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Malawi (2004)

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Malawi 2004 year

Administrative divisions 27 districts; Balaka, Blantyre, Chikwawa, Chiradzulu, Chitipa, Dedza, Dowa, Karonga, Kasungu, Likoma, Lilongwe, Machinga (Kasupe), Mangochi, Mchinji, Mulanje, Mwanza, Mzimba, Ntcheu, Nkhata Bay, Nkhotakota, Nsanje, Ntchisi, Phalombe, Rumphi, Salima, Thyolo, Zomba
Age structure 0-14 years: 46.8% (male 2,811,751; female 2,759,515)

15-64 years: 50.5% (male 2,978,406; female 3,029,735)

65 years and over: 2.8% (male 130,600; female 196,848) (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products tobacco, sugarcane, cotton, tea, corn, potatoes, cassava (tapioca), sorghum, pulses; groundnuts, Macadamia nuts; cattle, goats
Airports 42 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 6

over 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 36

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 15

under 914 m: 20 (2004 est.)
Area total: 118,480 sq km

land: 94,080 sq km

water: 24,400 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Pennsylvania
Background Established in 1891, the British protectorate of Nyasaland became the independent nation of Malawi in 1964. After three decades of one-party rule under President Hastings Kamuzu BANDA the country held multiparty elections in 1994, under a provisional constitution, which came into full effect the following year. Current President Bingu wa MUTHARIKA, elected in May 2004 after the previous president was unable to amend the constitution to permit another term, has struggled to assert his authority against his predecessor, who still leads their shared political party. MATHARIKA's anti-corruption efforts have led to several high-level arrests but no convictions. Increasing corruption, population growth, increasing pressure on agricultural lands, and HIV/AIDS pose major problems for the country.
Birth rate 44.35 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Budget revenues: $528.1 million

expenditures: $653.2 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2003)
Capital Lilongwe
Climate sub-tropical; rainy season (November to May); dry season (May to November)
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution 18 May 1994
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Malawi

conventional short form: Malawi

former: British Central African Protectorate, Nyasaland Protectorate, Nyasaland
Currency Malawian kwacha (MWK)
Death rate 23.01 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Debt - external $3.026 billion (2003)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Stephen BROWNING

embassy: Area 40, Plot 24, Kenyatta Road

mailing address: P. O. Box 30016, Lilongwe 3, Malawi

telephone: [265] (1) 773 166

FAX: [265] (1) 770 471
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Paul Tony Steven KANDIERO

chancery: 2408 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 797-1007

FAX: [1] (202) 265-0976
Disputes - international dispute with Tanzania over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and the meandering Songwe River remain dormant
Economic aid - recipient $540 million (1999)
Economy - overview Landlocked Malawi ranks among the world's least developed countries. The economy is predominately agricultural, with about 90% of the population living in rural areas. Agriculture accounted for nearly 40% of GDP and 88% of export revenues in 2001. The economy depends on substantial inflows of economic assistance from the IMF, the World Bank, and individual donor nations. In late 2000, Malawi was approved for relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) program. In November 2002 the World Bank approved a $50 million drought recovery package, which is to be used for famine relief. The government faces strong challenges, e.g., to fully develop a market economy, to improve educational facilities, to face up to environmental problems, to deal with the rapidly growing problem of HIV/AIDS, and to satisfy foreign donors that fiscal discipline is being tightened. The performance of the tobacco sector is key to short-term growth as tobacco accounts for over 50% of exports.
Electricity - consumption 715.3 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 769.2 million kWh (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: junction of the Shire River and international boundary with Mozambique 37 m

highest point: Sapitwa (Mount Mlanje) 3,002 m
Environment - current issues deforestation; land degradation; water pollution from agricultural runoff, sewage, industrial wastes; siltation of spawning grounds endangers fish populations
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Ethnic groups Chewa, Nyanja, Tumbuka, Yao, Lomwe, Sena, Tonga, Ngoni, Ngonde, Asian, European
Exchange rates Malawian kwachas per US dollar - NA (2003), 76.6866 (2002), 72.1973 (2001), 59.5438 (2000), 44.0881 (1999)
Executive branch chief of state: President Bingu wa MUTHARIKA (since 24 May 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Bingu wa MUTHARIKA (since 24 May 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: 46-member Cabinet named by the president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 20 May 2004 (next to be held NA May 2009)

election results: Bingu wa MUTHARIKA elected president; percent of vote - Bingu wa MUTHARIKA (UDF) 35.9%, John TEMBO (MCP) 27.1%, Gwandaguluwe CHAKUAMBA (MC) 25.7%, Brown MPINGANJIRA (NDA) 8.7%, Justin MALEWEZI (independent) 2.5%
Exports 0 kWh (2001)
Exports $455 million f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities tobacco 60%, tea, sugar, cotton, coffee, peanuts, wood products, apparel
Exports - partners South Africa 23.3%, US 13.4%, Germany 11.3%, Egypt 5.7%, Portugal 4.8%, Japan 4.5%, Netherlands 4.1% (2003)
Fiscal year 1 July - 30 June
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green with a radiant, rising, red sun centered in the black band
GDP purchasing power parity - $6.845 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 51%

