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New Zealand (2002)

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 New Zealand
Administrative divisions 16 regions; Auckland, Bay of Plenty, Canterbury, Gisborne, Hawke's Bay, Marlborough, Nelson, Northland, Otago, Southland, Taranaki, Tasman, Waikato, Manawatu-Wanganui, Wellington, West Coast
Age structure 0-14 years: 22.2% (male 443,921; female 422,804)

15-64 years: 66.3% (male 1,299,973; female 1,290,097)

65 years and over: 11.5% (male 196,640; female 254,602) (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products wheat, barley, potatoes, pulses, fruits, vegetables; wool, beef, dairy products; fish
Airports 106 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways total: 46

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 10

914 to 1,523 m: 28

under 914 m: 5 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 67

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 26

under 914 m: 39 (2002)
Area total: 268,680 sq km

land: NA sq km

water: NA sq km

note: includes Antipodes Islands, Auckland Islands, Bounty Islands, Campbell Island, Chatham Islands, and Kermadec Islands
Area - comparative about the size of Colorado
Background The Polynesian Maoris reached New Zealand in about the 800 AD. The British proclaimed their sovereignty over the islands in 1840 and began settlement that same year. A series of land wars between 1843 and 1872 ended with the defeat of the native peoples. The British colony of New Zealand became an independent dominion in 1907 and supported the UK militarily in both World Wars. New Zealand's full participation in number of defense alliances lapsed by the 1980s. In recent years the government has sought to address longstanding Maori grievances.
Birth rate 14.23 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budget revenues: $16.7 billion

expenditures: $16.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY00/01)
Capital Wellington
Climate temperate with sharp regional contrasts
Coastline 15,134 km
Constitution consists of a series of legal documents, including certain acts of the UK and New Zealand Parliaments and The Constitution Act 1986 which is the principal formal charter
Country name conventional long form: none

conventional short form: New Zealand

abbreviation: NZ
Currency New Zealand dollar (NZD)
Death rate 7.55 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Debt - external $31.1 billion (2001 est.)
Dependent areas Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Charles J. SWINDELLS

embassy: 29 Fitzherbert Terrace, Thorndon, Wellington

mailing address: P. O. Box 1190, Wellington; PSC 467, Box 1, FPO AP 96531-1001

telephone: [64] (4) 462-6000

FAX: [64] (4) 478-1701

consulate(s) general: Auckland
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador L. John WOOD

chancery: 37 Observatory Circle NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 328-4800

FAX: [1] (202) 667-5227

consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
Disputes - international territorial claim in Antarctica (Ross Dependency)
Economic aid - donor ODA, $99.7 million (FY00/01)
Economy - overview Since 1984 the government has accomplished major economic restructuring, transforming New Zealand from an agrarian economy dependent on concessionary British market access to a more industrialized, free market economy that can compete globally. This dynamic growth has boosted real incomes (but left behind many at the bottom of the ladder), broadened and deepened the technological capabilities of the industrial sector, and contained inflationary pressures. While per capita incomes have been rising, however, they remain below the level of the four largest EU economies, and there is some government concern that New Zealand is not closing the gap. New Zealand is heavily dependent on trade - particularly in agricultural products - to drive growth, and it has been affected by the global economic slowdown and the slump in commodity prices. Thus far the New Zealand economy has been relatively resilient, achieving about 3% growth in 2001, but the New Zealand business cycle tends to lag the US cycle by about six months, so the worst of the downturn may not hit until mid-2002.
Electricity - consumption 33.315 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - production 35.823 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 27%

hydro: 66%

nuclear: 0%

other: 7% (2000)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mount Cook 3,764 m
Environment - current issues deforestation; soil erosion; native flora and fauna hard-hit by species introduced from outside
Environment - international agreements party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Antarctic Seals, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life Conservation
Ethnic groups New Zealand European 74.5%, Maori 9.7%, other European 4.6%, Pacific Islander 3.8%, Asian and others 7.4%
Exchange rates New Zealand dollars per US dollar - 2.3535 (January 2002), 2.3776 (2001), 2.1863 (2000), 1.8886 (1999), 1.8632 (1998), 1.5083 (1997)
Executive branch chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Dame Silvia CARTWRIGHT (since 4 April 2001)

head of government: Prime Minister Helen CLARK (since 10 December 1999) and Deputy Prime Minister Michael CULLEN (since NA September 2002)

cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor general on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general
Exports 0 kWh (2000)
Exports $14.2 billion (2001 est.)
Exports - commodities dairy products, meat, wood and wood products, fish, machinery
Exports - partners Australia 20.4%, US 14.5%, Japan 13.5%, UK 5.4%, South Korea, China (2000)
Fiscal year 1 July - 30 June
Flag description blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant with four red five-pointed stars edged in white centered in the outer half of the flag; the stars represent the Southern Cross constellation
GDP purchasing power parity - $75.4 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 8%

