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Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of (2002)

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Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of 2002 year

 Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Administrative divisions 123 municipalities (opstini, singular - opstina); Aracinovo, Bac, Belcista, Berovo, Bistrica, Bitola, Blatec, Bogdanci, Bogomila, Bogovinje, Bosilovo, Brvenica, Cair (Skopje), Capari, Caska, Cegrane, Centar (Skopje), Centar Zupa, Cesinovo, Cucer-Sandevo, Debar, Delcevo, Delogozdi, Demir Hisar, Demir Kapija, Dobrusevo, Dolna Banjica, Dolneni, Dorce Petrov (Skopje), Drugovo, Dzepciste, Gazi Baba (Skopje), Gevgelija, Gostivar, Gradsko, Ilinden, Izvor, Jegunovce, Kamenjane, Karbinci, Karpos (Skopje), Kavadarci, Kicevo, Kisela Voda (Skopje), Klecevce, Kocani, Konce, Kondovo, Konopiste, Kosel, Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Krivogastani, Krusevo, Kuklis, Kukurecani, Kumanovo, Labunista, Lipkovo, Lozovo, Lukovo, Makedonska Kamenica, Makedonski Brod, Mavrovi Anovi, Meseista, Miravci, Mogila, Murtino, Negotino, Negotino-Polosko, Novaci, Novo Selo, Oblesevo, Ohrid, Orasac, Orizari, Oslomej, Pehcevo, Petrovec, Plasnica, Podares, Prilep, Probistip, Radovis, Rankovce, Resen, Rosoman, Rostusa, Samokov, Saraj, Sipkovica, Sopiste, Sopotnica, Srbinovo, Star Dojran, Staravina, Staro Nagoricane, Stip, Struga, Strumica, Studenicani, Suto Orizari (Skopje), Sveti Nikole, Tearce, Tetovo, Topolcani, Valandovo, Vasilevo, Velesta, Veles, Vevcani, Vinica, Vitoliste, Vranestica, Vrapciste, Vratnica, Vrutok, Zajas, Zelenikovo, Zeleno, Zitose, Zletovo, Zrnovci

note: the seven municipalities followed by Skopje in parentheses collectively constitute "greater Skopje"
Age structure 0-14 years: 22.4% (male 239,638; female 221,446)

15-64 years: 67.2% (male 694,368; female 686,450)

65 years and over: 10.4% (male 94,214; female 118,684) (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products rice, tobacco, wheat, corn, millet, cotton, sesame, mulberry leaves, citrus, vegetables; beef, pork, poultry, mutton
Airports 17 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways total: 10

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

under 914 m: 8 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 7

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 4 (2002)
Area total: 25,333 sq km

land: 24,856 sq km

water: 477 sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than Vermont
Background International recognition of The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia's (F.Y.R.O.M.) independence from Yugoslavia in 1991 was delayed by Greece's objection to the new state's use of what it considered a Hellenic name and symbols. Greece finally lifted its trade blockade in 1995, and the two countries agreed to normalize relations, despite continued disagreement over F.Y.R.O.M.'s use of "Macedonia." F.Y.R.O.M.'s large Albanian minority, an ethnic Albanian armed insurgency in F.Y.R.O.M. in 2001, and the status of neighboring Kosovo continue to be sources of ethnic tension.
Birth rate 13.35 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budget revenues: $850 million

expenditures: $950 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Capital Skopje
Climate warm, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution adopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991

note: the Macedonian Parliament approved November 2001 a series of new constitutional amendments, strengthening minority rights
Country name conventional long form: The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

conventional short form: none

local long form: Republika Makedonija

local short form: Makedonija

abbreviation: F.Y.R.O.M.
Currency Macedonian denar (MKD)
Death rate 7.74 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Debt - external $1.3 billion (2001 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Laurence Edward BUTLER

embassy: bul. Ilinden bb, 1000 Skopje

mailing address: American Embassy Skopje, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-7120 (pouch)

