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Marshall Islands (2002)

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Marshall Islands 2002 year

 Marshall Islands
Administrative divisions 33 municipalities; Ailinginae, Ailinglaplap, Ailuk, Arno, Aur, Bikar, Bikini, Bokak, Ebon, Enewetak, Erikub, Jabat, Jaluit, Jemo, Kili, Kwajalein, Lae, Lib, Likiep, Majuro, Maloelap, Mejit, Mili, Namorik, Namu, Rongelap, Rongrik, Toke, Ujae, Ujelang, Utirik, Wotho, Wotje
Age structure 0-14 years: 49.1% (male 18,443; female 17,704)

15-64 years: 48.9% (male 18,347; female 17,628)

65 years and over: 2% (male 720; female 788) (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products coconuts, tomatoes, melons, taro, breadfruit, fruits; pigs, chickens
Airports 17 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways total: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 11

914 to 1,523 m: 10

under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Area total: 181.3 sq km

land: 181.3 sq km

water: 0 sq km

note: includes the atolls of Bikini, Enewetak, Kwajalein, Majuro, Rongelap, and Utirik
Area - comparative about the size of Washington, DC
Background After almost four decades under US administration as the easternmost part of the UN Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, the Marshall Islands attained independence in 1986 under a Compact of Free Association. Compensation claims continue as a result of US nuclear testing on some of the atolls between 1947 and 1962. The Marshall Islands have been home to the US Army Base Kwajalein (USAKA) since 1964.
Birth rate 44.98 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budget revenues: $42 million

expenditures: $40 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999)
Capital Majuro
Climate wet season from May to November; hot and humid; islands border typhoon belt
Coastline 370.4 km
Constitution 1 May 1979
Country name conventional long form: Republic of the Marshall Islands

conventional short form: Marshall Islands

former: Marshall Islands District (Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands)
Currency US dollar (USD)
Death rate 6.07 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Debt - external $86.5 million
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Michael J. SENKO

embassy: Oceanside, Mejen Weto, Long Island, Majuro

mailing address: P. O. Box 1379, Majuro, Republic of the Marshall Islands 96960-1379

telephone: [692] 247-4011

FAX: [692] 247-4012
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Banny DE BRUM

chancery: 2433 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 234-5414

FAX: [1] (202) 232-3236

consulate(s) general: Honolulu
Disputes - international claims US territory of Wake Island
Economic aid - recipient approximately $39 million annually from the US
Economy - overview US Government assistance is the mainstay of this tiny island economy. Agricultural production is primarily subsistence and is concentrated on small farms; the most important commercial crops are coconuts and breadfruit. Small-scale industry is limited to handicrafts, tuna processing, and copra. The tourist industry, now a small source of foreign exchange employing less than 10% of the labor force, remains the best hope for future added income. The islands have few natural resources, and imports far exceed exports. Under the terms of the Compact of Free Association, the US provides roughly $39 million in annual aid. Negotiations have continued for an extended agreement. Government downsizing, drought, a drop in construction, the decline in tourism and foreign investment due to the Asian financial difficulties, and less income from the renewal of fishing vessel licenses have held GDP growth to an average of 1% over the past decade.
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 99%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 1% (solar)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: unnamed location on Likiep 10 m
Environment - current issues inadequate supplies of potable water; pollution of Majuro lagoon from household waste and discharges from fishing vessels
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Ethnic groups Micronesian
Exchange rates the US dollar is used
Executive branch chief of state: President Kessai Hesa NOTE (since 3 January 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Kessai Hesa NOTE (since 3 January 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Cabinet selected by the president from among the members of Parliament

elections: president elected by Parliament from among its own members for a four-year term; election last held 15 November 1999 (next to be held NA November 2003)

election results: Kessai Hesa NOTE elected president; percent of Parliament vote - 100%
Exports $9 million f.o.b. (2000)
Exports - commodities copra cake, coconut oil, handicrafts
Exports - partners US, Japan, Australia
Fiscal year 1 October - 30 September
Flag description blue with two stripes radiating from the lower hoist-side corner - orange (top) and white; there is a white star with four large rays and 20 small rays on the hoist side above the two stripes
GDP purchasing power parity - $115 million (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 14%

