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Netherlands (2002)

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Netherlands 2002 year

Administrative divisions 12 provinces (provincien, singular - provincie); Drenthe, Flevoland, Friesland, Gelderland, Groningen, Limburg, Noord-Brabant, Noord-Holland, Overijssel, Utrecht, Zeeland, Zuid-Holland
Age structure 0-14 years: 18.3% (male 1,502,687; female 1,437,141)

15-64 years: 67.9% (male 5,548,188; female 5,362,412)

65 years and over: 13.8% (male 913,020; female 1,304,306) (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products grains, potatoes, sugar beets, fruits, vegetables; livestock
Airports 28 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways total: 21

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 7

1,524 to 2,437 m: 6

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 2 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 7

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 5 (2002)
Area total: 41,526 sq km

land: 33,883 sq km

water: 7,643 sq km
Area - comparative slightly less than twice the size of New Jersey
Background The Kingdom of the Netherlands was formed in 1815. In 1830 Belgium seceded and formed a separate kingdom. The Netherlands remained neutral in World War I but suffered a brutal invasion and occupation by Germany in World War II. A modern, industrialized nation, the Netherlands is also a large exporter of agricultural products. The country was a founding member of NATO and the EC, and participated in the introduction of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) in 1999.
Birth rate 11.58 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budget revenues: $134 billion

expenditures: $134 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Capital Amsterdam; The Hague is the seat of government
Climate temperate; marine; cool summers and mild winters
Coastline 451 km
Constitution adopted 1814; amended many times, last time 17 February 1983
Country name conventional long form: Kingdom of the Netherlands

conventional short form: Netherlands

local long form: Koninkrijk der Nederlanden

local short form: Nederland
Currency euro (EUR); Netherlands guilder (NLG)

note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions within the member countries
Death rate 8.67 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Dependent areas Aruba, Netherlands Antilles
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Clifford M. SOBEL

embassy: Lange Voorhout 102, 2514 EJ, The Hague

mailing address: PSC 71, Box 1000, APO AE 09715

telephone: [31] (70) 310-9209

FAX: [31] (70) 361-4688

consulate(s) general: Amsterdam
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Boudewijn J. VAN EENENNAAM

chancery: 4200 Linnean Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 244-5300

FAX: [1] (202) 362-3430

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York

consulate(s): Boston
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - donor ODA, $3.5 billion (2000 est.)
Economy - overview The Netherlands is a prosperous and open economy depending heavily on foreign trade. The economy is noted for stable industrial relations, moderate inflation, a sizable current account surplus, and an important role as a European transportation hub. Industrial activity is predominantly in food processing, chemicals, petroleum refining, and electrical machinery. A highly mechanized agricultural sector employs no more than 4% of the labor force but provides large surpluses for the food-processing industry and for exports. The Netherlands, along with 11 of its EU partners, began circulating the euro currency on 1 January 2002. The country continues to be one of the leading European nations for attracting foreign direct investment. Economic growth slowed considerably in 2001-02, as part of the global economic slowdown, but for the four years before that, annual growth averaged nearly 4%, well above the EU average.
Electricity - consumption 100.71 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 4.031 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 22.946 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production 87.953 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 90%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 4%

other: 5% (2000)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Zuidplaspolder -7 m

highest point: Vaalserberg 322 m
Environment - current issues water pollution in the form of heavy metals, organic compounds, and nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates; air pollution from vehicles and refining activities; acid rain
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Ethnic groups Dutch 83%, other 17% (of which 9% are non-western origin mainly Turks, Moroccans, Antilleans, Surinamese and Indonesians) (1999 est.)
Exchange rates euros per US dollar - 1.1324 (January 2002), 1.1175 (2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); Netherlands guilders per US dollar - 1.9837 (1998), 1.9513 (1997)
Executive branch chief of state: Queen BEATRIX (since 30 April 1980); Heir Apparent WILLEM-ALEXANDER (born 27 April 1967), son of the monarch

head of government: Prime Minister Jan Peter BALKENENDE (since 22 July 2002) and Vice Prime Ministers Johan REMKES (since NA 2002) and Roelf DE BOER (since NA 2002)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch

elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; following Second Chamber elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; vice prime ministers appointed by the monarch

note: there is also a Council of State composed of the monarch, heir apparent, and councilors that provides consultations to the prime minister on legislative and administrative policy
Exports 4.031 billion kWh (2000)
Exports $221.9 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Exports - commodities machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels; foodstuffs
Exports - partners EU 77.6% (Germany 25.6%, Benelux 11.8%, UK 11.1%, France 10.3%, Italy 6.2%) (2001)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue; similar to the flag of Luxembourg, which uses a lighter blue and is longer; one of the oldest flags in constant use, originating with William I, Prince of Orange, in the latter half of the 16th century
GDP purchasing power parity - $434 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 3%

industry: 26%

services: 71% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $26,900 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 0.3% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 52 30 N, 5 45 E
Geography - note located at mouths of three major European rivers (Rhine, Maas or Meuse, and Schelde)
Heliports 1 (2002)
Highways total: 116,500 km

paved: 104,850 km (including 2,235 km of expressways)

unpaved: 11,650 km (1999)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 3%

