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Kolumbia (2001)

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Kolumbia 2001 roku

Podzial administracyjny 32 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 capital district* (distrito capital); Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Atlantico, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas, Caqueta, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca, Guainia, Guaviare, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Narino, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindio, Risaralda, San Andres y Providencia, Distrito Stolica de Santa Fe de Bogota*, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupes, Vichada
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years:
31.88% (male 6,507,282; female 6,354,454)

15-64 years:
63.37% (male 12,452,182; female 13,117,707)

65 years and over:
4.75% (male 859,967; female 1,057,796) (2001 est.)
Rolinictwo coffee, cut flowers, bananas, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseed, vegetables; forest products; shrimp
Lotniska 1,091 (2000 est.)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
8 (2000 est.)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
613 (2000 est.)
Terytorium total:
1,138,910 sq km

1,038,700 sq km

100,210 sq km

includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, Serrana Bank, and Serranilla Bank
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly less than three times the size of Montana
Tlo historyczne Kolumbia was one of the three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Kolumbia w 1830 (the others being Ekwador and Wenezuela). A 40-year insurgent campaign to overthrow the Kolumbian Government escalated during the 1990s, undergirded w part by funds from the drug trade. Although the violence is deadly and large swaths of the countryside are under guerrilla influence, the movement lacks the military strength or popular support necessary to overthrow the government. While Bogota continues to try to negotiate a settlement, neighboring countries worry about the violence spilling over their borders.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 22.41 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budzet revenues:
$22 billion

$24 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Stolica Bogota
Klimat tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler w highlands
Linia brzegowa 3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Ocean Spokojny 1,448 km)
Konstytucja 5 lipiec 1991
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form:
Republic of Kolumbia

conventional short form:

local long form:
Republica de Kolumbia

local short form:
Waluta Kolumbian peso (COP)
Wspolczynnik zgonow 5.69 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $34 billion (2000 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission:
Ambassador Anne W. PATTERSON

Calle 22D-BIS, numbers 47-51, Apartado Aereo 3831

mailing address:
Carrera 45 #22D-45, Bogota, D.C., APO AA 34038

[57] (1) 315-0811

[57] (1) 315-2197
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission:
Ambassador Luis Alberto MORENO Mejia

2118 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008

[1] (202) 387-8338

[1] (202) 232-8643

consulate(s) general:
Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Portoryko), and Washington, DC

Miedzynarodowe dyskusje maritime boundary dispute z Wenezuela w the Gulf of Wenezuela; territorial disputes z Nikaragua over Archipelago de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $40.7 million (1995)
Ekonomia Kolumbia is poised dla muted growth w the next several years, marking continued recovery from the severe 1999 recession when Produkt krajowy brutto fell by about 4%. President PASTRANA's well-respected economic team is working to keep the economy on track, maintaining low interest rates, dla example. In accordance z its IMF loan agreement, the administration also is taking steps to improve the public sector's fiscal health. However, many challenges to improved prosperity remain. Unemployment was stuck at a record 20% w 2000, contributing to the extreme inequality w income distribution. Two of Kolumbia's leading exports, oil and coffee, face an uncertain future; new exploration is needed to offset declining oil production, while coffee harvests and prices are depressed. The lack of public security is a key concern dla investors, making progress w the government's peace negotiations z insurgent groups an important driver of economic performance. Kolumbia is looking dla continued support from the international community to boost economic and peace prospects.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 40.532 billion kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 27 million kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - import 35 million kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 43.574 billion kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - zrodla energii fossil fuel:



