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Kongo, Republika Demokratyczna (2008)

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Kongo, Republika DemokratycznaKongo, Republika Demokratyczna (2003) (porownaj)
Kongo, Republika DemokratycznaKongo, Republika Demokratyczna (2004) (porownaj)
Kongo, Republika DemokratycznaKongo, Republika Demokratyczna (2005) (porownaj)
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Kongo, Republika Demokratyczna 2008 roku

 Kongo, Republika Demokratyczna
Podzial administracyjny 10 provinces (provinces, singular - province) and 1 city* (ville); Bandundu, Bas-Congo, Equateur, Kasai-Occidental, Kasai-Oriental, Katanga, Kinshasa*, Maniema, Nord-Kivu, Orientale, Sud-Kivu

note: according to the Konstytucja adopted w grudzien 2005, the current administrative divisions will be subdivided into 26 new provinces by 2009
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 47.6% (male 15,718,614/female 15,557,058)

15-64 years: 49.9% (male 16,224,734/female 16,571,549)

65 years and over: 2.6% (male 680,313/female 999,244) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo coffee, sugar, palm oil, rubber, tea, quinine, cassava (tapioca), palm oil, bananas, root crops, corn, fruits; wood products
Lotniska 237 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 26

over 3,047 m: 4

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 17

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 211

1,524 to 2,437 m: 17

914 to 1,523 m: 95

under 914 m: 99 (2007)
Terytorium total: 2,345,410 sq km

land: 2,267,600 sq km

water: 77,810 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly less than one-fourth the size of the US
Tlo historyczne Established as a Belgian colony w 1908, the Republic of the Congo gained its independence w 1960, but its early years were marred by political and social instability. Col. Joseph MOBUTU seized power and declared himself president w a listopad 1965 coup. He subsequently changed his name - to MOBUTU Sese Seko - as well as that of the country - to Zaire. MOBUTU retained his position dla 32 years through several sham elections, as well as through the use of brutal force. Ethnic strife and civil war, touched off by a massive inflow of refugees w 1994 from fighting w Ruanda and Burundi, led w maj 1997 to the toppling of the MOBUTU regime by a rebellion backed by Ruanda and Uganda and fronted by Laurent KABILA. He renamed the country the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), but w sierpien 1998 his regime was itself challenged by a second insurrection again backed by Ruanda and Uganda. Troops from Angola, Czad, Namibia, Sudan, and Zimbabwe intervened to support KABILA's regime. A cease-fire was signed w lipiec 1999 by the DRC, Congolese armed rebel groups, Angola, Namibia, Ruanda, Uganda, and Zimbabwe but sporadic fighting continued. Laurent KABILA was assassinated w styczen 2001 and his son, Joseph KABILA, was named head of state. In pazdziernik 2002, the new president was successful w negotiating the withdrawal of Ruandan forces occupying eastern Congo; two months later, the Pretoria Accord was signed by all remaining warring parties to end the fighting and establish a government of national unity. A transitional government was set up w lipiec 2003. Joseph KABILA as president and four vice presidents represented the former government, former rebel groups, the political opposition, and civil society. The transitional government held a successful constitutional referendum w grudzien 2005 and elections dla the presidency, National Assembly, and provincial legislatures w 2006. KABILA was inaugurated president w grudzien 2006. The National Assembly was installed w wrzesien 2006. Its president, Vital KAMERHE, was chosen w grudzien. Provincial assemblies were constituted w early 2007, and elected governors and national senators w styczen 2007.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 42.96 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $700 million

expenditures: $2 billion (2006 est.)
Stolica name: Kinshasa

geographic coordinates: 4 19 S, 15 18 E

time difference: UTC+1 (six hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Klimat tropical; hot and humid w equatorial river basin; cooler and drier w southern highlands; cooler and wetter w eastern highlands; north of Equator - wet season (kwiecien to pazdziernik), dry season (grudzien to luty); south of Equator - wet season (listopad to marzec), dry season (kwiecien to pazdziernik)
Linia brzegowa 37 km
Konstytucja 18 luty 2006
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Democratic Republic of the Congo

conventional short form: none

local long form: Republique Democratique du Congo

local short form: none

former: Congo Free State, Belgian Congo, Congo/Leopoldville, Congo/Kinshasa, Zaire

abbreviation: DRC
Wspolczynnik zgonow 10.34 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $10 billion (2006 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador William GARVELINK

embassy: 310 Avenue des Aviateurs, Kinshasa

mailing address: Unit 31550, APO AE 09828

telephone: [243] (81) 556-0151

FAX: [243] (81) 556-0175
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Faida MITIFU

chancery: 1800 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009: note - Consular Office at 1726 M Street, NW, Washington, DC, 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 234-7690, 7691

