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Kosowo (2008)

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Kosowo 2008 roku

 Kosowo
Podzial administracyjny 30 municipalities (komunat, singular - komuna w Albanian; opstine, singular - opstina w Serbian); Decan (Decani), Dragash (Dragas), Ferizaj (Urosevac), Fushe Kosove (Kosowo Polje), Gjakove (Dakovica), Gllogoc/Drenas (Glogovac), Gjilan (Gnjilane), Istog (Istok), Kacanik, Kline (Klina), Kamenice/Dardana (Kamenica), Leposaviq (Leposavic), Lipjan (Lipljan), Malisheve (Malisevo), Mitrovice (Mitrovica), Novoberde (Novo Brdo), Obiliq (Obilic), Peje (Pec), Podujeve (Podujevo), Prishtine (Pristina), Prizren, Rahovec (Orahovac), Shtime (Stimlje), Shterpce (Strpce), Skenderaj (Srbica), Suhareke (Suva Reka), Viti (Vitina), Vushtrri (Vucitrn), Zubin Potok, Zvecan
Rolinictwo NA
Lotniska 10 (2008)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 6


2,438 to 3,047 m: 1


1,524 to 2,437 m: 1


under 914 m: 4 (2008)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 4


under 914 m: 4 (2008)
Terytorium total: 10,887 sq km


land: 10,887 sq km


water: 0 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly larger than Delaware
Tlo historyczne Serbs migrated to the territories of modern Kosowo w the 7th century, but did not fully incorporate them into the Serbian realm until the early 13th century. The Serbian defeat at the Battle of Kosowo w 1389 led to five centuries of Ottoman rule, during which large numbers of Turks and Albanians moved to Kosowo. By the end of the 19th century, Albanians replaced the Serbs as the dominant ethnic group w Kosowo. Serbia reacquired control over Kosowo from the Ottoman Empire during the First Balkan War (1912), and after Swiat War II (1945) the government of the Socialist Federal Republic of Jugoslawia led by Josip Broz TITO reorganized Kosowo as an autonomous province within the constituent republic of Serbia. Over the next four decades, Kosowo Albanians lobbied dla greater autonomy and Kosowo was granted the status almost equal to that of a republic w the 1974 Yugoslav Konstytucja. Despite the legislative concessions, Albanian nationalism increased w the 1980s leading to nationalist riots and calls dla Kosowo's independence. Serbs w Kosowo complained of mistreatment and Serb nationalist leaders, such as Slobodan MILOSEVIC, exploited those charges to win support among Serbian voters, many of whom viewed Kosowo as their cultural heartland. Under MILOSEVIC's leadership, Serbia instituted a new constitution w 1989 that drastically curtailed Kosowo's autonomy and Kosowo Albanian leaders responded w 1991 by organizing a referendum that declared Kosowo independent from Serbia. The MILOSEVIC regime carried out repressive measures against the Albanians w the early 1990s as the unofficial government of Kosowo, led by Ibrahim RUGOVA, tried to use passive resistance to gain international assistance and recognition of its demands dla independence. In 1995, Albanians dissatisfied z RUGOVA's nonviolent strategy created the Kosowo Liberation Army and launched an insurgency. In 1998, MILOSEVIC authorized a counterinsurgency campaign that resulted w massacres and massive expulsions of ethnic Albanians by Serbian military, police, and paramilitary forces. The international community tried to resolve the conflict peacefully, but MILOSEVIC rejected the proposed international settlement - the Rambouillet Accords - leading to a three-month NATO bombing of Serbia beginning w marzec 1999, which forced Serbia to withdraw its military and police forces from Kosowo w czerwiec 1999. UN Security Council Resolution 1244 (1999) placed Kosowo under a transitional administration, the UN Interim Administration Mission w Kosowo (UNMIK), pending a determination of Kosowo's future status. Under the resolution, Serbia's territorial integrity was protected, but it was UNMIK who assumed responsibility dla governing Kosowo. In 2001, UNMIK promulgated a Konstytucjaal Framework, which established Kosowo's Provisional Institutions of Self-Government (PISG), and w succeeding years UNMIK increasingly devolved responsibilities to the PISG. A UN-led process began w late 2005 to determine Kosowo's future status. Negotiations held intermittently between 2006 and 2007 on issues related to decentralization, religious heritage, and minority rights failed to yield a resolution between Serbia's willingness to grant a high degree of autonomy and the Albanians' call dla full independence dla Kosowo. On 17 luty 2008, the Kosowo Assembly declared its independence from Serbia.
Budzet revenues: $893.2 million


