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Nikaragua (2003)

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Nikaragua 2003 roku

 Nikaragua
Podzial administracyjny 15 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 2 autonomous regions* (regiones autonomistas, singular - region autonomista); Atlantico Norte*, Atlantico Sur*, Boaco, Carazo, Chinyndega, Chontales, Esteli, Granada, Jinotega, Leon, Madriz, Managua, Masaya, Matagalpa, Nueva Segovia, Rio San Juan, Rivas
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 37.7% (male 984,719; female 949,282)


15-64 years: 59.2% (male 1,510,352; female 1,527,991)


65 years and over: 3% (male 68,332; female 87,841) (2003 est.)
Rolinictwo coffee, bananas, sugarcane, cotton, rice, corn, tobacco, sesame, soya, beans; beef, veal, pork, poultry, dairy products
Lotniska 176 (2002)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 11


2,438 to 3,047 m: 3


1,524 to 2,437 m: 2


914 to 1,523 m: 3


under 914 m: 3 (2002)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 165


1,524 to 2,437 m: 1


914 to 1,523 m: 23


under 914 m: 141 (2002)
Terytorium total: 129,494 sq km


land: 120,254 sq km


water: 9,240 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than the state of New York
Tlo historyczne The Pacific Coast of Nikaragua was settled as a Spanish colony from Panama w the early 16th century. Niepodleglosc from Hiszpania was declared w 1821 and the country became an independent republic w 1838. Britain occupied the Caribbean Coast w the first half of the 19th century, but gradually ceded control of the region w subsequent decades. Violent opposition to governmental manipulation and corruption spread to all classes by 1978 and resulted w a short-lived civil war that brought the Marxist Sandinista guerrillas to power w 1979. Nikaraguan aid to leftist rebels w Salwador caused the US to sponsor anti-Sandinista contra guerrillas through much of the 1980s. Free elections w 1990, 1996, and again w 2001 saw the Sandinistas defeated. The country has slowly rebuilt its economy during the 1990s, but was hard hit by Hurricane Mitch w 1998.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 26.29 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budzet revenues: $726 million


expenditures: $908 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Stolica Managua
Klimat tropical w lowlands, cooler w highlands
Linia brzegowa 910 km
Konstytucja 9 styczen 1987, z reforms w 1995 and 2000
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Nikaragua


conventional short form: Nikaragua


local long form: Republica de Nikaragua


local short form: Nikaragua
Waluta gold cordoba (NIO)
Wspolczynnik zgonow 4.69 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $5.8 billion (2002 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Barbara Calandra MOORE


embassy: Apartado Postal 327, Kilometer 4.5 Carretera Sur, Managua


mailing address: APO AA 34021


telephone: [505] 266-6010, 266-2298, 266-6013


FAX: [505] 266-9074
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Salvador STADTHAGEN (since 5 grudzien 2003)


chancery: 1627 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009


telephone: [1] (202) 939-6570


FAX: [1] (202) 939-6542


consulate(s) general: Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje territorial disputes z Kolumbia over the Archipelago de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank region; z respect to the maritime boundary question w the Golfo de Fonseca, the ICJ referred to the line determined by the 1900 Honduras-Nikaragua Mixed Boundary Commission and advised that some tripartite resolution among Salwador, Honduras, and Nikaragua likely would be required; legal dispute over navigational rights of San Juan River on border z Kostaryka
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie Substantial foreign support
Ekonomia Nikaragua, one of the hemisphere's poorest countries, faces low per capita income, flagging socio-economic indicators, and huge external debt. Distribution of income is one of the most unequal on the globe. While the country has made progress toward macroeconomic stability over the past few years, a banking crisis and scandal has shaken the economy. Nikaragua will continue to be dependent on international aid and debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative. Donors have made aid conditional on the openness of government financial operation, poverty alleviation, and human rights. Nikaragua met the conditions dla additional debt service relief w grudzien 2000. Growth should move up moderately w 2003 because of increased private investment and exports.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 2.388 billion kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - import 17 million kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 2.549 billion kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - zrodla energii fossil fuel: 83.9%


