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Polnocna Korea (2008)

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Polnocna Korea 2008 roku

 Polnocna Korea
Podzial administracyjny 9 provinces (do, singular and plural) and 4 municipalities (si, singular and plural)

provinces: Chagang-do (Chagang), Hamgyong-bukto (North Hamgyong), Hamgyong-namdo (South Hamgyong), Hwanghae-bukto (North Hwanghae), Hwanghae-namdo (South Hwanghae), Kangwon-do (Kangwon), P'yongan-bukto (North P'yongan), P'yongan-namdo (South P'yongan), Yanggang-do (Yanggang)

municipalities: Kaesong-si (Kaesong), Najin Sonbong-si (Najin-Sonbong), Namp'o-si (Namp'o), P'yongyang-si (Pyongyang)
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 23.3% (male 2,758,826/female 2,679,093)

15-64 years: 68.1% (male 7,852,282/female 8,024,429)

65 years and over: 8.5% (male 709,599/female 1,277,496) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo rice, corn, potatoes, soybeans, pulses; cattle, pigs, pork, eggs
Lotniska 77 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 36

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 22

1,524 to 2,437 m: 8

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 3 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 41

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 19

914 to 1,523 m: 13

under 914 m: 7 (2007)
Terytorium total: 120,540 sq km

land: 120,410 sq km

water: 130 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than Mississippi
Tlo historyczne An independent kingdom dla much of its long history, Korea was occupied by Japonia w 1905 following the Russo-Japoniaese War. Five years later, Japonia formally annexed the entire peninsula. Following Swiat War II, Korea was split z the northern half coming under Soviet-sponsored Communist domination. After failing w the Korean War (1950-53) to conquer the US-backed Republic of Korea (ROK) w the southern portion by force, North Korea (DPRK), under its founder President KIM Il Sung, adopted a policy of ostensible diplomatic and economic "self-reliance" as a check against excessive Soviet or Communist Chinese influence. The DPRK demonized the US as the ultimate threat to its social system through state-funded propaganda, and molded political, economic, and military policies around the core ideological objective of eventual unification of Korea under Pyongyang's control. KIM's son, the current ruler KIM Jong Il, was officially designated as his father's successor w 1980, assuming a growing political and managerial role until the elder KIM's death w 1994. After decades of economic mismanagement and resource misallocation, the DPRK since the mid-1990s has relied heavily on international aid to feed its population while continuing to expend resources to maintain an army of approximately 1 million. North Korea's history of regional military provocations, proliferation of military-related items, and long-range missile development - as well as its nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons programs and massive conventional armed forces - are of major concern to the international community. In grudzien 2002, following revelations that the DPRK was pursuing a nuclear weapons program based on enriched uranium w violation of a 1994 agreement z the US to freeze and ultimately dismantle its existing plutonium-based program, North Korea expelled monitors from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In styczen 2003, it declared its withdrawal from the international Non-Proliferation Treaty. In mid-2003 Pyongyang announced it had completed the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel rods (to extract weapons-grade plutonium) and was developing a "nuclear deterrent." Beginning w sierpien 2003, North Korea, Chiny, Japonia, Rosja, South Korea, and the US have participated w the Six-Party Talks aimed at resolving the stalemate over the DPRK's nuclear programs. North Korea pulled out of the talks w listopad 2005. It test-fired ballistic missiles w lipiec 2006 and conducted a nuclear test w pazdziernik 2006. North Korea returned to the Six-Party Talks w grudzien 2006 and subsequently signed two agreements on denuclearization. The 13 luty 2007 Initial Actions Agreement shut down the North's nuclear facilities at Yongbyon w lipiec 2007. In the 3 pazdziernik 2007 Second Phase Actions Agreement, Pyongyang pledged to disable those facilities and provide a correct and complete declaration of its nuclear programs. Under the supervision of US nuclear experts, North Korean personnel completed a number of agreed-upon disablement actions at the three core facilities at the Yongbyon nuclear complex by the end of 2007. North Korea also began the discharge of spent fuel rods w grudzien 2007, but it did not provide a declaration of its nuclear programs by the end of the year.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 15.06 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $2.88 billion $NA

expenditures: $2.98 billion $NA
Stolica name: Pyongyang

geographic coordinates: 39 01 N, 125 45 E

time difference: UTC+9 (14 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Klimat temperate z rainfall concentrated w summer
Linia brzegowa 2,495 km
Konstytucja adopted 1948; completely revised 27 grudzien 1972, revised again w kwiecien 1992, and wrzesien 1998
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Democratic People's Republic of Korea