industry: 23%

services: 69% (1999)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $19,500 (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 3.1% (2001 est.)
Geographic coordinates 41 00 S, 174 00 E
Geography - note about 80% of the population lives in cities; Wellington is the southernmost national capital in the world
Heliports 1 (2002)
Highways total: 92,200 km

paved: 53,568 km (including at least 144 km of expressways)

unpaved: 38,632 km (1996)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 0%

highest 10%: 30% (1991 est.)
Imports 0 kWh (2000)
Imports $12.5 billion (2001 est.)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, vehicles and aircraft, petroleum, electronics, textiles, plastics
Imports - partners Australia 22.5%, US 17.5%, Japan 11%, UK 4%, China, Germany (2000)
Independence 26 September 1907 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate 3% (2001 est.)
Industries food processing, wood and paper products, textiles, machinery, transportation equipment, banking and insurance, tourism, mining
Infant mortality rate 6.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2.6% (2001 est.)
International organization participation ABEDA, ANZUS (US suspended security obligations to NZ on 11 August 1986), APEC, ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, C, CCC, CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NSG, OECD, OPCW, PCA, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMOP, UNTAET, UNTSO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 36 (2000)
Irrigated land 2,850 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch High Court; Court of Appeal
Labor force 1.92 million (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation services 65%, industry 25%, agriculture 10% (1995) (1995)
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land: 5.8%

permanent crops: 6.44%

other: 87.76% (1998 est.)
Languages English (official), Maori (official)
Legal system based on English law, with special land legislation and land courts for Maoris; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Legislative branch unicameral House of Representatives - commonly called Parliament (120 seats; members elected by popular vote in single-member constituencies to serve three-year terms)

elections: last held 27 July 2002 (next to be held NA 2005)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NZLP 52, NP 27, NZFP 13, ACT New Zealand 9, Green Party 9, UF 8, other 2
Life expectancy at birth total population: 78.15 years

male: 75.17 years

female: 81.27 years (2002 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99% (1980 est.)

male: NA%

female: NA%
Location Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast of Australia
Map references Oceania
Maritime claims continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM
Merchant marine total: 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 68,427 GRT/106,627 DWT

ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 1, container 1, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 1

note: includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: Australia 1 (2002 est.)
Military branches New Zealand Army, Royal New Zealand Navy, Royal New Zealand Air Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure $515.6 million (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.2% (FY2001/02)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 1,010,316 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 850,185 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - military age 20 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 26,480 (2002 est.)
National holiday Waitangi Day (Treaty of Waitangi established British sovereignty over New Zealand), 6 February (1840)
Nationality noun: New Zealander(s)

adjective: New Zealand
Natural hazards earthquakes are common, though usually not severe; volcanic activity
Natural resources natural gas, iron ore, sand, coal, timber, hydropower, gold, limestone
Net migration rate 4.48 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Pipelines petroleum products 160 km; natural gas 1,000 km; liquefied petroleum gas or LPG 150 km
Political parties and leaders ACT New Zealand [Richard PREBBLE]; Alliance (a coalition of the New Labor Party, Democratic Party, New Zealand Liberal Party, and Mana Motuhake) [James (Jim) ANDERTON]; Green Party [Jeanette FITZSIMONS and Rod DONALD]; National Party or NP [William (Bill) English]; New Zealand First Party or NZFP [Winston PETERS]; New Zealand Labor Party or NZLP [Helen CLARK]; United Future or UF [leader NA]; United New Zealand or UNZ [Peter DUNNE]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 3,908,037 (July 2002 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 1.12% (2002 est.)
Ports and harbors Auckland, Christchurch, Dunedin, Tauranga, Wellington
Radio broadcast stations AM 124, FM 290, shortwave 4 (1998)
Radios 3.75 million (1997)
Railways total: 3,908 km

narrow gauge: 3,908 km 1.067-m gauge (506 km electrified) (2001)
Religions Anglican 24%, Presbyterian 18%, Roman Catholic 15%, Methodist 5%, Baptist 2%, other Protestant 3%, unspecified or none 33% (1986)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: excellent domestic and international systems

domestic: NA

international: submarine cables to Australia and Fiji; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 1.92 million (2000)
Telephones - mobile cellular 2.2 million (2000)
Television broadcast stations 41 (plus 52 medium-power repeaters and over 650 low-power repeaters) (1997)
Terrain predominately mountainous with some large coastal plains
Total fertility rate 1.8 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate 5.5% (2001 est.)
Waterways 1,609 km

note: of little importance in satisfying total transportation requirements
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