hydro: 7.7%


nuclear: 0%


other: 8.4% (2001)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Ocean Spokojny 0 m


highest point: Mogoton 2,438 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Grupy etniczne mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 69%, white 17%, black 9%, Amerindian 5%
Kurs waluty gold cordobas per US dollar - 14.25 (2002), 13.37 (2001), 12.68 (2000), 11.81 (1999), 10.58 (1998)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Enrique BOLANOS Geyer (since 10 styczen 2002); Vice President Jose RIZO Castellon (since 10 styczen 2002); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Enrique BOLANOS Geyer (since 10 styczen 2002); Vice President Jose RIZO Castellon (since 10 styczen 2002); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla a five-year term; election last held 4 listopad 2001 (next to be held by listopad 2006)


election results: Enrique BOLANOS Geyer (PLC) elected president - 56.3%, Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra (FSLN) 42.3%, Alberto SABORIO (PC) 1.4%; Jose RIZO Castellon elected vice president
Eksport 0 kWh (2001)
Eksport $637 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Eksport NA (2001)
Eksport - towary coffee, shrimp and lobster, cotton, tobacco, bananas, beef, sugar, gold
Eksport - partnerzy US 59.4%, Salwador 7.5%, Honduras 4.8% (2002)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue z the national coat of arms centered w the white band; the coat of arms features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on the top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; similar to the flag of Salwador, which features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL centered w the white band; also similar to the flag of Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged w an X pattern centered w the white band
Produkt krajowy brutto purchasing power parity - $11.16 billion (2002 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 30%


industry: 26%


services: 44% (2002 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita purchasing power parity - $2,200 (2002 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 1.1% (2002 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 13 00 N, 85 00 W
Polozenie geograficzne largest country w Central America; contains the largest freshwater body w Central America, Lago de Nikaragua
Autostrady total: 19,032 km


paved: 2,094 km


unpaved: 16,938 km (2000)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 0.7%


highest 10%: 48.8% (1998)
Narkotyki transshipment point dla cocaine destined dla the US and transshipment point dla arms-for-drugs dealing
Import 17 million kWh (2001)
Import $1.7 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Import NA (2001)
Import - towary machinery and equipment, raw materials, petroleum products, consumer goods
Import - partnerzy US 23.7%, Kostaryka 10.3%, Wenezuela 10.1%, Gwatemala 7.8%, Meksyk 6.7%, Salwador 6%, South Korea 4.6% (2002)
Niepodleglosc 15 wrzesien 1821 (from Hiszpania)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 4.4% (2000 est.)
Przemysl food processing, chemicals, machinery and metal products, textiles, clothing, petroleum refining and distribution, beverages, footwear, wood
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 31.39 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 35.08 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 27.51 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflacja 3.7% (2002 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Dostawcy internetu 3 (2000)
Nawadniane tereny 880 sq km (1998 est.)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (16 judges elected dla five-year terms by the National Assembly)
Sila robocza 1.7 million (1999)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki services 43%, agriculture 42%, industry 15% (1999 est.)
Granica total: 1,231 km


border countries: Kostaryka 309 km, Honduras 922 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 20.24%


permanent crops: 2.38%


other: 77.38% (1998 est.)
Jezyki Spanish (official)


note: English and indigenous languages on Atlantic coast
System prawny civil law system; Supreme Court may review administrative acts
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral National Assembly or Asamblea Nacional (93 seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve five-year terms)


elections: last held 4 listopad 2001 (next to be held by listopad 2006)


election results: percent of vote by party - Liberal Alliance (ruling party - includes PLC, PALI, PLIUN, and PUCA) 46.03%, FSLN 36.55%, PCCN 3.73%, PCN 2.12%, MRS 1.33%; seats by party - Liberal Alliance 42, FSLN 36, PCCN 4, PCN 3, PRONAL 2, MRS 1, PRN 1, PC 1, PLI 1, AU 1, UNO-96 1
Zywotnosc total population: 69.68 years