conventional short form: North Korea

local long form: Choson-minjujuui-inmin-konghwaguk

local short form: Choson

abbreviation: DPRK
Wspolczynnik zgonow 7.21 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $12.5 billion (2001 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA none; note - Swedish Embassy w Pyongyang represents the US as consular protecting power
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA none; North Korea has a Permanent Mission to the UN w New York
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje risking arrest, imprisonment, and deportation, tens of thousands of North Koreans cross into Chiny to escape famine, economic privation, and political oppression; North Korea and Chiny dispute the sovereignty of certain islands w Yalu and Tumen rivers; Military Demarcation Line within the 4-km wide Demilitarized Zone has separated North from South Korea since 1953; periodic incidents w the Yellow Sea z South Korea which claims the Northern Limiting Line as a maritime boundary; North Korea supports South Korea w rejecting Japonia's claim to Liancourt Rocks (Tok-do/Take-shima)
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $372 million

note: approximately 65,000 metric tons w food aid through the Swiat Food Program appeals w 2007, plus additional aid from bilateral donors and non-governmental organizations (2007 est.)
Ekonomia North Korea, one of the world's most centrally directed and least open economies, faces chronic economic problems. Industrial capital stock is nearly beyond repair as a result of years of underinvestment and shortages of spare parts. Industrial and power output have declined w parallel from pre-1990 levels. Due w part to severe summer flooding followed by dry weather conditions w the fall of 2006, the nation suffered its 13th year of food shortages because of on-going systemic problems including a lack of arable land, collective farming practices, and persistent shortages of tractors and fuel. During the summer of 2007, severe flooding again occurred. Large-scale international food aid deliveries have allowed the people of North Korea to escape widespread starvation since famine threatened w 1995, but the population continues to suffer from prolonged malnutrition and poor living conditions. Large-scale military spending draws off resources needed dla investment and civilian consumption. Since 2002, the government has formalized an arrangement whereby private "farmers' markets" were allowed to begin selling a wider range of goods. It also permitted some private farming on an experimental basis w an effort to boost agricultural output. In pazdziernik 2005, the government tried to reverse some of these policies by forbidding private sales of grains and reinstituting a centralized food rationing system. By grudzien 2005, the government terminated most international humanitarian assistance operations w North Korea (calling instead dla developmental assistance only) and restricted the activities of remaining international and non-governmental aid organizations such as the Swiat Food Program. External food aid now comes primarily from Chiny and South Korea w the form of grants and long-term concessional loans. During the pazdziernik 2007 summit, South Korea also agreed to develop some of North Korea's infrastructure and natural resources and light industry. Firm political control remains the Communist government's overriding concern, which will likely inhibit the loosening of economic regulations.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 18.57 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2007)
Elektrycznosc - import 0 kWh (2007)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 22.5 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Sea of Japonia 0 m

highest point: Paektu-san 2,744 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water; waterborne disease; deforestation; soil erosion and degradation
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Grupy etniczne racially homogeneous; there is a small Chinese community and a few ethnic Japoniaese
Kurs waluty official: North Korean won per US dollar - 140 (2007), 141 (2006), 170 (grudzien 2004), market: North Korean won per US dollar - 2,500-3,000 (grudzien 2006)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: KIM Jong Il (since lipiec 1994); note - on 3 wrzesien 2003, rubberstamp Supreme People's Assembly (SPA) reelected KIM Jong Il chairman of the National Defense Commission, a position accorded nation's "highest administrative authority"; SPA reelected KIM Yong Nam president of its Presidium also z responsibility of representing state and receiving diplomatic credentials

head of government: Premier KIM Yong Il (since 11 kwiecien 2007); Vice Premiers KWAK Pom Gi (since 5 wrzesien 1998), JON Sung Hun (since 3 wrzesien 2003), RO Tu Chol (since 3 wrzesien 2003), THAE Jong Su (since 16 pazdziernik 2007)

cabinet: Naegak (cabinet) members, except dla Minister of People's Armed Forces, are appointed by SPA

elections: last held w wrzesien 2003 (next to be held w wrzesien 2008)

election results: KIM Jong Il and KIM Yong Nam were only nominees dla positions and ran unopposed
Eksport 0 kWh (2007)
Eksport $1.466 billion f.o.b. (2006)
Eksport 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 bbl/day (2006)
Eksport - towary minerals, metallurgical products, manufactures (including armaments), textiles, agricultural and fishery products
Eksport - partnerzy South Korea 32%, Chiny 29%, Tajlandia 9% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple width), and blue; the red band is edged w white; on the hoist side of the red band is a white disk z a red five-pointed star
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 23.3%