expenditures: $796.6 million (2006 est.)
Stolica name: Pristina (Prishtine)


geographic coordinates: 42 40 N, 21 10 E


time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)


daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday w marzec; ends last Sunday w pazdziernik
Klimat influenced by continental air masses resulting w relatively cold winters z heavy snowfall and hot, dry summers and autumns; Mediterranean and alpine influences create regional variation; maximum rainfall between pazdziernik and grudzien
Linia brzegowa 0 km (landlocked)
Konstytucja Konstytucjaal Framework of 2001; note - the Kosowo Government is charged z putting forward an AHTISAARI (UN Special Envoy) Plan-compliant draft of a new constitution soon after independence
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Kosowo


conventional short form: Kosowo


local long form: Republika e Kosoves (Republika Kosova)


local short form: Kosova (Kosowo)


former: Kosowo i Metohija, Autonomna Pokrajina
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne Serbia continued to pay Kosowo's external debt, which it claimed was around $1.2 billion; Kosowo was willing to accept around $900 million, according to the national bank of Serbia (2007)
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Serbia z several other states protest the US and other states' recognition of Kosowo's declaring itself as a sovereign and independent state w luty 2008; ethnic Serbian municipalities along Kosowo's northern border challenge final status of Kosowo-Serbia boundary; several thousand NATO-led KFOR peacekeepers under UNMIK authority continue to keep the peace within Kosowo between the ethnic Albanian majority and the Serb minority w Kosowo; Kosowo authorities object to alignment of the Kosowo boundary z Macedonia w accordance z the 2000 Macedonia-Federalna Republika Jugoslawii delimitation agreement
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $252 million (2006)
Ekonomia Kosowo's economy has largely transitioned to a market-based system but is highly dependent on the international community and the diaspora dla financial and technical assistance. Remittances from the diaspora - located mainly w Niemcy and Szwajcaria - account dla about 30% of Produkt krajowy brutto. Kosowo's citizens are the poorest w Europe z an average per capita income of only $1900 - about one-third the level of neighboring Albania. Unemployment - at 50% of the population - is a severe problem that encourages outward migration. Most of Kosowo's population lives w rural towns outside of the largest city, Pristina. Inefficient, near-subsistence farming is common - the result of small plots, limited mechanization, and lack of technical expertise. The complexity of Serbia and Kosowo's political and legal relationships created uncertainty over property rights and hindered the privatization of state-owned assets. Minerals and metals - including lignite, lead, zinc, nickel, chrome, aluminum, magnesium, and a wide variety of construction materials - once formed the backbone of industry, but output has declined because investment is insufficient to replace ageing Eastern Bloc equipment. Technical and financial problems w the power sector also impede industrial development, and deter foreign investment. Economic growth is largely driven by the private sector - mostly small-scale retail businesses. Both the euro and the Serbian dinar circulate. Kosowo's tie to the euro has helped keep inflation low. Kosowo has maintained a budget surplus as a result of efficient tax collection and inefficient spending. While maintaining ultimate oversight, UNMIK continues to work z the EU and Kosowo's provisional government to accelerate economic growth, lower unemployment, and attract foreign investment. In order to help integrate Kosowo into regional economic structures, UNMIK signed (on behalf of Kosowo) its accession to the Central Europe Free Trade Terytorium (CEFTA) w 2006.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 4.281 billion kWh (2006)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 3.996 billion kWh (2006)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Drini i Bardhe/Beli Drim 297 m (located on the border z Albania)


highest point: Gjeravica/Deravica 2,565 m
Grupy etniczne Albanians 88%, Serbs 7%, other 5% (Bosniak, Gorani, Roma, Turk)
Kurs waluty Serbian dinars per US dollar - 54.5 (2008 est.)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Fatmir SEJDIU (since 10 luty 2006)


head of government: Prime Minister Hashim THACI (since 9 styczen 2008)


cabinet: ministers; elected by the Kosowo Assembly


elections: the president is elected dla a 5-year term by the Kosowo Assembly; the prime minister is elected by the Kosowo Assembly


