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Papua New Guinea (2008)

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Papua New Guinea 2008 year

 Papua New Guinea
Administrative divisions 20 provinces; Bougainville, Central, Chimbu, Eastern Highlands, East New Britain, East Sepik, Enga, Gulf, Madang, Manus, Milne Bay, Morobe, National Capital, New Ireland, Northern, Sandaun, Southern Highlands, Western, Western Highlands, West New Britain
Age structure 0-14 years: 37.6% (male 1,107,568/female 1,070,594)

15-64 years: 58.5% (male 1,745,385/female 1,643,830)

65 years and over: 3.9% (male 106,487/female 122,023) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products coffee, cocoa, copra, palm kernels, tea, sugar, rubber, sweet potatoes, fruit, vegetables, vanilla; shell fish, poultry, pork
Airports 578 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 21

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 14

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 557

1,524 to 2,437 m: 10

914 to 1,523 m: 58

under 914 m: 489 (2007)
Area total: 462,840 sq km

land: 452,860 sq km

water: 9,980 sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than California
Background The eastern half of the island of New Guinea - second largest in the world - was divided between Germany (north) and the UK (south) in 1885. The latter area was transferred to Australia in 1902, which occupied the northern portion during World War I and continued to administer the combined areas until independence in 1975. A nine-year secessionist revolt on the island of Bougainville ended in 1997 after claiming some 20,000 lives.
Birth rate 28.76 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: $2.209 billion

expenditures: $1.994 billion (2007 est.)
Capital name: Port Moresby

geographic coordinates: 9 30 S, 147 10 E

time difference: UTC+10 (15 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Climate tropical; northwest monsoon (December to March), southeast monsoon (May to October); slight seasonal temperature variation
Coastline 5,152 km
Constitution 16 September 1975
Country name conventional long form: Independent State of Papua New Guinea

conventional short form: Papua New Guinea

local short form: Papuaniugini

former: Territory of Papua and New Guinea

abbreviation: PNG
Death rate 7.14 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $1.814 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Leslie W. Rowe

embassy: Douglas Street, Port Moresby, N.C.D.

mailing address: 4240 Port Moresby PI, US Department of State, Washington DC 20521-4240

telephone: [675] 321-1455

FAX: [675] 321-3423
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Evan Jeremy PAKI

chancery: 1779 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Suite 805, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 745-3680

FAX: [1] (202) 745-3679
Disputes - international relies on assistance from Australia to keep out illegal cross-border activities from primarily Indonesia, including goods smuggling, illegal narcotics trafficking, and squatters and secessionists
Economic aid - recipient $266.1 million (2005)
Economy - overview Papua New Guinea is richly endowed with natural resources, but exploitation has been hampered by rugged terrain and the high cost of developing infrastructure. Agriculture provides a subsistence livelihood for 85% of the population. Mineral deposits, including copper, gold, and oil, account for nearly two-thirds of export earnings. The government of Prime Minister SOMARE has expended much of its energy remaining in power. He was the first prime minister ever to serve a full five-year term. The government also brought stability to the national budget, largely through expenditure control; however, it relaxed spending constraints in 2006 and 2007 as elections approached. Numerous challenges still face the government including regaining investor confidence, restoring integrity to state institutions, promoting economic efficiency by privatizing moribund state institutions, and balancing relations with Australia, its former colonial ruler. Other socio-cultural challenges could upend the economy including a worsening HIV/AIDS epidemic and chronic law and order and land tenure issues. Australia will supply more than $300 million in aid in FY07/08, which accounts for nearly 20% of the national budget.
Electricity - consumption 3.439 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - production 3.698 billion kWh (2005)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mount Wilhelm 4,509 m
Environment - current issues rain forest subject to deforestation as a result of growing commercial demand for tropical timber; pollution from mining projects; severe drought
Environment - international agreements party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Melanesian, Papuan, Negrito, Micronesian, Polynesian
Exchange rates kina per US dollar - 3.03 (2007), 3.0643 (2006), 3.08 (2005), 3.2225 (2004), 3.5635 (2003)
Executive branch chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by governor general Sir Paulius MATANE (since 29 June 2004)

head of government: Prime Minister Sir Michael SOMARE (since 2 August 2002); Deputy Prime Minister Puka TEMU (since 29 August 2007)

cabinet: National Executive Council appointed by governor general on recommendation of prime minister

elections: none; monarch is hereditary; governor general nominated by parliament and appointed by chief of state; following legislative elections, leader of majority party or leader of majority coalition usually is appointed prime minister by governor general
Exports 0 kWh (2005)
Exports $4.553 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Exports 44,580 bbl/day (2004)
Exports - commodities oil, gold, copper ore, logs, palm oil, coffee, cocoa, crayfish, prawns
Exports - partners Australia 30.2%, Japan 8.2%, China 5.7% (2006)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description divided diagonally from upper hoist-side corner; the upper triangle is red with a soaring yellow bird of paradise centered; the lower triangle is black with five, white, five-pointed stars of the Southern Cross constellation centered
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 35.5%

