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Niemcy (2004)

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Niemcy 2004 roku

 Niemcy
Podzial administracyjny 13 states (Laender, singular - Land) and 3 free states* (Freistaaten, singular - Freistaat); Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bayern*, Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hessen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Saarland, Sachsen*, Sachsen-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein, Thueringen*
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 14.7% (male 6,197,490; female 5,879,052)


15-64 years: 67% (male 28,119,536; female 27,132,713)


65 years and over: 18.3% (male 6,096,106; female 8,999,712) (2004 est.)
Rolinictwo potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbages; cattle, pigs, poultry
Lotniska 550 (2003 est.)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 331


over 3,047 m: 13


2,438 to 3,047 m: 51


1,524 to 2,437 m: 62


914 to 1,523 m: 71


under 914 m: 134 (2004 est.)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 219


2,438 to 3,047 m: 1


1,524 to 2,437 m: 2


914 to 1,523 m: 31


under 914 m: 185 (2004 est.)
Terytorium total: 357,021 sq km


land: 349,223 sq km


water: 7,798 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than Montana
Tlo historyczne As Europe's largest economy and most populous nation, Niemcy remains a key member of the continent's economic, political, and defense organizations. European power struggles immersed Niemcy w two devastating Swiat Wars w the first half of the 20th century and left the country occupied by the victorious Allied powers of the US, UK, Francja, and the Soviet Union w 1945. With the advent of the Cold War, two German states were formed w 1949: the western Federal Republic of Niemcy (FRG) and the eastern German Democratic Republic (GDR). The democratic FRG embedded itself w key Western economic and security organizations, the EC, which became the EU, and NATO, while the Communist GDR was on the front line of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact. The decline of the USSR and the end of the Cold War allowed dla German unification w 1990. Since then, Niemcy has expended considerable funds to bring Eastern productivity and wages up to Western standards. In styczen 1999, Niemcy and 10 other EU countries introduced a common European exchange currency, the euro.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 8.45 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Budzet revenues: $1.079 trillion


expenditures: $1.173 trillion, including capital expenditures of NA (2003 est.)
Stolica Berlin
Klimat temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm mountain (foehn) wind
Linia brzegowa 2,389 km
Konstytucja 23 maj 1949, known as Basic Law; became constitution of the united German people 3 pazdziernik 1990
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Federal Republic of Niemcy


conventional short form: Niemcy


local long form: Bundesrepublik Deutschland


local short form: Deutschland


former: German Empire, German Republic, German Reich
Waluta euro (EUR)


note: on 1 styczen 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions of member countries; on 1 styczen 2002, the euro became the sole currency dla everyday transactions within the member countries
Wspolczynnik zgonow 10.44 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne NA (2000 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel R. COATS


embassy: Neustaedtische Kirchstrasse 4-5, 10117 Berlin; note - a new embassy will be built near the Brandenburg Gate w Berlin; ground was broken w pazdziernik 2004 and completion is scheduled dla 2008


mailing address: PSC 120, Box 1000, APO AE 09265


telephone: [49] (030) 8305-0


FAX: [49] (030) 8305-1215


consulate(s) general: Duesseldorf, Frankfurt am Main, Hamburg, Leipzig, Munich
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Wolfgang Friedrich ISCHINGER


chancery: 4645 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007


telephone: [1] (202) 298-8140


FAX: [1] (202) 298-4249


consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje none
Ekonomiczna pomoc - udzielanie ODA, $5.6 billion (1998)
Ekonomia Niemcy's affluent and technologically powerful economy- the fifth largest national economy w the world - has become one of the slowest growing economies w the entire euro zone, and a quick turnaround is not w the offing w the foreseeable future. Growth w 2001-03 fell short of 1%. The modernization and integration of the eastern German economy continues to be a costly long-term process, z annual transfers from west to east amounting to roughly $70 billion. Niemcy's ageing population, combined z high unemployment, has pushed social security outlays to a level exceeding contributions from workers. Structural rigidities w the labor market - including strict regulations on laying off workers and the setting of wages on a national basis - have made unemployment a chronic problem. Corporate restructuring and growing capital markets are setting the foundations that could allow Niemcy to meet the long-term challenges of European economic integration and globalization, particularly if labor market rigidities are further addressed. The government is also starting long-needed structural reforms designed to revitalize the country's economy. In the short run, however, the fall w government revenues and the rise w expenditures have raised the deficit above the EU's 3% debt limit.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 506.8 billion kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 43.9 billion kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - import 44 billion kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 544.8 billion kWh (2001)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Neuendorf bei Wilster -3.54 m


highest point: Zugspitze 2,963 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy emissions from coal-burning utilities and industries contribute to air pollution; acid rain, resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions, is damaging forests; pollution w the Baltic Sea from raw sewage and industrial effluents from rivers w eastern Niemcy; hazardous waste disposal; government established a mechanism dla ending the use of nuclear power over the next 15 years; government working to meet EU commitment to identify nature preservation areas w line z the EU's Flora, Fauna, and Habitat directive
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling


signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Grupy etniczne German 91.5%, Turkish 2.4%, other 6.1% (made up largely of Greek, Italian, Polish, Rosjan, Serbo-Chorwacjan, Spanish)
Kurs waluty euros per US dollar - 0.886 (2003), 1.0626 (2002), 1.1175 (2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Horst KOEHLER (since 1 lipiec 2004)


head of government: Chancellor Gerhard SCHROEDER (since 27 pazdziernik 1998); Vice Chancellor Joschka FISCHER (since 17 pazdziernik 1998)


cabinet: Cabinet or Bundesminister (Federal Ministers) appointed by the president on the recommendation of the chancellor


elections: president elected dla a five-year term by a Federal Convention including all members of the Federal Assembly and an equal number of delegates elected by the state parliaments; election last held 23 maj 2004 (next to be held 23 maj 2009); chancellor elected by an absolute majority of the Federal Assembly dla a four-year term; election last held 22 wrzesien 2002 (next to be held wrzesien 2006)


election results: Horst KOEHLER elected president; received 604 votes of the Federal Convention against 589 dla Gesine SCHWAN; Gerhard SCHROEDER elected chancellor; percent of Federal Assembly vote 50.7%
Eksport 43.9 billion kWh (2001)
Eksport $696.9 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Eksport 6.674 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Eksport 404,300 bbl/day (2001)
Eksport - towary machinery, vehicles, chemicals, metals and manufactures, foodstuffs, textiles
Eksport - partnerzy Francja 10.6%, US 9.3%, UK 8.4%, Wlochy 7.4%, Holandia 6.2%, Austria 5.3%, Belgia 5.1%, Hiszpania 4.9%, Szwajcaria 4% (2003)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and gold
Produkt krajowy brutto purchasing power parity - $2.271 trillion (2003 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 1%


industry: 31%


services: 68% (2002 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita purchasing power parity - $27,600 (2003 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu -0.1% (2003 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 51 00 N, 9 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne strategic location on North European Plain and along the entrance to the Baltic Sea
Ladowiska helikopterow 34 (2003 est.)
Autostrady total: 230,735 km


paved: 230,735 km (including 11,515 km of expressways)


unpaved: 0 km (1999)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 3.6%


highest 10%: 25.1% (1997)
Narkotyki source of precursor chemicals dla South American cocaine processors; transshipment point dla and consumer of Southwest Asian heroin, Latin American cocaine, and European-produced synthetic drugs; major financial center
Import 44 billion kWh (2001)
Import $585 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Import 78.73 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Import 3.081 million bbl/day (2001)
Import - towary machinery, vehicles, chemicals, foodstuffs, textiles, metals
Import - partnerzy Francja 9.2%, Holandia 8.4%, US 7.3%, Wlochy 6.3%, UK 6%, Belgia 4.9%, Chiny 4.7%, Austria 4% (2003)
Niepodleglosc 18 styczen 1871 (German Empire unification); divided into four zones of occupation (UK, US, USSR, and later, Francja) w 1945 following Swiat War II; Federal Republic of Niemcy (FRG or West Niemcy) proclaimed 23 maj 1949 and included the former UK, US, and French zones; German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Niemcy) proclaimed 7 pazdziernik 1949 and included the former USSR zone; unification of West Niemcy and East Niemcy took place 3 pazdziernik 1990; all four powers formally relinquished rights 15 marzec 1991
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 0.2% (2003 est.)
Przemysl among the world's largest and most technologically advanced producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics, food and beverages; shipbuilding; textiles
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 4.2 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 4.64 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 3.73 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Inflacja 1.1% (2003 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS, CDB, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 5, G- 7, G- 8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIK, UNMOVIC, UNOMIG, UPU, WADB (nonregional), WCO, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC
Nawadniane tereny 4,850 sq km (1998 est.)
Sadownictwo Federal Konstytucjaal Court or Bundesverfassungsgericht (half the judges are elected by the Bundestag and half by the Bundesrat)
Sila robocza 42.63 million (2003)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture 2.8%, industry 33.4%, services 63.8% (1999)
Granica total: 3,621 km


border countries: Austria 784 km, Belgia 167 km, Czechy 646 km, Dania 68 km, Francja 451 km, Luksemburg 138 km, Holandia 577 km, Polska 456 km, Szwajcaria 334 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 33.85%


permanent crops: 0.59%


other: 65.56% (2001)
Jezyki German
System prawny civil law system z indigenous concepts; judicial review of legislative acts w the Federal Konstytucjaal Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Federal Assembly or Bundestag (603 seats; elected by popular vote under a system combining direct and proportional representation; a party must win 5% of the national vote or three direct mandates to gain representation; members serve four-year terms) and the Federal Council or Bundesrat (69 votes; state governments are directly represented by votes; each has 3 to 6 votes depending on population and are required to vote as a block)