telephone: [389] (02) 116-180

FAX: [389] (02) 117-103
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Nikola DIMITROV

chancery: Suite 302, 1101 30th Street NW, Washington, DC 20007

telephone: [1] (202) 337-3063

FAX: [1] (202) 337-3093

consulate(s) general: New York
Disputes - international dispute with Greece over country's name persists; 2001 FYROM-Yugoslavia boundary delimitation agreement, which adjusts former republic boundaries, was signed and ratified and awaits demarcation; ethnic Albanians in Kosovo dispute legitimacy of the agreement, which cedes small tracts of Kosovo lands to FYROM
Economic aid - recipient $150 million (2001 est.)
Economy - overview At independence in November 1991, Macedonia was the least developed of the Yugoslav republics, producing a mere 5% of the total federal output of goods and services. The collapse of Yugoslavia ended transfer payments from the center and eliminated advantages from inclusion in a de facto free trade area. An absence of infrastructure, UN sanctions on Yugoslavia, one of its largest markets, and a Greek economic embargo over a dispute about the country's constitutional name and flag hindered economic growth until 1996. GDP subsequently rose each year through 2000. However, the leadership's commitment to economic reform, free trade, and regional integration was undermined by the ethnic Albanian insurgency of 2001. The economy shrank 4.6% because of decreased trade, intermittent border closures, increased deficit spending on security needs, and investor uncertainty. Growth recovered moderately in 2002 but unemployment at one-third of the workforce remained a critical problem.
Electricity - consumption 5.992 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 30 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 75 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 6.395 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 82%

hydro: 18%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Vardar River 50 m

highest point: Golem Korab (Maja e Korabit) 2,753 m
Environment - current issues air pollution from metallurgical plants
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Macedonian 66.6%, Albanian 22.7%, Turkish 4%, Roma 2.2%, Serb 2.1%, other 2.4% (1994)
Exchange rates Macedonian denars per US dollar - 64.757 (January 2001), 65.904 (2000), 56.902 (1999), 54.462 (1998), 50.004 (1997)
Executive branch chief of state: President Boris TRAJKOVSKI (since 15 December 1999)

head of government: Prime Minister Branko CRVENKOVSKI (since 1 November 2002)

cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the majority vote of all the deputies in the Assembly; note - current cabinet formed by the government coalition parties VMRO-DPMNE, PDP, and DPA

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 14 November 1999 (next to be held NA October 2004); prime minister elected by the Assembly; election last held NA October 2002 (next to be held NA 2006)

election results: Boris TRAJKOVSKI elected president on second-round ballot; percent of vote - Boris TRAJKOVSKI 52.4%, Tito PETKOVSKI 46.2%; Branko CRVENKOVSKI elected prime minister by Parliament with 72% of the vote
Exports 30 million kWh (1999)
Exports $1 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports - commodities food, beverages, tobacco; miscellaneous manufactures, iron and steel
Exports - partners Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) 23.1%, Germany 20.6%, Greece 8.8%, Italy 8.6%, US 7.7% (2001)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description a rising yellow sun with eight rays extending to the edges of the red field
GDP purchasing power parity - $10 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 11%

industry: 31%

services: 58% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $5,000 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 3.8% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 41 50 N, 22 00 E
Geography - note landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe
Highways total: 8,684 km

paved: 5,540 km (including 133 km of expressways)

unpaved: 3,144 km (1997)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Illicit drugs major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and hashish; minor transit point for South American cocaine destined for Europe; while money laundering is a problem on a local level due to organized crime activities, the lack of a well-developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center
Imports 75 million kWh (1999)
Imports $1.6 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels; food products
Imports - partners Germany 12.6%, Greece 10.9%, Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) 9.3%, Russia 8.3%, Slovenia 7.0% (2000)
Independence 8 September 1991 referendum by registered voters endorsing independence (from Yugoslavia)
Industrial production growth rate -5% (2002 est.)
Industries coal, metallic chromium, lead, zinc, ferronickel, textiles, wood products, tobacco, food processing, buses
Infant mortality rate 12.54 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 4% (2002 est.)
International organization participation ACCT, BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 6 (2000)
Irrigated land 550 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court - Parliament appoints the judges; Constitutional Court - Parliament appoints the judges; Republican Judicial Council - Parliament appoints the judges
Labor force 1.1 million (2000 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%
Land boundaries total: 766 km

