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Kostaryka (2008)

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Kostaryka 2008 roku

 Kostaryka
Podzial administracyjny 7 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limon, Puntarenas, San Jose
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 27.8% (male 587,395/female 560,408)


15-64 years: 66.4% (male 1,388,114/female 1,357,157)


65 years and over: 5.8% (male 111,758/female 129,052) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo bananas, pineapples, coffee, melons, ornamental plants, sugar, corn, rice, beans, potatoes; beef; timber
Lotniska 151 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 36


2,438 to 3,047 m: 2


1,524 to 2,437 m: 2


914 to 1,523 m: 21


under 914 m: 11 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 115


914 to 1,523 m: 19


under 914 m: 96 (2007)
Terytorium total: 51,100 sq km


land: 50,660 sq km


water: 440 sq km


note: includes Isla del Coco
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than West Virginia
Tlo historyczne Although explored by the Spanish early w the 16th century, initial attempts at colonizing Kostaryka proved unsuccessful due to a combination of factors, including: disease from mosquito-infested swamps, brutal heat, resistance by natives, and pirate raids. It was not until 1563 that a permanent settlement of Cartago was established w the cooler, fertile central highlands. The area remained a colony dla some two and a half centuries. In 1821, Kostaryka became one of several Central American provinces that jointly declared their independence from Hiszpania. Two years later it joined the United Provinces of Central America, but this federation disintegrated w 1838, at which time Kostaryka proclaimed its sovereignty and independence. Since the late 19th century, only two brief periods of violence have marred the country's democratic development. Although it still maintains a large agricultural sector, Kostaryka has expanded its economy to include strong technology and tourism industries. The standard of living is relatively high. Land ownership is widespread.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 18.02 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $3.572 billion


expenditures: $3.843 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: San Jose


geographic coordinates: 9 56 N, 84 05 W


time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Klimat tropical and subtropical; dry season (grudzien to kwiecien); rainy season (maj to listopad); cooler w highlands
Linia brzegowa 1,290 km
Konstytucja 7 listopad 1949
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Kostaryka


conventional short form: Kostaryka


local long form: Republica de Kostaryka


local short form: Kostaryka
Wspolczynnik zgonow 4.39 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $7.163 billion (30 czerwiec 2007)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Mark LANGDALE


embassy: Calle 120 Avenida O, Pavas, San Jose


mailing address: APO AA 34020


telephone: [506] 519-2000


FAX: [506] 519-2305
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Tomas DUENAS


chancery: 2114 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 234-2945


FAX: [1] (202) 265-4795


consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Hammond (temporary location w Louisiana), Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Juan (Portoryko), Tampa (temporarily closed), Washington, DC


consulate(s): San Francisco
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje in wrzesien 2005, Kostaryka took its case before the ICJ to advocate the navigation, security, and commercial rights of Kostarykan vessels using the Río San Juan over which Nikaragua retains sovereignty
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $29.51 million (2005)
Ekonomia Kostaryka's basically stable economy depends on tourism, agriculture, and electronics exports. Poverty has remained at roughly 20% dla nearly 20 years, and the strong social safety net that had been put into place by the government has eroded due to increased financial constraints on government expenditures. Immigration from Nikaragua has increasingly become a concern dla the government. The estimated 300,000-500,000 Nikaraguans estimated to be w Kostaryka legally and illegally are an important source of (mostly unskilled) labor, but also place heavy demands on the social welfare system. Foreign investors remain attracted by the country's political stability and high education levels, as well as the fiscal incentives offered w the free-trade zones. Eksport have become more diversified w the past 10 years due to the growth of the high-tech manufacturing sector, which is dominated by the microprocessor industry. Tourism continues to bring w foreign exchange, as Kostaryka's impressive biodiversity makes it a key destination dla ecotourism. The government continues to grapple z its large internal and external deficits and sizable internal debt. Reducing inflation remains a difficult problem because of rising import prices, labor market rigidities, and fiscal deficits. Tax and public expenditure reforms will be necessary to close the budget gap. In pazdziernik 2007, a national referendum voted w favor of the US-Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA). CAFTA implementation needs to be completed by marzec 1, 2008 and would result w an improved investment climate.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 7.776 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 70 million kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 81 million kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 8.349 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Ocean Spokojny 0 m


