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Liechtenstein (2005)

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Liechtenstein 2005 year

Administrative divisions 11 communes (Gemeinden, singular - Gemeinde); Balzers, Eschen, Gamprin, Mauren, Planken, Ruggell, Schaan, Schellenberg, Triesen, Triesenberg, Vaduz
Age structure 0-14 years: 17.6% (male 2,938/female 3,009)

15-64 years: 70.4% (male 11,795/female 11,927)

65 years and over: 12% (male 1,685/female 2,363) (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products wheat, barley, corn, potatoes; livestock, dairy products
Airports none (2004 est.)
Area total: 160 sq km

land: 160 sq km

water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative about 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC
Background The Principality of Liechtenstein was established within the Holy Roman Empire in 1719; it became a sovereign state in 1806. Until the end of World War I, it was closely tied to Austria, but the economic devastation caused by that conflict forced Liechtenstein to enter into a customs and monetary union with Switzerland. Since World War II (in which Liechtenstein remained neutral), the country's low taxes have spurred outstanding economic growth. Shortcomings in banking regulatory oversight have resulted in concerns about the use of the financial institutions for money laundering. Liechtenstein has, however, implemented new anti-money-laundering legislation and recently concluded a Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty with the US.
Birth rate 10.41 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Budget revenues: $424.2 million

expenditures: $414.1 million, including capital expenditures of NA (1998 est.)
Capital Vaduz
Climate continental; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow or rain; cool to moderately warm, cloudy, humid summers
Coastline 0 km (doubly landlocked)
Constitution 5 October 1921
Country name conventional long form: Principality of Liechtenstein

conventional short form: Liechtenstein

local long form: Fuerstentum Liechtenstein

local short form: Liechtenstein
Death rate 7.06 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Debt - external $0 (2001)
Diplomatic representation from the US the US does not have an embassy in Liechtenstein, but the US Ambassador to Switzerland is also accredited to Liechtenstein
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Claudia FRITSCHE

chancery: 1300 Eye Street NW, Suite 550W, Washington, DC 20005

telephone: [1] (202) 216-0460

FAX: [1] (202) 216-0459
Disputes - international in February 2005, the ICJ refused to rule on the restitution of Liechtenstein's land and property assets in the Czech Republic confiscated in 1945 as German property
Economic aid - recipient none
Economy - overview Despite its small size and limited natural resources, Liechtenstein has developed into a prosperous, highly industrialized, free-enterprise economy with a vital financial service sector and living standards on a par with its large European neighbors. The Liechtenstein economy is widely diversified with a large number of small businesses. Low business taxes - the maximum tax rate is 20% - and easy incorporation rules have induced many holding or so-called letter box companies to establish nominal offices in Liechtenstein, providing 30% of state revenues. The country participates in a customs union with Switzerland and uses the Swiss franc as its national currency. It imports more than 90% of its energy requirements. Liechtenstein has been a member of the European Economic Area (an organization serving as a bridge between the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) and the EU) since May 1995. The government is working to harmonize its economic policies with those of an integrated Europe.
Elevation extremes lowest point: Ruggeller Riet 430 m

highest point: Grauspitz 2,599 m
Environment - current issues NA
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Ethnic groups Alemannic 86%, Italian, Turkish, and other 14%
Exchange rates Swiss francs per US dollar - 1.2435 (2004), 1.3467 (2003), 1.5586 (2002), 1.6876 (2001), 1.6888 (2000)
Executive branch chief of state: Prince HANS ADAM II (since 13 November 1989, assumed executive powers 26 August 1984); Heir Apparent Prince ALOIS, son of the monarch (born 11 June 1968); note - on 15 August 2004, HANS ADAM transferred the official duties of the ruling prince to ALOIS, but HANS ADAM retains status of chief of state

head of government: Head of Government Ottmar HASLER (since 5 April 2001) and Deputy Head of Government Rita KIEBER-BECK (since 5 April 2001)