border countries: Albania 151 km, Bulgaria 148 km, Greece 246 km, Serbia and Montenegro 221 km
Land use arable land: 23.59%

permanent crops: 1.85%

other: 74.56% (1998 est.)
Languages Macedonian 70%, Albanian 21%, Turkish 3%, Serbo-Croatian 3%, other 3%
Legal system based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
Legislative branch unicameral Assembly or Sobranje (120 seats - 85 members are elected by popular vote, 35 members come from lists of candidates submitted by parties based on the percentage that a party gains from the overall vote; all serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 15 September 2002 (next to be held NA 2006)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Together for Macedonia coalition 60, VMRO-DPMNE 33, Democratic Integrative Union 16, Democratic Party of Albanians 7, Party for Democratic Prosperity 2, National Democratic Party 1, Socialist Party of Macedonia 1
Life expectancy at birth total population: 74.26 years

male: 72.01 years

female: 76.68 years (2002 est.)
Literacy definition: NA

total population: NA%

male: NA%

female: NA%
Location Southeastern Europe, north of Greece
Map references Europe
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military branches Army (ARM), Air and Air Defense Forces, Police Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure $200 million (FY01/02 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 6% (FY01/02 est.)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 551,523 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 444,575 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - military age 19 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 17,905 (2002 est.)
National holiday Uprising Day, 2 August (1903); note - also known as Saint Elijah's Day and Ilinden
Nationality noun: Macedonian(s)

adjective: Macedonian
Natural hazards high seismic risks
Natural resources chromium, lead, zinc, manganese, tungsten, nickel, low-grade iron ore, asbestos, sulfur, timber, arable land
Net migration rate -1.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Pipelines 10 km
Political parties and leaders Democratic Alternative or DA [Vasil TUPURKOVSKI, president]; Democratic Integrative Union [leader NA]; Democratic Party of Albanians or DPA [Arben XHAFERI, president]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity or VMRO-DPMNE [Ljubcho GEORGIEVSKI, president]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-True Macedonian Reform Option or VMRO-VMRO [Boris STOJMANOV]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Risto GUSTERVO]; Liberal Party [leader NA]; National Democratic Party or MPDK [Kastriot HAXHISEXHA]; Party for Democratic Prosperity or PDP [Imeri IMERI, president]; Social-Democratic Alliance of Macedonia or SDSM (former Communist Party) [Branko CRVENKOVSKI, president]; Socialist Party of Macedonia or SP [Ljubisav IVANOV, president]; Together for Macedonia coalition (including the Social Democrats) [leader NA]; Union of Romanies of Macedonia or SRM [leader NA]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 2,054,800

note: a Framework Agreement ratified by Macedonia on 16 November 2001 calls for a new census in 2002 (July 2002 est.)
Population below poverty line 24% (2001 est.)
Population growth rate 0.41% (2002 est.)
Ports and harbors none
Radio broadcast stations AM 29, FM 20, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios 410,000 (1997)
Railways total: 699 km

standard gauge: 699 km 1.435-m gauge (233 km electrified)

note: a 56-km extension of the Kumanovo-Beljakovce line to the Bulgarian border at Gyueshevo is under construction (2001)
Religions Macedonian Orthodox 67%, Muslim 30%, other 3%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: NA

domestic: NA

international: NA
Telephones - main lines in use 408,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 12,362 (1997)
Television broadcast stations 31 (plus 166 repeaters) (1995)
Terrain mountainous territory covered with deep basins and valleys; three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line; country bisected by the Vardar River
Total fertility rate 1.77 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate 35% (2002 est.)
Waterways note: lake transport only, on the Greek and Albanian borders
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