (460 seats; members are elected under a complex system of proportional representation to serve four-year terms); the designation of National Assembly is only used on those rare occasions when the two houses meet jointly


elections: Senate - last held 21 pazdziernik 2007 (next to be held by pazdziernik 2011); Sejm elections last held 21 pazdziernik 2007 (next to be held by pazdziernik 2011)


election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PO 60, PiS 39, independents 1; Sejm - percent of vote by party - PO 41.5%, PiS 32.1%, LiD 13.2%, PSL 8.9%, other 4.3%; seats by party - PO 209, PiS 166, LiD 53, PSL 31, German minorities 1; note - seats by party as of luty 2008 - PO 209, PiS 159, LiD 53, PSL 31, German minorities 1, nonaffiliated 7


note: one seat is assigned to ethnic minority parties w the Sejm only
Zywotnosc total population: 75.19 years


male: 71.18 years


female: 79.44 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 99.8%


male: 99.8%


female: 99.7% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Central Europe, east of Niemcy
Lokalizacja na mapie Europe
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


exclusive economic zone: defined by international treaties
Flota handlowa total: 11 ships (1000 GRT or over) 55,701 GRT/45,082 DWT


by type: cargo 6, chemical tanker 2, passenger/cargo 1, roll on/roll off 1, vehicle carrier 1


foreign-owned: 1 (Nigeria 1)


registered w other countries: 102 (Antigua i Barbuda 2, Bahamas 15, Cypr 18, Liberia 14, Malta 25, Norwegia 3, Panama 15, Slowacja 2, St Vincent and The Grenadines 1, Vanuatu 7) (2007)
Wojsko Polish Armed Forces: Land Forces (includes Navy (Marynarka Wojenna, MW)), Polish Air Force (Sily Powietrzne Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, SPRP) (2008)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 1.71% (2005 est.)
Swieto narodowe Konstytucja Day, 3 maj (1791)
Narodowosc noun: Pole(s)


adjective: Polish
Naturalne zagrozenia flooding
Surowce naturalne coal, sulfur, copper, natural gas, silver, lead, salt, amber, arable land
Wspolczynnik migracji -0.46 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi gas 13,552 km; oil 1,384 km; refined products 777 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Civic Platform or PO [Donald TUSK]; Democratic Left Alliance or SLD [Wojciech OLEJNICZAK]; Democratic Party or PD [Janusz ONYSZKIEWICZ]; German Minority of Lower Silesia or MNSO [Henryk KROLL]; Law and Justice or PiS [Jaroslaw KACZYNSKI]; League of Polish Families or LPR [Roman GIERTYCH]; Left and Democrats (LiD) (a coalition formed by the SLD, PD, SDPL, and UP) [Wojciech OLEJNICZAK]; Polish People's Party or PSL [Waldemar PAWLAK]; Samoobrona or SO [Andrzej LEPPER]; Social Democratic Party of Polska or SDPL [Marek BOROWSKI]; Union of Labor or UP [Andrzej SPYCHALSKI]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow All Polska Trade Union Alliance or OPZZ (trade union) [Jan GUZ]; Roman Catholic Church [Cardinal Stanislaw DZIWISZ, Archbishop Jozef MICHALIK]; Solidarity Trade Union [Janusz SNIADEK]
Ludnosc 38,518,241 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 17% (2003 est.)
Przyrost naturalny -0.046% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 14, FM 777, shortwave 1 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 23,072 km


broad gauge: 629 km 1.524-m gauge


standard gauge: 22,443 km 1.435-m gauge (20,555 km operational; 11,910 km electrified) (2006)
Religie Roman Catholic 89.8% (about 75% practicing), Eastern Orthodox 1.3%, Protestant 0.3%, other 0.3%, unspecified 8.3% (2002)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.057 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 0.991 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.618 male(s)/female


total population: 0.941 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: modernization of the telecommunications network has accelerated z market based competition finalized w 2003; fixed-line service, dominated by the former state-owned company, is dwarfed by the growth w wireless telephony


domestic: mobile-cellular service available since 1993 and provided by three nation-wide networks z a fourth provider beginning operations w late 2006; cellular coverage is generally good z some gaps w the east; fixed-line service is growing slowly and still lags w rural areas


international: country code - 48; international direct dialing z automated exchanges; satellite earth station - 1 z access to Intelsat, Eutelsat, Inmarsat, and Intersputnik
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 11.475 million (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 36.746 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 40 (2006)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly flat plain; mountains along southern border
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.26 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 12.8% (2007 est.)
Drogi wodne 3,997 km (navigable rivers and canals) (2006)
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