industry: 21.8%

services: 27.2% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $600 (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 1.7% (2003 est.)
Geographic coordinates 13 30 S, 34 00 E
Geography - note landlocked; Lake Nyasa, some 580 km long, is the country's most prominent physical feature
Government - note the executive exerts considerable influence over the legislature
Highways total: 28,400 km

paved: 5,254 km

unpaved: 23,146 km (1999 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA

highest 10%: NA
Imports 0 kWh (2001)
Imports $505 million f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities food, petroleum products, semimanufactures, consumer goods, transportation equipment
Imports - partners South Africa 53.7%, India 4.9%, Tanzania 3.9% (2003)
Independence 6 July 1964 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate -1.6% (2003 est.)
Industries tobacco, tea, sugar, sawmill products, cement, consumer goods
Infant mortality rate total: 104.23 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 108.4 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 99.93 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 9.5% (2003 est.)
International organization participation ACP, AfDB, AU, C, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, MONUC, NAM, ONUB, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNMIL, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Irrigated land 280 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court of Appeal; High Court (chief justice appointed by the president, puisne judges appointed on the advice of the Judicial Service Commission); magistrate's courts
Labor force 4.5 million (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 90% (2003 est.)
Land boundaries total: 2,881 km

border countries: Mozambique 1,569 km, Tanzania 475 km, Zambia 837 km
Land use arable land: 23.38%

permanent crops: 1.49%

other: 75.13% (2001)
Languages English (official), Chichewa (official), other languages important regionally
Legal system based on English common law and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Appeal; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly (193 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 20 May 2004 (next to be held NA May 2009)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - MCP 56, UDF 49, Mgwirizano Coalition (MC) 25, independents 39, others 24
Life expectancy at birth total population: 37.48 years

male: 37.08 years

female: 37.88 years (2004 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 62.7%

male: 76.1%

female: 49.8% (2003 est.)
Location Southern Africa, east of Zambia
Map references Africa
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military branches Army (including Air Wing and Naval Detachment), Police (including Mobile Force Unit)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $11.5 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 0.7% (2003)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 2,691,881 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 1,381,607 (2004 est.)
National holiday Independence Day (Republic Day), 6 July (1964)
Nationality noun: Malawian(s)

adjective: Malawian
Natural hazards NA
Natural resources limestone, arable land, hydropower, unexploited deposits of uranium, coal, and bauxite
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Political parties and leaders Alliance for Democracy or AFORD [Chakufwa CHIHANA]; Malawi Congress Party or MCP [John TEMBO]; Malawi Democratic Party or MDP [Kampelo KALUA]; Malawi Forum for Unity and Development or MAFUNDE [George MNESA]; Mgwirizano Coalition or MC (coalition of MAFUNDE, MDP, MGODE, NUP, PETRA, PPM, RP) [Gwandaguluwe Chakuamba]; Movement for Genuine Democratic Change or MGODE [Sam Kandodo BANDA]; National Democratic Alliance or NDA [Brown MPINGANJIRA]; National Unity Party or NUP [Harry CHIUME]; New Congress for Democracy or NCD [Hetherwick NTABA]; People's Progressive Movement or PPM [Aleke BANDA]; People's Transformation Movement or PETRA [Kamuzu CHIBAMBO]; Republican Party or RP [Gwandaguluwe Chakuamba]; United Democratic Front or UDF [Bingu wa MUTHARIKA] - governing party
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 11,906,855

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2004 est.)
Population below poverty line 55% (2003 est.)
Population growth rate 2.14% (2004 est.)
Ports and harbors Chipoka, Monkey Bay, Nkhata Bay, Nkhotakota, Chilumba
Radio broadcast stations AM 9, FM 5 (plus 15 repeater stations), shortwave 2 (plus a third station held in standby status) (2001)
Railways total: 797 km

narrow gauge: 797 km 1.067-m gauge (2003)
Religions Protestant 55%, Roman Catholic 20%, Muslim 20%, indigenous beliefs 3%, other 2%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: NA

domestic: system employs open-wire lines, microwave radio relay links, and radiotelephone communications stations

international: country code - 265; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 85,000 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular 135,100 (2003)
Television broadcast stations 1 (2001)
Terrain narrow elongated plateau with rolling plains, rounded hills, some mountains
Total fertility rate 6.04 children born/woman (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate NA (2003 est.)
Waterways 700 km

note: on Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and Shire River (2003)
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