cabinet: Cabinet elected by the parliament, confirmed by the monarch

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party in the Landtag is usually appointed the head of government by the monarch and the leader of the largest minority party in the Landtag is usually appointed the deputy head of government by the monarch
Exports $2.47 billion (1996)
Exports - commodities small specialty machinery, connectors for audio and video, parts for motor vehicles, dental products, hardware, prepared foodstuffs, electronic equipment, optical products
Exports - partners EU 62.6% (Germany 24.3%, Austria 9.5%, France 8.9%, Italy 6.6%, UK 4.6%), US 18.9%, Switzerland 15.7%
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a gold crown on the hoist side of the blue band
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: NA%

industry: 40%

services: NA% (1999)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $25,000 (1999 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 11% (1999 est.)
Geographic coordinates 47 16 N, 9 32 E
Geography - note along with Uzbekistan, one of only two doubly landlocked countries in the world; variety of microclimatic variations based on elevation
Highways total: 250 km

paved: 250 km

unpaved: 0 km
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Illicit drugs has strengthened money-laundering controls, but money laundering remains a concern due to Liechtenstein sophisticated offshore financial services sector
Imports $917.3 million (1996)
Imports - commodities agricultural products, raw materials, machinery, metal goods, textiles, foodstuffs, motor vehicles
Imports - partners EU, Switzerland
Independence 23 January 1719 (Principality of Liechtenstein established); 12 July 1806 (independence from the Holy Roman Empire)
Industrial production growth rate NA%
Industries electronics, metal manufacturing, dental products, ceramics, pharmaceuticals, food products, precision instruments, tourism, optical instruments
Infant mortality rate total: 4.7 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 6.34 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 3.05 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 1% (2001)
International organization participation CE, EBRD, EFTA, IAEA, ICCt, ICRM, IFRCS, Interpol, IOC, ITU, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WCL, WIPO, WTO
Irrigated land NA sq km
Judicial branch Supreme Court or Oberster Gerichtshof; Court of Appeal or Obergericht
Labor force 29,000 of whom 19,000 are foreigners; 13,000 commute from Austria, Switzerland, and Germany to work each day (31 December 2001)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 1.3%, industry 47.4%, services 51.3% (31 December 2001 est.)
Land boundaries total: 76 km

border countries: Austria 34.9 km, Switzerland 41.1 km
Land use arable land: 25%

permanent crops: 0%

other: 75% (2001)
Languages German (official), Alemannic dialect
Legal system local civil and penal codes; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Legislative branch unicameral Parliament or Landtag (25 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote under proportional representation to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 11 and 13 March 2005 (next to be held by NA 2009)

election results: percent of vote by party - FBP 48.7%, VU 38.2%, FL 13%; seats by party - FBP 12, VU 10, FL 3
Life expectancy at birth total population: 79.55 years

male: 75.96 years

female: 83.16 years (2005 est.)
Literacy definition: age 10 and over can read and write

total population: 100%

male: 100%

female: 100%
Location Central Europe, between Austria and Switzerland
Map references Europe
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military - note defense is the responsibility of Switzerland
National holiday Assumption Day, 15 August
Nationality noun: Liechtensteiner(s)

adjective: Liechtenstein
Natural hazards NA
Natural resources hydroelectric potential, arable land
Net migration rate 4.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Pipelines gas 20 km (2004)
Political parties and leaders Patriotic Union (was Fatherland Union) or VU [Heinz FROMMELT]; Progressive Citizens' Party or FBP [Johannes MATT]; The Free List or FL [Dr. Pepo FRICK, Elisabeth TELLENBACH-FRICK, Adolf RITTER]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 33,717 (July 2005 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 0.82% (2005 est.)
Ports and harbors none
Radio broadcast stations AM 0, FM 4, shortwave 0 (1998)
Religions Roman Catholic 76.2%, Protestant 7%, unknown 10.6%, other 6.2% (June 2002)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.01 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2005 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: automatic telephone system

domestic: NA

international: country code - 423; linked to Swiss networks by cable and microwave radio relay
Telephones - main lines in use 19,900 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular 11,400 (2002)
Television broadcast stations NA (linked to Swiss networks) (1997)
Terrain mostly mountainous (Alps) with Rhine Valley in western third
Total fertility rate 1.51 children born/woman (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate 1.3% (September 2002)
Waterways 28 km (2004)
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