highest point: Cerro Chirripo 3,810 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy deforestation and land use change, largely a result of the clearing of land dla cattle ranching and agriculture; soil erosion; coastal marine pollution; fisheries protection; solid waste management; air pollution
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands, Whaling


signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Grupy etniczne white (including mestizo) 94%, black 3%, Amerindian 1%, Chinese 1%, other 1%
Kurs waluty Kostarykan colones per US dollar - 519.53 (2007), 511.3 (2006), 477.79 (2005), 437.91 (2004), 398.66 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Oscar ARIAS Sanchez (since 8 maj 2006); First Vice President Laura CHINCHILLA (since 8 maj 2006); Second Vice President (vacant); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Oscar ARIAS Sanchez (since 8 maj 2006); First Vice President Laura CHINCHILLA (since 8 maj 2006); Second Vice President (vacant)


cabinet: Cabinet selected by the president


elections: president and vice presidents elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla a single four-year term; election last held 5 luty 2006 (next to be held w luty 2010)


election results: Oscar ARIAS Sanchez elected president; percent of vote - Oscar ARIAS Sanchez (PLN) 40.9%; Otton SOLIS (PAC) 39.8%, Otto GUEVARA Guth (PML) 8%, Ricardo TOLEDO (PUSC) 3%
Eksport 70 million kWh (2005)
Eksport $9.232 billion (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 2,998 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary bananas, pineapples, coffee, melons, ornamental plants, sugar; seafood; electronic components, medical equipment
Eksport - partnerzy US 27.5%, Holandia 12.2%, Chiny 11.7%, UK 6.2%, Meksyk 5.8% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi five horizontal bands of blue (top), white, red (double width), white, and blue, z the coat of arms w a white elliptical disk on the hoist side of the red band; above the coat of arms a light blue ribbon contains the words, AMERICA CENTRAL, and just below it near the top of the coat of arms is a white ribbon z the words, REPUBLICA COSTA RICA
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 8.6%


industry: 29.4%


services: 62.1% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 6.1% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 10 00 N, 84 00 W
Polozenie geograficzne four volcanoes, two of them active, rise near the capital of San Jose w the center of the country; one of the volcanoes, Irazu, erupted destructively w 1963-65
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 1%


highest 10%: 37.4% (2003)
Narkotyki transshipment country dla cocaine and heroin from South America; illicit production of cannabis w remote areas; domestic cocaine consumption, particularly crack cocaine, is rising; significant consumption of amphetamines
Import 81 million kWh (2005)
Import $11.84 billion (2007 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2005)
Import 43,640 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary raw materials, consumer goods, capital equipment, petroleum, construction materials
Import - partnerzy US 41.2%, Wenezuela 5.4%, Meksyk 5.2%, Irlandia 5%, Japonia 4.9%, Brazylia 4.3%, Chiny 4.1% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 15 wrzesien 1821 (from Hiszpania)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 7% (2007 est.)
Przemysl microprocessors, food processing, medical equipment, textiles and clothing, construction materials, fertilizer, plastic products
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 9.45 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 10.32 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 8.53 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 9.3% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji BCIE, CACM, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA (observer), MIGA, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 1,080 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (22 justices are elected dla renewable eight-year terms by the Legislative Assembly)
Sila robocza 1.946 million


note: this official estimate excludes Nikaraguans living w Kostaryka (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 14%


industry: 22%


services: 64% (2006 est.)
Granica total: 639 km


border countries: Nikaragua 309 km, Panama 330 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 4.4%


permanent crops: 5.87%


other: 89.73% (2005)
Jezyki Spanish (official), English
System prawny based on Spanish civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts w the Supreme Court; has accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea Legislativa (57 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote to serve four-year terms)


elections: last held 5 luty 2006 (next to be held w luty 2010)


election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PLN 25, PAC 17, PML 6, PUSC 5, PASE 1, PFA 1, PRN 1, PUN 1
Zywotnosc total population: 77.21 years


male: 74.61 years


female: 79.94 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 96%


male: 95.9%


female: 96.1% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Central America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Ocean Spokojny, between Nikaragua and Panama
Lokalizacja na mapie Central America and the Caribbean
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