highest 10%: 25% (1994)
Illicit drugs major European producer of illicit amphetamine and other synthetic drugs; important gateway for cocaine, heroin, and hashish entering Europe; major source of US-bound ecstasy; large financial sector vulnerable to money laundering
Imports 22.946 billion kWh (2000)
Imports $201.1 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Imports - commodities machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, fuels; foodstuffs, clothing
Imports - partners EU 54.6% (Germany 18.4%, Benelux 9.2%, UK 8.9%, France 5.8%), US 9.9% (2001)
Independence 1579 (from Spain); note - the northern provinces of the Low Country concluded the Union of Utrecht, but it was 1648 before Spain finally recognized their independence
Industrial production growth rate 2% (2002 est.)
Industries agroindustries, metal and engineering products, electrical machinery and equipment, chemicals, petroleum, construction, microelectronics, fishing
Infant mortality rate 4.31 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3.4% (2002 est.)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 52 (2000)
Irrigated land 5,650 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court or Hoge Raad (justices are nominated for life by the monarch)
Labor force 7.2 million (2000)
Labor force - by occupation services 73%, industry 23%, agriculture 4% (1998 est.)
Land boundaries total: 1,027 km

border countries: Belgium 450 km, Germany 577 km
Land use arable land: 26.53%

permanent crops: 1.03%

other: 72.44% (1998 est.)
Languages Dutch
Legal system civil law system incorporating French penal theory; constitution does not permit judicial review of acts of the States General; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Legislative branch bicameral States General or Staten Generaal consists of the First Chamber or Eerste Kamer (75 seats; members indirectly elected by the country's 12 provincial councils for four-year terms) and the Second Chamber or Tweede Kamer (150 seats; members directly elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: First Chamber - last held 25 May 1999 (next to be held 15 May 2003); Second Chamber - last held 22 January 2003 (next to be held NA January 2007)

election results: First Chamber - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - CDA 20, VVD 19, PvdA 15, D66 4, other 17; Second Chamber - percent of vote by party - CDA 28.6%, PvdA 27.3%, VVD 12.9%, Socialist Party 6.3%, List Pim Fortuyn 5.7%, Green Party 5.1%, D66 4.1%; seats by party - CDA 44, PvdA 42, VVD 28, Socialist Party 9, List Pim Fortuyn 8, Green Party 8, D66 6, other 5
Life expectancy at birth total population: 78.58 years

male: 75.7 years

female: 81.59 years (2002 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99% (2000 est.)

male: NA%

female: NA%
Location Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between Belgium and Germany
Map references Europe
Maritime claims exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM
Merchant marine total: 622 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,587,662 GRT/5,251,529 DWT

ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 380, chemical tanker 46, container 64, liquefied gas 16, livestock carrier 2, multi-functional large-load carrier 15, passenger 9, petroleum tanker 28, refrigerated cargo 34, roll on/roll off 18, short-sea passenger 2, specialized tanker 5

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Belgium 1, Canada 1, Denmark 5, Finland 5, Germany 55, Ireland 12, Norway 12, Sweden 17, United Kingdom 33, United States 12 (2002 est.)
Military branches Royal Netherlands Army, Royal Netherlands Navy (including Naval Air Service and Marine Corps), Royal Netherlands Air Force, Royal Constabulary
Military expenditures - dollar figure $6.5 billion (FY00/01 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.5% (FY00/01 est.)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 4,077,917 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 3,546,030 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - military age 20 years of age (note - age 17 for cadets and midshipmen) (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 96,082

note: Netherlands has an all-volunteer, 74,100 force in 2001 (2002 est.)
National holiday Queen's Day (Birthday of Queen-Mother JULIANA in 1909 and accession to the throne of her oldest daughter BEATRIX in 1980), 30 April
Nationality noun: Dutchman(men), Dutchwoman(women)

adjective: Dutch
Natural hazards flooding
Natural resources natural gas, petroleum, arable land
Net migration rate 2.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Pipelines crude oil 418 km; petroleum products 965 km; natural gas 10,230 km
Political parties and leaders Christian Democratic Appeal or CDA [Jan Peter BALKENENDE]; Christian Union Party [M. VAN DAALEN]; Democrats 66 or D66 [Thom DE GRAAF]; Green Party [Femke HALSEMA]; Labor Party or PvdA [Wouter BOS]; List Pim Fortuyn [Mat HERBEN]; People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (Liberal) or VVD [Gerrit ZALM]; Socialist Party [Jan MARIJNISSEN]; a host of minor parties
Political pressure groups and leaders Federation of Netherlands Trade Union Movement (comprising Socialist and Catholic trade unions) and a Protestant trade union; Federation of Catholic and Protestant Employers Associations; Interchurch Peace Council or IKV; large multinational firms; the nondenominational Federation of Netherlands Enterprises
Population 16,067,754 (July 2002 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 0.53% (2002 est.)
Ports and harbors Amsterdam, Delfzijl, Dordrecht, Eemshaven, Groningen, Haarlem, Ijmuiden, Maastricht, Rotterdam, Terneuzen, Utrecht, Vlissingen
Radio broadcast stations AM 4, FM 58, shortwave 3 (1998)
Radios 15.3 million (1996)
Railways total: 2,808 km

standard gauge: 2,808 km 1.435-m gauge (2,061 km electrified) (2001)
Religions Roman Catholic 31%, Protestant 21%, Muslim 4.4%, other 3.6%, unaffiliated 40% (1998)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: highly developed and well maintained

domestic: the existing system of multi-conductor cables is gradually being replaced by fiber-optic cables; the density of cellular telephone traffic is rapidly increasing and further modernization of the system is expected in 2001, with the introduction of the third generation of the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)

international: 5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 2 Atlantic Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions) (1996)
Telephones - main lines in use 9,132,400 (1999)
Telephones - mobile cellular 4,081,891 (April 1999)
Television broadcast stations 21 (plus 26 repeaters) (1995)
Terrain mostly coastal lowland and reclaimed land (polders); some hills in southeast
Total fertility rate 1.65 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate 3% (2002 est.)
Waterways 5,046 km (of which 3,745 km are canals)

note: 47% of total route length is usable by craft of 1,000-metric-ton capacity or larger
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