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New Zealand (2008)

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 New Zealand
Administrative divisions 16 regions and 1 territory*; Auckland, Bay of Plenty, Canterbury, Chatham Islands*, Gisborne, Hawke's Bay, Manawatu-Wanganui, Marlborough, Nelson, Northland, Otago, Southland, Taranaki, Tasman, Waikato, Wellington, West Coast
Age structure 0-14 years: 20.8% (male 437,547/female 417,698)

15-64 years: 67.3% (male 1,393,057/female 1,378,358)

65 years and over: 11.9% (male 214,189/female 274,922) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products dairy products, lamb and mutton; wheat, barley, potatoes, pulses, fruits, vegetables; wool, beef; fish
Airports 121 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 41

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 11

914 to 1,523 m: 26

under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 80

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 31

under 914 m: 46 (2007)
Area total: 268,680 sq km

land: 268,021 sq km

water: NA

note: includes Antipodes Islands, Auckland Islands, Bounty Islands, Campbell Island, Chatham Islands, and Kermadec Islands
Area - comparative about the size of Colorado
Background The Polynesian Maori reached New Zealand in about A.D. 800. In 1840, their chieftains entered into a compact with Britain, the Treaty of Waitangi, in which they ceded sovereignty to Queen Victoria while retaining territorial rights. In that same year, the British began the first organized colonial settlement. A series of land wars between 1843 and 1872 ended with the defeat of the native peoples. The British colony of New Zealand became an independent dominion in 1907 and supported the UK militarily in both World Wars. New Zealand's full participation in a number of defense alliances lapsed by the 1980s. In recent years, the government has sought to address longstanding Maori grievances.
Birth rate 13.61 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: $54.36 billion

expenditures: $48.51 billion (2007 est.)
Capital name: Wellington

geographic coordinates: 41 28 S, 174 51 E

time difference: UTC+12 (17 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in October; ends third Sunday in March

note: New Zealand is divided into two time zones, including Chatham Island
Climate temperate with sharp regional contrasts
Coastline 15,134 km
Constitution consists of a series of legal documents, including certain acts of the UK and New Zealand Parliaments, as well as The Constitution Act 1986, which is the principal formal charter; adopted 1 January 1987, effective 1 January 1987
Country name conventional long form: none

conventional short form: New Zealand

abbreviation: NZ
Death rate 7.54 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $50.02 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Dependent areas Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador William P. McCORMICK

embassy: 29 Fitzherbert Terrace, Thorndon, Wellington

mailing address: P. O. Box 1190, Wellington; PSC 467, Box 1, APO AP 96531-1034

telephone: [64] (4) 462-6000

FAX: [64] (4) 499-0490

consulate(s) general: Auckland
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Roy N. FERGUSON

chancery: 37 Observatory Circle NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 328-4800

FAX: [1] (202) 667-5227

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
Disputes - international asserts a territorial claim in Antarctica (Ross Dependency)
Economic aid - donor ODA, $276 million (2006 est.)
Economy - overview Over the past 20 years the government has transformed New Zealand from an agrarian economy dependent on concessionary British market access to a more industrialized, free market economy that can compete globally. This dynamic growth has boosted real incomes - but left behind many at the bottom of the ladder - and broadened and deepened the technological capabilities of the industrial sector. Per capita income has risen for eight consecutive years and reached $27,800 in 2007 in purchasing power parity terms. Consumer and government spending have driven growth in recent years, and exports picked up in 2006 after struggling for several years. Exports were equal to about 22% of GDP in 2007, down from 33% of GDP in 2001. Thus far the economy has been resilient, and the Labor Government promises that expenditures on health, education, and pensions will increase proportionately to output. Inflationary pressures have built in recent years and the central bank raised its key rate 13 times since January 2004 to finish 2007 at 8.25%. A large balance of payments deficit poses another challenge in managing the economy.
Electricity - consumption 37.39 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - production 42.06 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Aoraki-Mount Cook 3,754 m
Environment - current issues deforestation; soil erosion; native flora and fauna hard-hit by invasive species
Environment - international agreements party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Antarctic Seals, Marine Life Conservation
Ethnic groups European 69.8%, Maori 7.9%, Asian 5.7%, Pacific islander 4.4%, other 0.5%, mixed 7.8%, unspecified 3.8% (2001 census)
Exchange rates New Zealand dollars per US dollar - 1.3811 (2007), 1.5408 (2006), 1.4203 (2005), 1.5087 (2004), 1.7221 (2003)
Executive branch chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Anand SATYANAND (since 23 August 2006)

head of government: Prime Minister Helen CLARK (since 10 December 1999); Deputy Prime Minister Michael CULLEN (since July 2002)

cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor general on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general
Exports 0 kWh (2005)
Exports $28.12 billion (2007 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Exports 15,720 bbl/day (2004)
Exports - commodities dairy products, meat, wood and wood products, fish, machinery
Exports - partners Australia 20.5%, US 13.1%, Japan 10.3%, China 5.4%, UK 4.9% (2006)
Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March

note: this is the fiscal year for tax purposes
Flag description blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant with four red five-pointed stars edged in white centered in the outer half of the flag; the stars represent the Southern Cross constellation
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 4.3%