industry: 37%

services: 27.5% (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 4% (2007 est.)
Geographic coordinates 6 00 S, 147 00 E
Geography - note shares island of New Guinea with Indonesia; one of world's largest swamps along southwest coast
Heliports 2 (2007)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 1.7%

highest 10%: 40.5% (1996)
Illicit drugs major consumer of cannabis
Imports 0 kWh (2005)
Imports $2.269 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2005)
Imports 24,020 bbl/day (2004)
Imports - commodities machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, fuels, chemicals
Imports - partners Australia 52%, Singapore 12.6%, China 5.9%, Japan 4.3% (2006)
Independence 16 September 1975 (from the Australian-administered UN trusteeship)
Industrial production growth rate 4.8% (2007 est.)
Industries copra crushing, palm oil processing, plywood production, wood chip production; mining of gold, silver, and copper; crude oil production, petroleum refining; construction, tourism
Infant mortality rate total: 48.46 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 52.52 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 44.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 1.8% (2007 est.)
International organization participation ACP, ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN (observer), C, CP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Irrigated land NA
Judicial branch Supreme Court (the chief justice is appointed by the governor general on the proposal of the National Executive Council after consultation with the minister responsible for justice; other judges are appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission)
Labor force 3.557 million (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 85%

industry: NA%

services: NA%
Land boundaries total: 820 km

border countries: Indonesia 820 km
Land use arable land: 0.49%

permanent crops: 1.4%

other: 98.11% (2005)
Languages Melanesian Pidgin serves as the lingua franca, English spoken by 1%-2%, Motu spoken in Papua region

note: 820 indigenous languages spoken (over one-tenth of the world's total)
Legal system based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral National Parliament (109 seats, 89 filled from open electorates and 20 from provinces and national capital distict; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms); constitution allows up to 126 seats

elections: last held from 30 June to 10 July 2007; next to be held in June 2012

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - National Alliance 27, PNGP 8, PAP 6, URP 6, PANGU 5, PDM 5, independents 19, others 33; note - election to 1 seat was nullified

note: 15 other parties won 4 or fewer seats; association with political parties is fluid
Life expectancy at birth total population: 65.62 years

male: 63.41 years

female: 67.95 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 57.3%

male: 63.4%

female: 50.9% (2000 census)
Location Oceania, group of islands including the eastern half of the island of New Guinea between the Coral Sea and the South Pacific Ocean, east of Indonesia
Map references Oceania
Maritime claims measured from claimed archipelagic baselines

territorial sea: 12 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Merchant marine total: 24 ships (1000 GRT or over) 56,157 GRT/72,821 DWT

by type: bulk carrier 3, cargo 20, petroleum tanker 1

foreign-owned: 6 (UK 6) (2007)
Military branches Papua New Guinea Defense Force (PNGDF; includes Maritime Operations Element, Air Operations Element) (2008)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.4% (2005 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 16 September (1975)
Nationality noun: Papua New Guinean(s)

adjective: Papua New Guinean
Natural hazards active volcanism; situated along the Pacific "Ring of Fire"; the country is subject to frequent and sometimes severe earthquakes; mud slides; tsunamis
Natural resources gold, copper, silver, natural gas, timber, oil, fisheries
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Pipelines oil 264 km (2007)
Political parties and leaders National Alliance Party or NA [Michael SOMARE]; Papua and Niugini Union Party or PANGU PATI [Andrew KUMBAKOR]; Papua New Guinea Party or PNGP [Sir Mekere MORAUTA]; People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Michael OGIO]; People's Action Party or PAP [Gabriel KAPRIS]; United Resources Party or URP [William DUMA] (2007)
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 5,795,887 (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line 37% (2002 est.)
Population growth rate 2.163% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 8, FM 19, shortwave 28 (1998)
Religions Roman Catholic 22%, Lutheran 16%, Presbyterian/Methodist/London Missionary Society 8%, Anglican 5%, Evangelical Alliance 4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1%, other Protestant 10%, indigenous beliefs 34%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.035 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.062 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.873 male(s)/female

total population: 1.043 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: services are minimal; facilities provide radiotelephone and telegraph, coastal radio, aeronautical radio, and international radio communication services

domestic: access to telephone services is not widely available; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular telephone density is less than 3 telephones per 100 persons

international: country code - 675; submarine cables to Australia and Guam; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean); international radio communication service
Telephones - main lines in use 63,700 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular 75,000 (2005)
Television broadcast stations 3 (all in the Port Moresby area; stations at Mt. Hagen, Goroka, Lae, and Rabaul are planned) (2004)
Terrain mostly mountains with coastal lowlands and rolling foothills
Total fertility rate 3.79 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate 1.9% up to 80% in urban areas (2004)
Waterways 11,000 km (2006)
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