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Namibia (2001)

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Namibia 2001 year

Administrative divisions 13 regions; Caprivi, Erongo, Hardap, Karas, Khomas, Kunene, Ohangwena, Okavango, Omaheke, Omusati, Oshana, Oshikoto, Otjozondjupa
Age structure 0-14 years:
42.74% (male 389,028; female 379,229)

15-64 years:
53.54% (male 480,075; female 482,375)

65 years and over:
3.72% (male 29,109; female 37,861) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products millet, sorghum, peanuts; livestock; fish
Airports 131 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:
4 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
18 (2000 est.)
Area total:
825,418 sq km

825,418 sq km

0 sq km
Area - comparative slightly more than half the size of Alaska
Background South Africa occupied the German colony of Sud-West Afrika during World War I and administered it as a mandate until after World War II when it annexed the territory. In 1966 the Marxist South-West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) guerrilla group launched a war of independence for the area that was soon named Namibia, but it was not until 1988 that South Africa agreed to end its administration in accordance with a UN peace plan for the entire region. Independence came in 1990.
Birth rate 34.71 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$883 million

$950 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1998)
Capital Windhoek
Climate desert; hot, dry; rainfall sparse and erratic
Coastline 1,572 km
Constitution ratified 9 February 1990; effective 12 March 1990
Country name conventional long form:
Republic of Namibia

conventional short form:

German Southwest Africa, South-West Africa
Currency Namibian dollar (NAD); South African rand (ZAR)
Death rate 20.9 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $217 million (2000 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Jeffrey A. BADER

Ausplan Building, 14 Lossen Street, Private Bag 12029 Ausspannplatz, Windhoek

mailing address:
use embassy street address

[264] (61) 221601

[264] (61) 229792
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Leonard Nangolo IIPUMBU

1605 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009

[1] (202) 986-0540

[1] (202) 986-0443
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $127 million (1998)
Economy - overview The economy is heavily dependent on the extraction and processing of minerals for export. Mining accounts for 20% of GDP. Namibia is the fourth-largest exporter of nonfuel minerals in Africa and the world's fifth-largest producer of uranium. Rich alluvial diamond deposits make Namibia a primary source for gem-quality diamonds. Namibia also produces large quantities of lead, zinc, tin, silver, and tungsten. Half of the population depends on agriculture (largely subsistence agriculture) for its livelihood. Namibia must import some of its food. Although per capita GDP is four times the per capita GDP of Africa's poorer countries, the majority of Namibia's people live in pronounced poverty because of large-scale unemployment, the great inequality of income distribution, and the large amount of wealth going to foreigners. The Namibian economy has close links to South Africa. GDP growth in 2000 was led by gains in the diamond and fish sectors. Agreement has been reached on the privatization of several more enterprises in coming years, which should stimulate long-run foreign investment. Growth in 2001 could be 5.5% provided the world economy remains stable.
Electricity - consumption 1.948 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 56 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 890 million kWh

supplied by South Africa (1999)
Electricity - production 1.198 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point:
Konigstein 2,606 m
Environment - current issues very limited natural fresh water resources; desertification
Environment - international agreements party to:
Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups black 87.5%, white 6%, mixed 6.5%

about 50% of the population belong to the Ovambo tribe and 9% to the Kavangos tribe; other ethnic groups are: Herero 7%, Damara 7%, Nama 5%, Caprivian 4%, Bushmen 3%, Baster 2%, Tswana 0.5%
Exchange rates Namibian dollars per US dollar - 7.78307 (January 2001), 6.93983 (2000), 6.10948 (1999), 5.52828 (1998), 4.60796 (1997), 4.29935 (1996)
Executive branch chief of state:
President Sam Shafishuna NUJOMA (since 21 March 1990); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government:
President Sam Shafishuna NUJOMA (since 21 March 1990); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 30 November-1 December 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)

election results:
Sam Shafishuna NUJOMA elected president; percent of vote - Sam Shafishuna NUJOMA 77%
Exports 56 million kWh (1999)
Exports $1.4 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Exports - commodities diamonds, copper, gold, zinc, lead, uranium; cattle, processed fish, karakul skins
Exports - partners UK 43%, South Africa 26%, Spain 14%, France 8%, Japan (1998 est.)
Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March
Flag description a large blue triangle with a yellow sunburst fills the upper left section and an equal green triangle (solid) fills the lower right section; the triangles are separated by a red stripe that is contrasted by two narrow white-edge borders
GDP purchasing power parity - $7.6 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