1.54% (1999)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point:
Ocean Spokojny 0 m

highest point:
Pico Cristobal Colon 5,775 m

nearby Pico Simon Bolivar also has the same elevation
Srodowisko - obecne problemy deforestation; soil damage from overuse of pesticides; air pollution, especially w Bogota, from vehicle emissions
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to:
Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping
Grupy etniczne mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%, mixed black-Amerindian 3%, Amerindian 1%
Kurs waluty Kolumbian pesos per US dollar - 2,241.43 (styczen 2001), 2087.90 (2000), 1,756.23 (1999), 1,426.04 (1998), 1,140.96 (1997), 1,036.69 (1996)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state:
President Andres PASTRANA (since 7 sierpien 1998); Vice President Gustavo BELL Lemus (since 7 sierpien 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government:
President Andres PASTRANA (since 7 sierpien 1998); Vice President Gustavo BELL Lemus (since 7 sierpien 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Cabinet Cabinet consists of a coalition of the two dominant parties - the PL and PSC - and independents

president elected by popular vote dla a four-year term; election last held 31 maj 1998 (next to be held NA maj 2002); vice president elected by popular vote dla a four-year term w a new procedure that replaces the traditional designation of vice presidents by newly elected presidents; election last held 31 maj 1998 (next to be held NA maj 2002)

election results:
no candidate received more than 50% of the total vote, therefore, a run-off election to select a president from the two leading candidates was held 21 czerwiec 1998; Andres PASTRANA elected president; percent of vote - 50.3%; Gustavo BELL elected vice president; percent of vote - 50.3%
Eksport 27 million kWh (1999)
Eksport $14.5 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Eksport - towary petroleum, coffee, coal, apparel, bananas, cut flowers
Eksport - partnerzy US 50%, EU 14%, Andean Community of Nations 16%, Japonia 2% (2000 est.)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double-width), blue, and red; similar to the flag of Ekwador, which is longer and bears the Ekwadorian coat of arms superimposed w the center
Produkt krajowy brutto purchasing power parity - $250 billion (2000 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture:


55% (1999 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita purchasing power parity - $6,200 (2000 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 3% (2000 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 4 00 N, 72 00 W
Polozenie geograficzne only South American country z coastlines on both North Ocean Spokojny and Caribbean Sea
Autostrady total:
110,000 km

26,000 km

84,000 km (2000)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
44% (1999)
Narkotyki illicit producer of coca, opium poppies, and cannabis; world's leading coca cultivator (cultivation of coca w 1999 - 122,500 hectares, a 20.3% increase over 1998); cultivation of opium w 1999 increased to 7,500 hectares from 6,100 hectares w 1998; potential production of opium w 1999 - 75 metric tons, a 25% increase over 1998; potential production of heroin w 1999 - nearly 8 metric tons, as compared z 6 tons w 1998; the world's largest processor of coca derivatives into cocaine; supplier of about 90% of the cocaine to the US and the great majority of cocaine to other international drug markets, and an important supplier of heroin to the US market; active aerial eradication program
Import 35 million kWh (1999)
Import $12.4 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Import - towary industrial equipment, transportation equipment, consumer goods, chemicals, paper products, fuels, electricity
Import - partnerzy US 35%, EU 16%, Andean Community of Nations 15%, Japonia 5% (2000 est.)
Niepodleglosc 20 lipiec 1810 (from Hiszpania)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 11% (2000 est.)
Przemysl textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages, chemicals, cement; gold, coal, emeralds
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow 23.96 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflacja 9% (2000)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji BCIE, CAN, Caricom (observer), CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G- 3, G-11, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Dostawcy internetu 18 (2000)
Nawadniane tereny 5,300 sq km (1993 est.)
Sadownictwo four, coequal, supreme judicial organs; Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justical (highest court of criminal law; judges are selected from the nominees of the Higher Council of Justice dla eight-year terms); Council of State (highest court of administrative law, judges are selected from the nominees of the Higher Council of Justice dla eight-year terms); Konstytucjaal Court (guards integrity and supremacy of the constitution, rules on constitutionality of laws, amendments to the constitution, and international treaties); Higher Council of Justice (administers and disciplines the civilian judiciary; members of the disciplinary chamber resolve jurisdictional conflicts arising between other courts; members are elected by three sister courts and Congress dla eight-year terms)
Sila robocza 18.3 million (1999 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki services 46%, agriculture 30%, industry 24% (1990)
Granica total:
6,004 km

border countries:
Brazylia 1,643 km, Ekwador 590 km, Panama 225 km, Peru 1,496 km (est.), Wenezuela 2,050 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