male: 67.68 years


female: 71.79 years (2003 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 67.5%


male: 67.2%


female: 67.8% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Middle America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Ocean Spokojny, between Kostaryka and Honduras
Lokalizacja na mapie Central America and the Caribbean
Morskie obszary continental shelf: natural prolongation


territorial sea: 200 NM
Flota handlowa none (2002 est.)
Wojsko Army, Navy, Air Force
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $26 million (FY98)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 1.2% (FY98)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (w wieku poborowym) males age 15-49: 1,347,033 (2003 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (zdolni do sluzby wojskowej) males age 15-49: 825,906 (2003 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (wiek zolniezy) 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (osoby osiagajace wiek poborowy w ciagu roku) males: 59,903 (2003 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 15 wrzesien (1821)
Narodowosc noun: Nikaraguan(s)


adjective: Nikaraguan
Naturalne zagrozenia destructive earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides; extremely susceptible to hurricanes
Surowce naturalne gold, silver, copper, tungsten, lead, zinc, timber, fish
Wspolczynnik migracji -1.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Rurociagi oil 54 km (2003)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Conservative Party of Nikaragua or PCN [Dr. Fernando AGUERO Rocha]; Independent Liberal Party or PLI [Virgilio GODOY]; Liberal Alliance (ruling alliance including Liberal Konstytucjaal Party or PLC, New Liberal Party or PALI, Independent Liberal Party dla National Unity or PLIUN, and Central American Unionist Party or PUCA) [leader NA]; National Conservative Party or PC [Pedro SOLARZANO, Noel VIDAURRE]; National Project or PRONAL [Benjamin LANZAS]; Nikaraguan Party of the Christian Path or PCCN [Guillermo OSORNO, Roberto RODRIGUEZ]; Nikaraguan Resistance Party or PRN [Salvador TALAVERA]; Sandinista National Liberation Front or FSLN [Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra]; Sandinista Renovation Movement or MRS [Sergio RAMIREZ]; Unity Alliance or AU [Alejandro SERRANO]; Union Nacional Opositora 96 or UNO-96 [Alfredo CESAR Aguirre]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow National Workers Front or FNT is a Sandinista umbrella group of eight labor unions including - Farm Workers Association or ATC, Health Workers Federation or FETASALUD, Heroes and Martyrs Confederation of Professional Associations or CONAPRO, National Association of Educators of Nikaragua or ANDEN, National Union of Employees or UNE, National Union of Farmers and Ranchers or UNAG, Sandinista Workers Central or CST, and Union of Journalists of Nikaragua or UPN; Permanent Congress of Workers or CPT is an umbrella group of four non-Sandinista labor unions including - Autonomous Nikaraguan Workers Central or CTN-A, Confederation of Labor Unification or CUS, Independent General Confederation of Labor or CGT-I, and Labor Action and Unity Central or CAUS; Nikaraguan Workers' Central or CTN is an independent labor union; Superior Council of Private Enterprise or COSEP is a confederation of business groups
Ludnosc 5,128,517 (lipiec 2003 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 50% (2001 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 2.03% (2003 est.)
Porty i stocznie Bluefields, Corinto, El Bluff, Puerto Cabezas, Puerto Sandino, Rama, San Juan del Sur
Stacje radiowe AM 63, FM 32, shortwave 1 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 6 km


narrow gauge: 6 km 1.067-m gauge (2002)
Religie Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female


total population: 1 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 16 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: inadequate system being upgraded by foreign investment


domestic: low-capacity microwave radio relay and wire system being expanded; connected to Central American Microwave System


international: satellite earth stations - 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Atlantycki region) and 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 140,000 (1996)
Telefony komorkowe 7,911 (1997)
Stacje telewizyjne 3 (plus seven low-power repeaters) (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu extensive Atlantic coastal plains rising to central interior mountains; narrow Pacific coastal plain interrupted by volcanoes
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 3 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 24% plus considerable underemployment (2002 est.)
Drogi wodne 2,220 km (including 2 large lakes)
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