industry: 26.2%

services: 69.6% (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 3% (2007 est.)
Geographic coordinates 41 00 S, 174 00 E
Geography - note about 80% of the population lives in cities; Wellington is the southernmost national capital in the world
Government - note while not an official symbol, the Kiwi, a small native flightless bird, represents New Zealand
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA

highest 10%: NA (1991 est.)
Illicit drugs significant consumer of amphetamines
Imports 0 kWh (2005)
Imports $29.83 billion (2007 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2005)
Imports 140,900 bbl/day (2004)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, vehicles and aircraft, petroleum, electronics, textiles, plastics
Imports - partners Australia 20.5%, China 12.3%, US 11.8%, Japan 9.2%, Germany 4.4%, Singapore 4.4% (2006)
Independence 26 September 1907 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate 1.8% (2007 est.)
Industries food processing, wood and paper products, textiles, machinery, transportation equipment, banking and insurance, tourism, mining
Infant mortality rate total: 5.67 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 6.48 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 4.82 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2.5% (2007 est.)
International organization participation ADB, ANZUS (US suspended security obligations to NZ on 11 August 1986), APEC, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CP, EAS, EBRD, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, NAM (guest), NSG, OECD, OPCW, PCA, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIS, UNMIT, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Irrigated land 2,850 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; High Court; note - judges appointed by the Governor-General
Labor force 2.23 million (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 7%

industry: 19%

services: 74% (2006 est.)
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land: 5.54%

permanent crops: 6.92%

other: 87.54% (2005)
Languages English (official), Maori (official), Sign Language (official)
Legal system based on English law, with special land legislation and land courts for the Maori; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Legislative branch unicameral House of Representatives - commonly called Parliament (120 seats; 69 members elected by popular vote in single-member constituencies including 7 Maori constituencies, and 51 proportional seats chosen from party lists; to serve three-year terms)

elections: last held 17 September 2005 (next to be held not later than 15 November 2008)

election results: percent of vote by party - NZLP 41.1%, NP 39.1%, NZFP 5.7%, Green Party 5.3%, Maori 2.1%, UF 2.7%, ACT New Zealand 1.5%, Progressive 1.2%, other 1.3%; seats by party - NZLP 50, NP 48, NZFP 7, Green Party 6, Maori 4, UF 3, ACT New Zealand 2, Progressive 1

note: results of 2005 election saw the total number of seats increase to 121 because the Maori Party won one more electorate seat than its entitlement under the party vote
Life expectancy at birth total population: 78.96 years

male: 75.97 years

female: 82.08 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99%

male: 99%

female: 99% (2003 est.)
Location Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast of Australia
Map references Oceania
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Merchant marine total: 11 ships (1000 GRT or over) 108,667 GRT/89,458 DWT

by type: bulk carrier 3, cargo 1, passenger/cargo 4, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 2

foreign-owned: 1 (Germany 1)

registered in other countries: 8 (Antigua and Barbuda 2, Cook Islands 1, Dominica 3, France 1, UK 1) (2007)
Military branches New Zealand Defense Force (NZDF): New Zealand Army, Royal New Zealand Navy, Royal New Zealand Air Force (2008)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1% (2005 est.)
National holiday Waitangi Day (Treaty of Waitangi established British sovereignty over New Zealand), 6 February (1840); ANZAC Day (commemorated as the anniversary of the landing of troops of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps during World War I at Gallipoli, Turkey), 25 April (1915)
Nationality noun: New Zealander(s)

adjective: New Zealand
Natural hazards earthquakes are common, though usually not severe; volcanic activity
Natural resources natural gas, iron ore, sand, coal, timber, hydropower, gold, limestone
Net migration rate 3.43 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Pipelines condensate 331 km; gas 1,896 km; liquid petroleum gas 172 km; oil 288 km; refined products 260 km (2007)
Political parties and leaders ACT New Zealand [Rodney HIDE]; Green Party [Jeanette FITZSIMONS]; Maori Party [Whatarangi WINIATA]; National Party or NP [John KEY]; New Zealand First Party or NZFP [Winston PETERS]; New Zealand Labor Party or NZLP [Helen CLARK]; Progressive Party [James (Jim) ANDERTON]; United Future or UF [Peter DUNNE]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 4,115,771 (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 0.95% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 124, FM 290, shortwave 4 (1998)
Railways total: 4,128 km

narrow gauge: 4,128 km 1.067-m gauge (506 km electrified) (2006)
Religions Anglican 14.9%, Roman Catholic 12.4%, Presbyterian 10.9%, Methodist 2.9%, Pentecostal 1.7%, Baptist 1.3%, other Christian 9.4%, other 3.3%, unspecified 17.2%, none 26% (2001 census)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.048 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.011 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.779 male(s)/female

total population: 0.987 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: excellent domestic and international systems

domestic: NA

international: country code - 64; the Southern Cross submarine cable system provides links to Australia, Fiji, and US; satellite earth stations - 1 InMarSat (Pacific Ocean), 7 other
Telephones - main lines in use 1.729 million (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular 3.53 million (2005)
Television broadcast stations 41 (plus about 700 repeaters) (1997)
Terrain predominately mountainous with some large coastal plains
Total fertility rate 1.79 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate 3.5% (2007 est.)
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