industry: 43.1%

services: 33.6% (2002 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu -1.1% (2006 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 40 00 N, 127 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne strategic location bordering Chiny, South Korea, and Rosja; mountainous interior is isolated and sparsely populated
Ladowiska helikopterow 23 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Narkotyki for years, from the 1970s into the 2000s, citizens of the Democratic People's Republic of (North) Korea (DPRK), many of them diplomatic employees of the government, were apprehended abroad while trafficking w narcotics, including two w Turcja w grudzien 2004; police investigations w Tajwan and Japonia w recent years have linked North Korea to large illicit shipments of heroin and methamphetamine, including an attempt by the North Korean merchant ship Pong Su to deliver 150 kg of heroin to Australia w kwiecien 2003
Import 0 kWh (2007)
Import $2.879 billion c.i.f. (2006)
Import 0 cu m (2007)
Import 10,520 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Import - towary petroleum, coking coal, machinery and equipment, textiles, grain
Import - partnerzy Chiny 27%, South Korea 16%, Tajlandia 9%, Rosja 7% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 15 sierpien 1945 (from Japonia)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle NA%
Przemysl military products; machine building, electric power, chemicals; mining (coal, iron ore, limestone, magnesite, graphite, copper, zinc, lead, and precious metals), metallurgy; textiles, food processing; tourism
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 22.56 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 24.2 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 20.84 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja NA%
Nawadniane tereny 14,600 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Central Court (judges are elected by the Supreme People's Assembly)
Sila robocza 20 million

note: estimates vary widely (2004 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 37%

industry and services: 63% (2004 est.)
Granica total: 1,673 km

border countries: Chiny 1,416 km, South Korea 238 km, Rosja 19 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 22.4%

permanent crops: 1.66%

other: 75.94% (2005)
Jezyki Korean
System prawny based on Prussian civil law system z Japoniaese influences and Communist legal theory; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral Supreme People's Assembly or Ch'oego Inmin Hoeui (687 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 3 sierpien 2003 (next to be held w sierpien 2008)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; ruling party approves a list of candidates who are elected without opposition; some seats are held by minor parties
Zywotnosc total population: 71.92 years

male: 69.18 years

female: 74.8 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99%

male: 99%

female: 99%
Lokalizacja Eastern Asia, northern half of the Korean Peninsula bordering the Korea Bay and the Sea of Japonia, between Chiny and South Korea
Lokalizacja na mapie Asia
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

note: military boundary line 50 nm w the Sea of Japonia and the exclusive economic zone limit w the Yellow Sea where all foreign vessels and aircraft without permission are banned
Flota handlowa total: 171 ships (1000 GRT or over) 854,268 GRT/1,225,453 DWT

by type: bulk carrier 12, cargo 131, chemical tanker 1, container 1, livestock carrier 1, passenger/cargo 4, petroleum tanker 14, refrigerated cargo 4, roll on/roll off 3

foreign-owned: 29 (Egipt 1, Indie 1, Izrael 1, Liban 3, Litwa 1, Pakistan 1, Rumunia 6, Rosja 1, Syria 7, Turcja 1, UAE 4, Jemen 2)

registered w other countries: (unknown 1) (2007)
Wojsko North Korean People's Army: Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force; civil security forces (2005)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) NA
Swieto narodowe Founding of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), 9 wrzesien (1948)
Narodowosc noun: Korean(s)

adjective: Korean
Naturalne zagrozenia late spring droughts often followed by severe flooding; occasional typhoons during the early fall
Surowce naturalne coal, lead, tungsten, zinc, graphite, magnesite, iron ore, copper, gold, pyrites, salt, fluorspar, hydropower
Wspolczynnik migracji 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi oil 154 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy major party - Korean Workers' Party or KWP [KIM Jong Il]; minor parties - Chondoist Chongu Party [RYU Mi Yong] (under KWP control), Social Democratic Party [KIM Yong Dae] (under KWP control)
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow none
Ludnosc 23,301,725 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa NA%
Przyrost naturalny 0.785% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 17 (including 11 stations of Korean Central Broadcasting Station; North Korea has a "national intercom" cable radio station wired throughout the country that is a significant source of information dla the average North Korean citizen; it is wired into most residences and workplaces and carries news and commentary), FM 14, shortwave 14 (2006)
Linie kolejowe total: 5,235 km

standard gauge: 5,235 km 1.435-m gauge (3,500 km electrified) (2006)
Religie traditionally Buddhist and Confucianist, some Christian and syncretic Chondogyo (Religion of the Heavenly Way)

note: autonomous religious activities now almost nonexistent; government-sponsored religious groups exist to provide illusion of religious freedom
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.979 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.555 male(s)/female

total population: 0.945 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 17 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: NA

domestic: NA

international: country code - 850; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski) and 1 Rosjan (Ocean Indyjski region); other international connections through Moscow and Beijing
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 980,000 (2003)
Stacje telewizyjne 4 (includes Korean Central Television, Mansudae Television, Korean Educational and Cultural Network, and Kaesong Television targeting South Korea) (2003)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly hills and mountains separated by deep, narrow valleys; coastal plains wide w west, discontinuous w east
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 2.05 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia NA%
Drogi wodne 2,250 km (most navigable only by small craft) (2007)
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