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Liechtenstein (2001)

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Liechtenstein 2001 year

Administrative divisions 11 communes (gemeinden, singular - gemeinde); Balzers, Eschen, Gamprin, Mauren, Planken, Ruggell, Schaan, Schellenberg, Triesen, Triesenberg, Vaduz
Age structure 0-14 years:
18.41% (male 2,992; female 2,996)

15-64 years:
70.6% (male 11,455; female 11,511)

65 years and over:
10.99% (male 1,439; female 2,135) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products wheat, barley, corn, potatoes; livestock, dairy products
Airports none
Area total:
160 sq km

160 sq km

0 sq km
Area - comparative about 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC
Background The Principality of Liechtenstein was established within the Holy Roman Empire in 1719; it became a sovereign state in 1806. Until the end of World War I, it was closely tied to Austria, but the economic devastation caused by that conflict forced Liechtenstein to conclude a customs and monetary union with Switzerland. Since World War II (in which Liechtenstein remained neutral) the country's low taxes have spurred outstanding economic growth. However, shortcomings in banking regulatory oversight have resulted in concerns about the use of the financial institutions for money laundering.
Birth rate 11.53 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$424.2 million

$414.1 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1998 est.)
Capital Vaduz
Climate continental; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow or rain; cool to moderately warm, cloudy, humid summers
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution 5 October 1921
Country name conventional long form:
Principality of Liechtenstein

conventional short form:

local long form:
Fuerstentum Liechtenstein

local short form:
Currency Swiss franc (CHF)
Death rate 6.7 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $0 (1996)
Diplomatic representation from the US the US does not have an embassy in Liechtenstein, but the US Ambassador to Switzerland is also accredited to Liechtenstein
Diplomatic representation in the US Liechtenstein's Ambassador to the US, Claudia FRITSCHE, is dually accredited to the UN in New York
Disputes - international Liechtenstein's royal family claims restitution for 1,600 sq km of land in the Czech Republic confiscated in 1918
Economic aid - recipient none
Economy - overview Despite its small size and limited natural resources, Liechtenstein has developed into a prosperous, highly industrialized, free-enterprise economy with a vital financial service sector and living standards on a par with the urban areas of its large European neighbors. Low business taxes - the maximum tax rate is 18% - and easy incorporation rules have induced 73,700 holding or so-called letter box companies to establish nominal offices in Liechtenstein, providing 30% of state revenues. The country participates in a customs union with Switzerland and uses the Swiss franc as its national currency. It imports more than 90% of its energy requirements. Liechtenstein has been a member of the European Economic Area (an organization serving as a bridge between European Free Trade Association (EFTA) and EU) since May 1995. The government is working to harmonize its economic policies with those of an integrated Europe.
Electricity - consumption NA kWh
Electricity - exports NA kWh
Electricity - imports NA kWh
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



Elevation extremes lowest point:
Ruggeller Riet 430 m

highest point:
Grauspitz 2,599 m
Environment - current issues NA
Environment - international agreements party to:
Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:
Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Law of the Sea
Ethnic groups Alemannic 87.5%, Italian, Turkish, and other 12.5%
Exchange rates Swiss francs per US dollar - 1.6303 (January 2001), 1.6888 (2000), 1.5022 (1999), 1.4498 (1998), 1.4513 (1997), 1.2360 (1996)
Executive branch chief of state:
Prince HANS ADAM II (since 13 November 1989, assumed executive powers 26 August 1984); Heir Apparent Prince ALOIS, son of the monarch (born 11 June 1968)

head of government:
Head of Government Mario FRICK (since 15 December 1993) and Deputy Head of Government Michael RITTER (since 2 February 1997)

Cabinet elected by the Diet; confirmed by the monarch

none; the monarch is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party in the Diet is usually appointed the head of government by the monarch and the leader of the largest minority party in the Diet is usually appointed the deputy head of government by the monarch
Exports NA kWh
Exports $2.47 billion (1996)
Exports - commodities small specialty machinery, dental products, stamps, hardware, pottery
Exports - partners EU and EFTA countries 60.57% (Switzerland 15.7%) (1995)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a gold crown on the hoist side of the blue band
GDP purchasing power parity - $730 million (1998 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $23,000 (1998 est.)
GDP - real growth rate NA%
Geographic coordinates 47 10 N, 9 32 E
Geography - note along with Uzbekistan, one of only two doubly landlocked countries in the world; variety of microclimatic variations based on elevation
Highways total:
250 km

250 km

0 km
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
Illicit drugs multilateral organizations engaged in issuing international guidelines for financial sector oversight have found gaps in Liechtenstein's financial services controls that make it vulnerable to money laundering
Imports NA kWh
Imports $917.3 million (1996)
Imports - commodities machinery, metal goods, textiles, foodstuffs, motor vehicles
Imports - partners EU countries, Switzerland (1996)
Independence 23 January 1719 Imperial Principality of Liechtenstein established; 12 July 1806 established independence from the Holy Roman Empire
Industrial production growth rate NA%
Industries electronics, metal manufacturing, textiles, ceramics, pharmaceuticals, food products, precision instruments, tourism
Infant mortality rate 4.99 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 0.5% (1997 est.)
International organization participation CE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, IAEA, ICRM, IFRCS, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO (observer), WIPO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 44 (Liechtenstein and Switzerland) (2000)
Irrigated land NA sq km
Judicial branch Supreme Court or Oberster Gerichtshof; Superior Court or Obergericht
Labor force 22,891 of which 13,847 are foreigners; 8,231 commute from Austria and Switzerland to work each day
Labor force - by occupation industry, trade, and building 45%, services 53%, agriculture, fishing, forestry, and horticulture 2% (1997 est.)
Land boundaries total:
76 km

border countries:
Austria 35 km, Switzerland 41 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

25% (1993 est.)
Languages German (official), Alemannic dialect
Legal system local civil and penal codes; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Legislative branch unicameral Diet or Landtag (25 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote under proportional representation to serve four-year terms)

last held on 9-11 February 2001 (next to be held by NA 2005)

election results:
percent of vote by party - FBP 49.90%, VU 41.35%, FL 8.71%; seats by party - FBP 13, VU 11, FL 1
Life expectancy at birth total population:
78.95 years

75.32 years

82.6 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 10 and over can read and write

total population:


100% (1981 est.)
Location Central Europe, between Austria and Switzerland
Map references Europe
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military - note defense is the responsibility of Switzerland
National holiday Assumption Day, 15 August
Nationality noun:

Natural hazards NA
Natural resources hydroelectric potential, arable land
Net migration rate 4.98 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Political parties and leaders Fatherland Union or VU [Dr. Oswald KRANZ]; Progressive Citizens' Party or FBP [Dr. Ernst WALCH]; The Free List or FL [Dr. Pepo FRICK, Karin JENNY, Rene HASLER]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 32,528 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 0.98% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors none
Radio broadcast stations AM 0, FM 4, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios 21,000 (1997)
Railways total:
18.5 km; note - owned, operated, and included in statistics of Austrian Federal Railways

standard gauge:
18.5 km 1.435-m gauge (electrified)
Religions Roman Catholic 80%, Protestant 7.4%, unknown 7.7%, other 4.9% (1996)
Sex ratio at birth:
1.01 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
1 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.67 male(s)/female

total population:
0.95 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 20 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment:
automatic telephone system


linked to Swiss networks by cable and microwave radio relay
Telephones - main lines in use 20,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular NA
Television broadcast stations NA (linked to Swiss networks) (1997)
Terrain mostly mountainous (Alps) with Rhine Valley in western third
Total fertility rate 1.5 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 1.8% (February 1999)
Waterways none
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