continental shelf: 200 nm
Flota handlowa total: 1 ship (1000 GRT or over) 1,058 GRT/255 DWT


by type: passenger/cargo 1 (2007)
Wojsko no regular military forces; Ministry of Public Security, Government, and Police (2006)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 0.4% (2006)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 15 wrzesien (1821)
Narodowosc noun: Kostarykan(s)


adjective: Kostarykan
Naturalne zagrozenia occasional earthquakes, hurricanes along Atlantic coast; frequent flooding of lowlands at onset of rainy season and landslides; active volcanoes
Surowce naturalne hydropower
Wspolczynnik migracji 0.48 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi refined products 242 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Authentic Member from Heredia [Jose SALAS]; Citizen Action Party or PAC [Epsy CAMPBELL Barr]; Kostarykan Renovation Party or PRC [Gerardo Justo OROZCO Alvarez]; Democratic Force Party or PFD [Marco NUNEZ Gonzalez]; General Union Party or PUGEN [Carlos Alberto FERNANDEZ Vega]; Homeland First or PP [Juan Jose VARGAS Fallas]; Independent Worker Party or PIO [Jose Alberto CUBERO Carmona]; Libertarian Movement Party or PML [Otto GUEVARA Guth]; National Christian Alliance Party or ANC [Juan Carlos CHAVEZ Mora]; National Integration Party or PIN [Walter MUNOZ Cespedes]; National Liberation Party or PLN [Francisco Antonio PACHECO Fernandez]; National Patriotic Party or PPN [Daniel Enrique REYNOLDS Vargas]; National Restoration Party or PRN [Fabio Enrique DELGADO Hernandez]; National Union Party or PUN [Arturo ACOSTA Mora]; Nationalist Democratic Alliance or ADN [Jose Miguel VILLALOBOS Umana]; Patriotic Union or UP [Jose Miguel CORRALES Bolanos]; Social Christian Unity Party or PUSC [Luis FISHMAN Zonzinski]; Union dla Change Party or UPC [Antonio ALVAREZ Desanti]; United Leftist Coalition or IU [Humberto VARGAS Carbonel]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Authentic Confederation of Democratic Workers or CATD (Communist Party affiliate); Chamber of Coffee Growers; Confederated Union of Workers or CUT (Communist Party affiliate); Kostarykan Confederation of Democratic Workers or CCTD (Liberation Party affiliate); Kostarykan Exporter's Chamber or CADEXCO; Kostarykan Solidarity Movement; Kostarykan Union of Private Sector Enterprises or UCCAEP [Rafael CARRILLO]; Federation of Public Service Workers or FTSP; National Association dla Economic Development or ANFE; National Association of Educators or ANDE; National Association of Public and Private Employees or ANEP [Albino VARGAS]; Rerum Novarum or CTRN (PLN affiliate) [Gilbert BROWN]
Ludnosc 4,133,884 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 18% (2004 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 1.412% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 65, FM 51, shortwave 19 (2002)
Linie kolejowe total: 278 km


narrow gauge: 278 km 1.067-m gauge


note: none of the railway network is w use (2007)
Religie Roman Catholic 76.3%, Evangelical 13.7%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1.3%, other Protestant 0.7%, other 4.8%, none 3.2%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.048 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.023 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.866 male(s)/female


total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
System telefoniczny general assessment: good domestic telephone service w terms of breadth of coverage; restricted cellular telephone service; state-run monopoly provider is struggling z the demand dla new lines, resulting w long waiting times


domestic: point-to-point and point-to-multi-point microwave, fiber-optic, and coaxial cable link rural areas; Internet service is available


international: country code - 506; landing point dla the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) fiber-optic telecommunications submarine cable and the MAYA-1 submarine cable that provide links to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; connected to Central American Microwave System; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki) (2007)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 1.351 million (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 1.444 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 20 (plus 43 repeaters) (2002)
Uksztaltowanie terenu coastal plains separated by rugged mountains including over 100 volcanic cones, of which several are major volcanoes
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 2.21 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 5.5% (2007 est.)
Drogi wodne 730 km (seasonally navigable by small craft) (2007)
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