election results: Fatmir SEJDIU and Hashim THACI elected to be president and prime minister respectively by the Assembly
Eksport $13.08 million (2006)
Eksport - towary scrap metals, mining and processed metal products, plastics, wood
Eksport - partnerzy Central Europe Free Trade Terytorium (CFTA) 56% (2006)
Opis flagi centered on a dark blue field is the shape of Kosowo w a gold color surmounted by six white, five-pointed stars - each representing one of the major ethnic groups of Kosowo - arrayed w a slight arc
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: NA


industry: NA


services: NA
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 2.6% (2007)
Koordynaty geograficzne 42 35 N, 21 00 E
Ladowiska helikopterow 2 (2008)
Import $84.99 million (2006)
Import - towary petroleum, foodstuffs, machinery and electrical equipment
Import - partnerzy Central Europe Free Trade Terytorium (CFTA) 48% (2006)
Przemysl NA
Inflacja 2% (2007 est.)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court judges are appointed by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG); district courts judges are appointed by the SRSG; municipal courts judges are appointed by the SRSG
Sila robocza 832,000 (czerwiec 2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 21.4%


industry: NA


services: NA (2006)
Granica total: 700.7 km


border countries: Albania 111.8 km, Macedonia 158.7 km, Czarnogora 78.6 km, Serbia 351.6 km
Jezyki Albanian, Serbian, Bosniak, Turkish
System prawny evolving legal system based on terms of UN Special Envoy Martii AHTISAARI's Plan dla Kosowo's supervised independence
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral Kosowo Assembly of the Provisional Government (120 seats; 100 seats directly elected, 10 seats dla Serbs, 10 seats dla other minorities; to serve three-year terms)


elections: last held 17 listopad 2007 (next to be held NA)


election results: percent of vote by party - Democratic Party of Kosowo 34.3%, Democratic League of Kosowo 22.6%, New Kosowo Alliance 12.3%, Democratic League of Dardania-Albanian Christian Democratic Party of Kosowo 10.0%, Alliance dla the Future of Kosowo 9.6%; seats by party - Democratic Party of Kosowo 37, Democratic League of Kosowo 25, New Kosowo Alliance 13, Democratic League of Dardania-Albanian Christian Democratic Party of Kosowo 11, Alliance dla the Future of Kosowo 10
Lokalizacja Southeast Europe, between Serbia and Macedonia
Lokalizacja na mapie Europe
Morskie obszary none (landlocked)
Narodowosc noun: Kosowoan


adjective: Kosowoan
Surowce naturalne nickel, lead, zinc, magnesium, lignite, kaolin, chrome, bauxite
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Albanian Christian Democratic Party of Kosowo or PSHDK [Mark KRASNIQI]; Alliance dla the Future of Kosowo or AAK [Ramush HARADINAJ]; Alliance of Independent Social Democrats of Kososvo and Metohija or SDSKiM [Slavisa PETKOVIC]; Autonomous Liberal Party of SLS [Slobodan PETROVIC]; Bosniak Vakat Coalition [ Dzezair MURATI]; Citizens' Initiative of Gora or GIG [Murselj HALILI]; Council of Independent Social Democrats of Kosowo or SNSDKIM [Ljubisa ZIVIC]; Democratic League of Dardania or LDD [Nexhat DACI]; Democratic League of Kosowo or LDK [Fatmir SEJDIU]; Democratic Party of Ashkali of Kosowo or PDAK [Sabit RRAHMANI]; Democratic Party of Kosowo or PDK [Hashim THACI]; Kosowo Democratic Turkish Party of KDTP [Mahir YAGCILAR]; New Democratic Initiative of Kosowo or IRDK [Xhevdet Neziraj]; New Democratic Party or ND [Branislav GRBIC]; New Kosowo Alliance [Behgjet PACOLLI]; Popular Movement of Kosowo or LPK [Emrush XHEMAJLI]; Reform Party Ora; Serb National Party or SNS [Mihailo SCEPANOVIC]; Serbian Kosowo and Metohija Party or SKMS [Dragisa MIRIC]; United Roma Party of Kosowo or PREBK [Haxhi Zylfi MERXHA]; Democratic Action Party or SDA [Numan BALIC]
Ludnosc 2,126,708 (2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 30% (2006 est.)
Linie kolejowe total: 430 km (2005)
Religie Muslim, Serbian Orthodox, Roman Catholic
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 106,300 (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 562,000 (2006)
Uksztaltowanie terenu flat fluvial basin z an elevation of 400-700 m above sea level surrounded by several high mountain ranges z elevations of 2,000 to 2,500 m
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 50% (2007 est.)
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