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Nikaragua (2008)

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NikaraguaNikaragua (2007) (porownaj)


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Nikaragua 2008 roku

 Nikaragua
Podzial administracyjny 15 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 2 autonomous regions* (regiones autonomistas, singular - region autonoma); Atlantico Norte*, Atlantico Sur*, Boaco, Carazo, Chinyndega, Chontales, Esteli, Granada, Jinotega, Leon, Madriz, Managua, Masaya, Matagalpa, Nueva Segovia, Rio San Juan, Rivas
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 35.5% (male 1,025,426/female 988,148)


15-64 years: 61.3% (male 1,734,153/female 1,746,574)


65 years and over: 3.2% (male 79,589/female 101,466) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo coffee, bananas, sugarcane, cotton, rice, corn, tobacco, sesame, soya, beans; beef, veal, pork, poultry, dairy products; shrimp, lobsters
Lotniska 163 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 11


2,438 to 3,047 m: 3


1,524 to 2,437 m: 2


914 to 1,523 m: 3


under 914 m: 3 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 152


1,524 to 2,437 m: 1


914 to 1,523 m: 16


under 914 m: 135 (2007)
Terytorium total: 129,494 sq km


land: 120,254 sq km


water: 9,240 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than the state of New York
Tlo historyczne The Pacific coast of Nikaragua was settled as a Spanish colony from Panama w the early 16th century. Niepodleglosc from Hiszpania was declared w 1821 and the country became an independent republic w 1838. Britain occupied the Caribbean Coast w the first half of the 19th century, but gradually ceded control of the region w subsequent decades. Violent opposition to governmental manipulation and corruption spread to all classes by 1978 and resulted w a short-lived civil war that brought the Marxist Sandinista guerrillas to power w 1979. Nikaraguan aid to leftist rebels w Salwador caused the US to sponsor anti-Sandinista contra guerrillas through much of the 1980s. Free elections w 1990, 1996, and 2001, saw the Sandinistas defeated, but voting w 2006 announced the return of former Sandinista President Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra. Nikaragua's infrastructure and economy - hard hit by the earlier civil war and by Hurricane Mitch w 1998 - are slowly being rebuilt.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 24.12 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $1.027 billion


expenditures: $1.336 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Managua


geographic coordinates: 12 09 N, 86 17 W


time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Klimat tropical w lowlands, cooler w highlands
Linia brzegowa 910 km
Konstytucja 9 styczen 1987; reforms w 1995, 2000, and 2005
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Nikaragua


conventional short form: Nikaragua


local long form: Republica de Nikaragua


local short form: Nikaragua
Wspolczynnik zgonow 4.42 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $3.702 billion (31 grudzien 2007 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Paul A. TRIVELLI


embassy: Kilometer 4.5 Carretera Sur, Managua


mailing address: P.O. Box 327


telephone: [505] 266-6010


FAX: [505] 266-3861
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Arturo CRUZ Sequeira, Jr.


chancery: 1627 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009


telephone: [1] (202) 939-6570, [1] (202) 939-6573


FAX: [1] (202) 939-6545


consulate(s) general: Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje memorials and countermemorials were filed by the parties w Nikaragua's 1999 and 2001 proceedings against Honduras and Kolumbia at the ICJ over the maritime boundary and territorial claims w the western Caribbean Sea, final public hearings are scheduled dla 2007; the 1992 ICJ ruling dla Salwador and Honduras advised a tripartite resolution to establish a maritime boundary w the Gulf of Fonseca, which considers Honduran access to the Pacific; legal dispute over navigational rights of San Juan River on border z Kostaryka
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $471 million (2006 est.)
Ekonomia Nikaragua has widespread underemployment, one of the highest degrees of income inequality w the world, and the third lowest per capita income w the Western Hemisphere. While the country has progressed toward macroeconomic stability w the past few years, annual Produkt krajowy brutto growth has been far too low to meet the country's needs, forcing the country to rely on international economic assistance to meet fiscal and debt financing obligations. In early 2004, Nikaragua secured some $4.5 billion w foreign debt reduction under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative, and w pazdziernik 2007, the IMF approved a new poverty reduction and growth facility (PRGF) program that should create fiscal space dla social spending and investment. The continuity of a relationship z the IMF reinforces donor confidence, despite private sector concerns surrounding Ortega, which has dampened investment. The US-Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) has been w effect since kwiecien 2006 and has expanded export opportunities dla many agricultural and manufactured goods. Energy shortages fueled by high oil prices, however, are a serious bottleneck to growth.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 2.929 billion kWh (2006)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 8 million kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 69.34 million kWh (2006)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 2.778 billion kWh (2006)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Ocean Spokojny 0 m