industry: 16%

services: 70% (2000 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,600 (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 1% (2001 est.)
Geographic coordinates 9 00 N, 168 00 E
Geography - note two archipelagic island chains of 30 atolls and 1,152 islands; Bikini and Enewetak are former US nuclear test sites; Kwajalein, the famous World War II battleground, is now used as a US missile test range
Highways total: NA km

paved: 64.5 km

unpaved: NA km

note: paved roads on major islands (Majuro, Kwajalein), otherwise stone-, coral-, or laterite-surfaced roads and tracks (2002)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Imports $54 million f.o.b. (2000)
Imports - commodities foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, fuels, beverages and tobacco
Imports - partners US, Japan, Australia, NZ, Singapore, Fiji, China, Philippines
Independence 21 October 1986 (from the US-administered UN trusteeship)
Industrial production growth rate NA%
Industries copra, fish, tourism, craft items from shell, wood, and pearls
Infant mortality rate 38.68 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 1.9% (1999 est.)
International organization participation ACP, AsDB, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, IMF, IMO, Interpol, ITU, OPCW (signatory), Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, WHO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2002)
Irrigated land 0 sq km
Judicial branch Supreme Court; High Court
Labor force 28,698
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 21%, industry 21%, services 58%
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land: 16.67%

permanent crops: 0%

other: 83.33% (1998 est.)
Languages English (widely spoken as a second language, both English and Marshallese are official languages), two major Marshallese dialects from the Malayo-Polynesian family, Japanese
Legal system based on adapted Trust Territory laws, acts of the legislature, municipal, common, and customary laws
Legislative branch unicameral Parliament or Nitijela (33 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 15 November 1999 (next to be held NA November 2003)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA

note: the Council of Chiefs is a 12-member body that advises on matters affecting customary law and practice
Life expectancy at birth total population: 66.18 years

male: 64.35 years

female: 68.09 years (2002 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 93.7%

male: 93.6%

female: 93.7% (1999)
Location Oceania, group of atolls and reefs in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to Australia
Map references Oceania
Maritime claims contiguous zone: 24 NM

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM
Merchant marine total: 270 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 11,807,839 GRT/19,332,014 DWT

ships by type: bulk 82, cargo 14, chemical tanker 24, combination ore/oil 4, container 46, liquefied gas 8, multi-functional large-load carrier 1, petroleum tanker 88, vehicle carrier 3

note: the ship's register of the Marshall Islands is a flag of convenience register since essentially none of the vessels on it is owned domestically, includes the following foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: China 1, Cyprus 1, Denmark 9, Germany 70, Greece 54, Hong Kong 2, Japan 4, Monaco 8, Netherlands 8, Norway 10, Poland 16, Singapore 1, Turkey 6, United Kingdom 3, United States 87, Uruguay 1 (2002 est.)
Military - note defense is the responsibility of the US
Military branches no regular military forces; Police Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure $NA
Military expenditures - percent of GDP NA%
National holiday Constitution Day, 1 May (1979)
Nationality noun: Marshallese (singular and plural)

adjective: Marshallese
Natural hazards infrequent typhoons
Natural resources coconut products, marine products, deep seabed minerals
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Political parties and leaders traditionally there have been no formally organized political parties; what has existed more closely resembles factions or interest groups because they do not have party headquarters, formal platforms, or party structures; the following two "groupings" have competed in legislative balloting in recent years - Kabua Party [Imata KABUA] and United Democratic Party or UDP [Litokwa TOMEING]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 73,630 (July 2002 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 3.89% (2002 est.)
Ports and harbors Majuro
Radio broadcast stations AM 2, FM 1, shortwave 0

note: additionally, the US Armed Forces Radio and Television Services (Central Pacific Network) operate one FM and one AM station on Kwajalein (2002)
Radios NA
Railways 0 km
Religions Christian (mostly Protestant)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female

total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: digital switching equipment; modern services include telex, cellular, internet, international calling, caller ID, and leased data circuits

domestic: Majuro Atoll and Ebeye and Kwajalein islands have regular, seven-digit, direct-dial telephones; other islands interconnected by shortwave radiotelephone (used mostly for government purposes)

international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean); US Government satellite communications system on Kwajalein (2001)
Telephones - main lines in use 4,186 (2001)
Telephones - mobile cellular 489 (2001)
Television broadcast stations 2 (both are US military stations) (2002)
Terrain low coral limestone and sand islands
Total fertility rate 6.49 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate 30.9% (1999 est.)
Waterways none
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