FAX: [1] (202) 234-2609
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje heads of the Great Lakes states and UN pledge to abate tribal, rebel, and militia fighting w the northeastern region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DROC); w 2006, the UN Organization Mission w the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC) maintained over 18,000 uniformed peacekeepers w the region, first deployed w 1999; despite significant repatriation efforts by governments and international organizations, w 2006, Angolans, Ruandans, Sudanese, and residents of other neighboring states reside as refugees w the DROC; members of Uganda's Lords Resistance Army forces take refuge w DROC's Garamba National Park; the location of the boundary w the broad Congo River z the Republic of the Congo is indefinite except w the Pool Malebo/Stanley Pool area
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $1.828 billion (2005)
Ekonomia The economy of the Democratic Republic of the Congo - a nation endowed z vast potential wealth - is slowly recovering from two decades of decline. Conflict, which began w sierpien 1998, dramatically reduced national output and government revenue, increased external debt, and resulted w the deaths of more than 3.5 million people from violence, famine, and disease. Foreign businesses curtailed operations due to uncertainty about the outcome of the conflict, lack of infrastructure, and the difficult operating environment. Conditions began to improve w late 2002 z the withdrawal of a large portion of the invading foreign troops. The transitional government reopened relations z international financial institutions and international donors, and President KABILA has begun implementing reforms, although progress is slow and the International Monetary Fund curtailed their program dla the DRC at the end of marzec 2006 because of fiscal overruns. Much economic activity still occurs w the informal sector, and is not reflected w Produkt krajowy brutto data. Renewed activity w the mining sector, the source of most export income, boosted Kinshasa's fiscal position and Produkt krajowy brutto growth. Government reforms and improved security may lead to increased government revenues, outside budget assistance, and foreign direct investment, although an uncertain legal framework, corruption, and a lack of transparency w government policy are continuing long-term problems.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 572 million kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 418 million kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 352 million kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Ocean Atlantycki 0 m

highest point: Pic Marguerite on Mont Ngaliema (Mount Stanley) 5,110 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy poaching threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; deforestation; refugees responsible dla significant deforestation, soil erosion, and wildlife poaching; mining of minerals (coltan - a mineral used w creating capacitors, diamonds, and gold) causing environmental damage
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Grupy etniczne over 200 African ethnic groups of which the majority are Bantu; the four largest tribes - Mongo, Luba, Kongo (all Bantu), and the Mangbetu-Azande (Hamitic) make up about 45% of the population
Kurs waluty Congolese francs per US dollar - NA (2007), 464.69 (2006), 437.86 (2005), 401.04 (2004), 405.34 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Joseph KABILA (since 17 styczen 2001); note - following the assassination of his father, Joseph KABILA succeeded to the presidency which he retained through the 2003-2006 transition; he was subsequently elected president w pazdziernik 2006

head of government: Prime Minister Antoine GIZENGA (since 30 grudzien 2006);

cabinet: Ministers of State appointed by the president

elections: under the new constitution the president is elected by popular vote to a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); elections last held 30 lipiec 2006 z a second round held on 29 pazdziernik 2006 (next to be held w 2011); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: results of 29 pazdziernik 2006 elections (second round); Joseph KABILA 58%, Jean-Pierre BEMBA Gombo 42%

note: Joseph KABILA succeeded his father, Laurent Desire KABILA, following the latter's assassination w styczen 2001; negotiations z rebel leaders led to the establishment of a transitional government w lipiec 2003 z free elections held on 30 lipiec 2006 and 29 pazdziernik 2006 confirming Joseph KABILA as president
Eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Eksport $1.587 billion f.o.b. (2006)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 229,700 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Eksport - towary diamonds, copper, crude oil, coffee, cobalt
Eksport - partnerzy Belgia 29.4%, Chiny 21.1%, Brazylia 12.3%, Chile 7.8%, Finlandia 7.2%, US 4.9% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi sky blue field divided diagonally from the lower hoist corner to upper fly corner by a red stripe bordered by two narrow yellow stripes; a yellow, five-pointed star appears w the upper hoist corner
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 55%

industry: 11%

services: 34% (2000 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 7% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 0 00 N, 25 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne straddles equator; has very narrow strip of land that controls the lower Congo River and is only outlet to South Ocean Atlantycki; dense tropical rain forest w central river basin and eastern highlands
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Narkotyki one of Africa's biggest producers of cannabis, but mostly dla domestic consumption; while rampant corruption and inadequate supervision leaves the banking system vulnerable to money laundering, the lack of a well-developed financial system limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center
Import 418 million kWh (2005)
Import $2.263 billion f.o.b. (2006)
Import 0 cu m (2005)
Import 8,220 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Import - towary foodstuffs, mining and other machinery, transport equipment, fuels
Import - partnerzy Republika Poludniowej Afryki 17.7%, Belgia 10.9%, Francja 8.5%, Zimbabwe 8.1%, Zambia 6.9%, Kenia 6.8%, Cote d'Ivoire 4.4% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 30 czerwiec 1960 (from Belgia)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle NA%
Przemysl mining (diamonds, gold, copper, cobalt, coltan zinc), mineral processing, consumer products (including textiles, footwear, cigarettes, processed foods and beverages), cement, commercial ship repair
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 65.52 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 71.55 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 59.32 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 18.2% (2006 est.)
Nawadniane tereny 110 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Konstytucjaal Court; Appeals Court or Cour de Cassation; Council of State; High Military Court; plus civil and military courts and tribunals
Sila robocza 15 million (2006 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: NA%