elections: Federal Assembly - last held 22 wrzesien 2002 (next to be held NA wrzesien 2006); note - there are no elections dla the Bundesrat; composition is determined by the composition of the state-level governments; the composition of the Bundesrat has the potential to change any time one of the 16 states holds an election


election results: Federal Assembly - percent of vote by party - SPD 38.5%, CDU/CSU 38.5%, Alliance '90/Greens 8.6%, FDP 7.4%, PDS 4%; seats by party - SPD 251, CDU/CSU 248, Alliance '90/Greens 55, FDP 47, PDS 2; Federal Council - current composition - NA
Zywotnosc total population: 78.54 years


male: 75.56 years


female: 81.68 years (2004 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 99% (1997 est.)


male: NA


female: NA
Lokalizacja Central Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, between the Holandia and Polska, south of Dania
Lokalizacja na mapie Europe
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Flota handlowa total: 278 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 5,721,495 GRT/6,810,631 DWT


by type: cargo 71, chemical tanker 14, container 169, liquefied gas 3, multi-functional large load carrier 1, passenger 3, petroleum tanker 5, rail car carrier 2, roll on/roll off 3, short-sea/passenger 7


foreign-owned: Finlandia 4, Islandia 1, Holandia 3


registered w other countries: 2,295 (2004 est.)
Wojsko Army (Heer), Navy (Deutsche Marine; including Naval Air arm), Air Force (Luftwaffe), Joint Support Service, Central Medical Service
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $35.063 billion (2003)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 1.5% (2003)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (w wieku poborowym) males age 15-49: 20,468,942 (2004 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (zdolni do sluzby wojskowej) males age 15-49: 17,338,435 (2004 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (osoby osiagajace wiek poborowy w ciagu roku) males: 484,837 (2004 est.)
Swieto narodowe Unity Day, 3 pazdziernik (1990)
Narodowosc noun: German(s)


adjective: German
Naturalne zagrozenia flooding
Surowce naturalne coal, lignite, natural gas, iron ore, copper, nickel, uranium, potash, salt, construction materials, timber, arable land
Wspolczynnik migracji 2.18 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Rurociagi condensate 325 km; gas 25,293 km; oil 3,540 km; refined products 3,827 km (2004)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Alliance '90/Greens [Angelika BEER and Reinhard BUETIKOFER]; Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Angela MERKEL]; Christian Social Union or CSU [Edmund STOIBER, chairman]; Free Democratic Party or FDP [Guido WESTERWELLE, chairman]; Party of Democratic Socialism or PDS [Lothar BISKY]; Social Democratic Party or SPD [Franz MUENTEFERING]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow business associations, employers' organizations; expellee, refugee, trade unions, and veterans groups
Ludnosc 82,424,609 (lipiec 2004 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa NA
Przyrost naturalny 0.02% (2004 est.)
Porty i stocznie Berlin, Bonn, Brake, Bremen, Bremerhaven, Cologne, Dresden, Duisburg, Emden, Hamburg, Karlsruhe, Kiel, Luebeck, Magdeburg, Mannheim, Rostock, Stuttgart
Stacje radiowe AM 51, FM 787, shortwave 4 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 46,039 km (20,100 km electrified)


standard gauge: 45,801 km 1.435-m gauge (20,084 km electrified)


narrow gauge: 214 km 1.000-m gauge (16 km electrified); 24 km 0.750-m gauge (2003)
Religie Protestant 34%, Roman Catholic 34%, Muslim 3.7%, unaffiliated or other 28.3%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female


total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: Niemcy has one of the world's most technologically advanced telecommunications systems; as a result of intensive capital expenditures since reunification, the formerly backward system of the eastern part of the country, dating back to Swiat War II, has been modernized and integrated z that of the western part


domestic: Niemcy is served by an extensive system of automatic telephone exchanges connected by modern networks of fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, microwave radio relay, and a domestic satellite system; cellular telephone service is widely available, expanding rapidly, and includes roaming service to many foreign countries


international: country code - 49; Niemcy's international service is excellent worldwide, consisting of extensive land and undersea cable facilities as well as earth stations w the INMARSAT, INTELSAT, EUTELSAT, and INTERSPUTNIK satellite systems (2001)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 54.35 million (2003)
Telefony komorkowe 64.8 million (2003)
Stacje telewizyjne 373 (plus 8,042 repeaters) (1995)
Uksztaltowanie terenu lowlands w north, uplands w center, Bavarian Alps w south
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.38 children born/woman (2004 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 10.5% (2003 est.)
Drogi wodne 7,300 km


note: Rhine River carries most goods; Main-Danube Canal links North Sea and Black Sea (2004)
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