highest point: Mogoton 2,438 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling


signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Grupy etniczne mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 69%, white 17%, black 9%, Amerindian 5%
Kurs waluty gold cordobas per US dollar - 18.457 (2007), 17.582 (2006), 16.733 (2005), 15.937 (2004), 15.105 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra (since 10 styczen 2007); Vice President Jaime MORALES Carazo (since 10 styczen 2007); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra (since 10 styczen 2007); Vice President Jaime MORALES Carazo (since 10 styczen 2007)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term so long as it is not consecutive); election last held 5 listopad 2006 (next to be held by listopad 2011)


election results: Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra elected president - 38.07%, Eduardo MONTEALEGRE 29%, Jose RIZO 26.21%, Edmundo JARQUIN 6.44%
Eksport 8 million kWh (2005)
Eksport $2.235 billion f.o.b.; note - includes free trade zones (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 1,397 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary coffee, beef, shrimp and lobster, tobacco, sugar, gold, peanuts
Eksport - partnerzy US 65.2%, Salwador 6.9%, Honduras 3.8% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue z the national coat of arms centered w the white band; the coat of arms features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on the top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; similar to the flag of Salwador, which features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL centered w the white band; also similar to the flag of Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged w an X pattern centered w the white band
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 17.1%


industry: 25.9%


services: 56.9% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 2.9% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 13 00 N, 85 00 W
Polozenie geograficzne largest country w Central America; contains the largest freshwater body w Central America, Lago de Nikaragua
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2.2%


highest 10%: 33.8% (2001)
Narkotyki transshipment point dla cocaine destined dla the US and transshipment point dla arms-for-drugs dealing
Import 69.34 million kWh (2006)
Import $3.647 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2005)
Import 15,560 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Import - towary consumer goods, machinery and equipment, raw materials, petroleum products
Import - partnerzy US 20.1%, Meksyk 13.9%, Wenezuela 9.4%, Kostaryka 6.9%, Gwatemala 5.4%, Chiny 4.3% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 15 wrzesien 1821 (from Hiszpania)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 3% (2007 est.)
Przemysl food processing, chemicals, machinery and metal products, textiles, clothing, petroleum refining and distribution, beverages, footwear, wood
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 27.14 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 30.45 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 23.67 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 9.8% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji BCIE, CACM, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA (observer), MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 610 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court or Corte Suprema de Justicia (16 judges elected dla five-year terms by the National Assembly)
Sila robocza 2.262 million (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 29%


industry: 19%


services: 52% (2006 est.)
Granica total: 1,231 km


border countries: Kostaryka 309 km, Honduras 922 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 14.81%


permanent crops: 1.82%


other: 83.37% (2005)
Jezyki Spanish 97.5% (official), Miskito 1.7%, other 0.8% (1995 census)


note: English and indigenous languages on Atlantic coast
System prawny civil law system; Supreme Court may review administrative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral National Assembly or Asamblea Nacional (92 seats; 90 members are elected by proportional representation and party lists to serve five-year terms; 1 seat dla the previous president, 1 seat dla the runner-up w previous presidential election)


elections: last held 5 listopad 2006 (next to be held by listopad 2011)


election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FSLN 38, PLC 25, ALN 23 (22 plus one dla presidential candidate Eduardo MONTEALEGRE, runner-up w the 2006 presidential election), MRS 5, APRE 1 (outgoing President Enrique BOLANOS)
Zywotnosc total population: 70.92 years