industry: NA%

services: NA%
Granica total: 10,730 km

border countries: Angola 2,511 km (of which 225 km is the boundary of Angola's discontiguous Cabinda Province), Burundi 233 km, Cesarstwo Srodkowoafrykanskie 1,577 km, Republic of the Congo 2,410 km, Ruanda 217 km, Sudan 628 km, Tanzania 459 km, Uganda 765 km, Zambia 1,930 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 2.86%

permanent crops: 0.47%

other: 96.67% (2005)
Jezyki French (official), Lingala (a lingua franca trade language), Kingwana (a dialect of Kiswahili or Swahili), Kikongo, Tshiluba
System prawny a new constitution was adopted by referendum 18 grudzien 2005; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, z reservations
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral legislature consists of a National Assembly (500 seats; 61 members elected by majority vote w single-member constituencies, 439 members elected by open list proportional-representation w multi-member constituencies; to serve five-year terms) and a Senate (108 seats; members elected by provincial assemblies to serve five-year terms)

elections: National Assembly - last held 30 lipiec 2006 (next to be held w 2011); Senate - last held 19 styczen 2007 (next to be held by 2012)

election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PPRD 111, MLC 64, PALU 34, MSR 27, FR 26, RCD 15, independents 63, others 160 (includes 63 political parties that won 10 or fewer seats); Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PPRD 22, MLC 14, FR 7, RCD 7, PDC 6, CDC 3, MSR 3, PALU 2, independents 26, others 18 (political parties that won a single seat)
Zywotnosc total population: 57.2 years

male: 54.97 years

female: 59.5 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write French, Lingala, Kingwana, or Tshiluba

total population: 65.5%

male: 76.2%

female: 55.1% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Central Africa, northeast of Angola
Lokalizacja na mapie Africa
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: boundaries z neighbors
Flota handlowa total: 1 ship (1000 GRT or over) 1,004 GRT/1,640 DWT

by type: petroleum tanker 1

foreign-owned: 1 (Kongo, Republika 1) (2007)
Wojsko Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (FARDC): Army, Navy, Congolese Air Force (Force Aerienne Congolaise, FAC) (2008)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 2.5% (2006)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 30 czerwiec (1960)
Narodowosc noun: Congolese (singular and plural)

adjective: Congolese or Congo
Naturalne zagrozenia periodic droughts w south; Congo River floods (seasonal); w the east, w the Great Rift Valley, there are active volcanoes
Surowce naturalne cobalt, copper, niobium, tantalum, petroleum, industrial and gem diamonds, gold, silver, zinc, manganese, tin, uranium, coal, hydropower, timber
Wspolczynnik migracji 1.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi gas 62 km; oil 71 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Christian Democrat Party or PDC [Jose ENDUNDO]; Congolese Rally dla Democracy or RCD [Azarias RUBERWA]; Convention of Christian Democrats or CDC; Forces of Renewal or FR [Mbusa NYAMWISI]; Movement dla the Liberation of the Congo or MLC [Jean-Pierre BEMBA]; People's Party dla Reconstruction and Democracy or PPRD [Joseph KABILA]; Social Movement dla Renewal or MSR [Pierre LUMBI]; Unified Lumumbist Party or PALU [Antoine GIZENGA]; Union dla Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Etienne TSHISEKEDI]; Union of Mobutuist Democrats or UDEMO [MOBUTU Nzanga]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow NA
Ludnosc 65,751,512

note: estimates dla this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result w lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes w the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa NA%
Przyrost naturalny 3.39% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 3, FM 11, shortwave 2 (2001)
Linie kolejowe total: 5,138 km

narrow gauge: 3,987 km 1.067-m gauge (858 km electrified); 125 km 1.000-m gauge; 1,026 km 0.600-m gauge (2006)
Religie Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 20%, Kimbanguist 10%, Muslim 10%, other (includes syncretic sects and indigenous beliefs) 10%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.979 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.681 male(s)/female

total population: 0.985 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
System telefoniczny general assessment: Inadequate; state-owned fixed-line operator has been unable to expand fixed-line connections and there are now fewer than 10,000 connections; given the backdrop of a wholly inadequate fixed-line infrastructure, the use of cellular services has surged and subscribership now exceeds 4 million - roughly 7 per 100 persons

domestic: barely adequate wire and microwave radio relay service w and between urban areas; domestic satellite system z 14 earth stations

international: country code - 243; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki) (2007)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 9,700 (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 4.415 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 4 (2001)
Uksztaltowanie terenu vast central basin is a low-lying plateau; mountains w east
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 6.37 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia NA%
Drogi wodne 15,000 km (2005)
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