63% (1999 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $4,300 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 4% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 22 00 S, 17 00 E
Highways total:
63,258 km

5,250 km

58,008 km (1997 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
Imports 890 million kWh

supplied by South Africa (1999)
Imports $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Imports - commodities foodstuffs; petroleum products and fuel, machinery and equipment, chemicals
Imports - partners South Africa 81%, US 4%, Germany 2% (1997 est.)
Independence 21 March 1990 (from South African mandate)
Industrial production growth rate NA
Industries meatpacking, fish processing, dairy products; mining (diamond, lead, zinc, tin, silver, tungsten, uranium, copper)
Infant mortality rate 71.66 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 9.1% (2000)
International organization participation AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNTAET, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 2 (2000)
Irrigated land 60 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (judges appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Judicial Service Commission)
Labor force 500,000
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 47%, industry 20%, services 33% (1999 est.)
Land boundaries total:
3,824 km

border countries:
Angola 1,376 km, Botswana 1,360 km, South Africa 855 km, Zambia 233 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

31% (1993 est.)
Languages English 7% (official), Afrikaans common language of most of the population and about 60% of the white population, German 32%, indigenous languages: Oshivambo, Herero, Nama
Legal system based on Roman-Dutch law and 1990 constitution
Legislative branch bicameral legislature consists of the National Council (26 seats; two members are chosen from each regional council to serve six-year terms) and the National Assembly (72 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

National Council - elections for regional councils, to determine members of the National Council, held 30 November-1 December 1998 (next to be held by December 2004); National Assembly - last held 30 November-1 December 1999 (next to be held by December 2004)

election results:
National Council - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - SWAPO 21, DTA 4, UDF 1; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - SWAPO 76%, COD 10%, DTA 9%, UDF 3%, MAG 1%, other 1%; seats by party - SWAPO 55, COD 7, DTA 7, UDF 2, MAG 1,

the National Council is primarily an advisory body
Life expectancy at birth total population:
40.62 years

42.48 years

38.71 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


31% (1960 est.)
Location Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Angola and South Africa
Map references Africa
Maritime claims contiguous zone:
24 NM

exclusive economic zone:
200 NM

territorial sea:
12 NM
Merchant marine none (2000 est.)
Military branches National Defense Force (Army), Police
Military expenditures - dollar figure $104.4 million (2001)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2.6% (FY97/98)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
427,067 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
255,016 (2001 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 21 March (1990)
Nationality noun:

Natural hazards prolonged periods of drought
Natural resources diamonds, copper, uranium, gold, lead, tin, lithium, cadmium, zinc, salt, vanadium, natural gas, hydropower, fish

suspected deposits of oil, coal, and iron ore
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Political parties and leaders Congress of Democrats or COD [Ben ULENGA]; Democratic Turnhalle Alliance of Namibia or DTA [Katuutire KAURA, president]; Monitor Action Group or MAG [Kosie PRETORIUS]; South West Africa People's Organization or SWAPO [Sam NUJOMA]; United Democratic Front or UDF [Justus GAROEB]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 1,797,677

estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 1.38% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Luderitz, Walvis Bay
Radio broadcast stations AM 2, FM 34, shortwave 5 (1998)
Radios 232,000 (1997)
Railways total:
2,382 km

narrow gauge:
2,382 km 1.067-m gauge; single track (1995)
Religions Christian 80% to 90% (Lutheran 50% at least), indigenous beliefs 10% to 20%
Sex ratio at birth:
1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
1 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.77 male(s)/female

total population:
1 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment:
good system; about 6 telephones for each 100 persons

good urban services; fair rural service; microwave radio relay links major towns; connections to other populated places are by open wire; 100% digital

fiber-optic cable to South Africa, microwave radio relay link to Botswana, direct links to other neighboring countries; connected to Africa ONE and South African Far East (SAFE) submarine cables through South Africa; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat
Telephones - main lines in use 100,848 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular NA
Television broadcast stations 8 (plus about 20 low-power repeaters) (1997)
Terrain mostly high plateau; Namib Desert along coast; Kalahari Desert in east
Total fertility rate 4.83 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 30% to 40%, including underemployment (1997 est.)
Waterways none
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