male: 68.82 years


female: 73.13 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 67.5%


male: 67.2%


female: 67.8% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Central America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Ocean Spokojny, between Kostaryka and Honduras
Lokalizacja na mapie Central America and the Caribbean
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


contiguous zone: 24 nm


continental shelf: natural prolongation
Wojsko National Army of Nikaragua (ENN; includes Navy, Air Force) (2007)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 0.6% (2006)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 15 wrzesien (1821)
Narodowosc noun: Nikaraguan(s)


adjective: Nikaraguan
Naturalne zagrozenia destructive earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides; extremely susceptible to hurricanes
Surowce naturalne gold, silver, copper, tungsten, lead, zinc, timber, fish
Wspolczynnik migracji -1.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi oil 54 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Alliance dla the Republic or APRE [Miguel LOPEZ Baldizon]; Alternative dla Change or AC [Orlando TARDENCILLA Espinoza]; Central American Unionist Party or PUCA [Blanca ROJAS]; Conservative Party or PC [Azalia AVILES Salmeron]; Independent Liberal Party or PLI [Anibal MARTINEZ Nunez, Pedro REYES Vallejos]; Independent Liberal Party dla National Unity or PLIUN [Carlos GUERRA Gallardo]; Liberal Konstytucjaalist Party or PLC [Jorge CASTILLO Quant]; Liberal Salvation Movement or MSL [Eliseo NUNEZ Hernandez]; New Liberal Party or PALI [Adolfo GARCIA Esquivel]; Nikaraguan Liberal Alliance or ALN [Eduardo MONTEALEGRE]; Nikaraguan Resistance Party or PRN [Salvador TALAVERA]; Sandinista National Liberation Front or FSLN [Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra]; Sandinista Renovation Movement or MRS [Dora Maria TELLEZ]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow National Workers Front or FNT is a Sandinista umbrella group of eight labor unions including - Farm Workers Association or ATC, Health Workers Federation or FETASALUD, Heroes and Martyrs Confederation of Professional Associations or CONAPRO, National Association of Educators of Nikaragua or ANDEN, National Union of Employees or UNE, National Union of Farmers and Ranchers or UNAG, Sandinista Workers Central or CST, and Union of Journalists of Nikaragua or UPN; Permanent Congress of Workers or CPT is an umbrella group of four non-Sandinista labor unions including - Autonomous Nikaraguan Workers Central or CTN-A, Confederation of Labor Unification or CUS, Independent General Confederation of Labor or CGT-I, and Labor Action and Unity Central or CAUS; Nikaraguan Workers' Central or CTN is an independent labor union; Superior Council of Private Enterprise or COSEP is a confederation of business groups
Ludnosc 5,675,356 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 48% (2005)
Przyrost naturalny 1.855% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 63, FM 32, shortwave 1 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 6 km


narrow gauge: 6 km 1.067-m gauge (2006)
Religie Roman Catholic 72.9%, Evangelical 15.1%, Moravian 1.5%, Episcopal 0.1%, other 1.9%, none 8.5% (1995 census)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.038 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 0.993 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.784 male(s)/female


total population: 1.001 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 16 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: system being upgraded by foreign investment; nearly all installed telecommunications capacity now uses digital technology, owing to investments since privatization of the formerly state-owned telecoms company


domestic: since privatization, access to fixed-line and mobile-cellular services has improved but teledensity still lags behind other Central American countries; connected to Central American Microwave System


international: country code - 505; the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) fiber optic submarine cable provides connectivity to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth stations - 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Atlantycki region) and 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 247,900 (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 1.83 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 3 (plus 7 repeaters) (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu extensive Atlantic coastal plains rising to central interior mountains; narrow Pacific coastal plain interrupted by volcanoes
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 2.69 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 5.6% plus underemployment of 46.5% (2007 est.)
Drogi wodne 2,220 km (including lakes Managua and Nikaragua) (2007)
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