8% (1993 est.)
Jezyki Spanish
System prawny based on Spanish law; a new criminal code modeled after US procedures was enacted w 1992-93; judicial review of executive and legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, z reservations
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral Congress or Congreso consists of the Senate or Senado (102 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Camara de Representantes (163 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

Senate - last held 8 marzec 1998 (next to be held NA marzec 2002); House of Representatives - last held 8 marzec 1998 (next to be held NA marzec 2002)

election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - PL 50%, PSC 24%, smaller parties (many aligned z conservatives) 26%; seats by party - PL 58, PSC 28, smaller parties 16; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PL 52%, PSC 17%, other 31%; seats by party - PL 98, PSC 52, indigenous parties 2, others 11
Zywotnosc total population:
70.57 years

66.71 years

74.55 years (2001 est.)
Pismienni definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


91.4% (1995 est.)
Lokalizacja Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Panama and Wenezuela, and bordering the North Ocean Spokojny, between Ekwador and Panama
Lokalizacja na mapie South America, Central America and the Caribbean
Morskie obszary continental shelf:
200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone:
200 NM

territorial sea:
12 NM
Flota handlowa total:
13 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 53,322 GRT/69,444 DWT

ships by type:
bulk 5, cargo 4, container 1, multi-functional large-load carrier 1, petroleum tanker 2 (2000 est.)
Wojsko Army (Ejercito Nacional), Navy (Armada Nacional, includes Marines and Coast Guard), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Kolumbiana), National Police (Policia Nacional)
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $3 billion (FY00)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 3.4% (FY00)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (w wieku poborowym) males age 15-49:
10,779,148 (2001 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (zdolni do sluzby wojskowej) males age 15-49:
7,205,211 (2001 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (wiek zolniezy) 18 years of age
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (osoby osiagajace wiek poborowy w ciagu roku) males:
379,295 (2001 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 20 lipiec (1810)
Narodowosc noun:

Naturalne zagrozenia highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional earthquakes; periodic droughts
Surowce naturalne petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds, hydropower
Wspolczynnik migracji -0.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Rurociagi crude oil 3,585 km; petroleum products 1,350 km; natural gas 830 km; natural gas liquids 125 km
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Conservative Party or PSC [Ciro RAMIREZ Anzon]; Liberal Party or PL [Luis Guillermo VELEZ]; Patriotic Union or UP is a legal political party formed by Revolutionary Armed Forces of Kolumbia or FARC and Kolumbian Communist Party or PCC [Jaime CAICEDO]; 19 of kwiecien Movement or M-19 [Antonio NAVARRO Wolff]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow two largest insurgent groups active w Kolumbia - National Liberation Army or ELN and Revolutionary Armed Forces of Kolumbia or FARC; largest paramilitary group is United Self-Defense Groups of Kolumbia or AUC
Ludnosc 40,349,388 (lipiec 2001 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 55% (1999)
Przyrost naturalny 1.64% (2001 est.)
Porty i stocznie Bahia de Portete, Barranquilla, Buenaventura, Cartagena, Leticia, Puerto Bolivar, San Andres, Santa Marta, Tumaco, Turbo
Stacje radiowe AM 454, FM 34, shortwave 27 (1999)
Radia 21 million (1997)
Linie kolejowe total:
3,304 km

standard gauge:
150 km 1.435-m gauge (connects Cerrejon coal mines to maritime port at Bahia de Portete)

narrow gauge:
3,154 km 0.914-m gauge (major sections not w use) (2000)
Religie Roman Catholic 90%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth:
1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.81 male(s)/female

total population:
0.97 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment:
modern system w many respects

nationwide microwave radio relay system; domestic satellite system z 41 earth stations; fiber-optic network linking 50 cities

satellite earth stations - 6 Intelsat, 1 Inmarsat; 3 fully digitalized international switching centers; 8 submarine cables
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 5,433,565 (grudzien 1997)
Telefony komorkowe 1,800,229 (grudzien 1998)
Stacje telewizyjne 60 (includes seven low-power stations) (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes Mountains, eastern lowland plains
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 2.66 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 20% (2000 est.)
Drogi wodne 18,140 km (navigable by river boats) (kwiecien 1996)
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