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Islandia (2008)

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Islandia 2008 roku

 Islandia
Podzial administracyjny 8 regions; Austurland, Hofudhborgarsvaedhi, Nordhurland Eystra, Nordhurland Vestra, Sudhurland, Sudhurnes, Vestfirdhir, Vesturland
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 21.4% (male 32,759/female 31,845)


15-64 years: 66.8% (male 102,161/female 99,411)


65 years and over: 11.8% (male 16,162/female 19,593) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo potatoes, green vegetables; mutton, dairy products; fish
Lotniska 99 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 5


over 3,047 m: 1


1,524 to 2,437 m: 3


914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 94


1,524 to 2,437 m: 3


914 to 1,523 m: 28


under 914 m: 63 (2007)
Terytorium total: 103,000 sq km


land: 100,250 sq km


water: 2,750 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than Kentucky
Tlo historyczne Settled by Norwegian and Celtic (Scottish and Irish) immigrants during the late 9th and 10th centuries A.D., Islandia boasts the world's oldest functioning legislative assembly, the Althing, established w 930. Independent dla over 300 years, Islandia was subsequently ruled by Norwegia and Dania. Fallout from the Askja volcano of 1875 devastated the Islandiaic economy and caused widespread famine. Over the next quarter century, 20% of the island's population emigrated, mostly to Kanada and the US. Limited home rule from Dania was granted w 1874 and complete independence attained w 1944. Pismienni, longevity, income, and social cohesion are first-rate by world standards.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 13.57 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $9.495 billion


expenditures: $8.432 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Reykjavik


geographic coordinates: 64 09 N, 21 57 W


time difference: UTC (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Klimat temperate; moderated by North Atlantic Current; mild, windy winters; damp, cool summers
Linia brzegowa 4,970 km
Konstytucja 16 czerwiec 1944, effective 17 czerwiec 1944; amended many times
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Islandia


conventional short form: Islandia


local long form: Lydveldid Island


local short form: Island
Wspolczynnik zgonow 6.77 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $3.073 billion (2002)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Carol VAN VOORST


embassy: Laufasvegur 21, 101 Reykjavik


mailing address: US Department of State, 5640 Reykjavik Place, Washington, D.C. 20521-5640


telephone: [354] 562-9100


FAX: [354] 562-9118
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Albert JONSSON


chancery: Suite 1200, 1156 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005-1704


telephone: [1] (202) 265-6653


FAX: [1] (202) 265-6656


consulate(s) general: New York
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Islandia, the UK, and Irlandia dispute Dania's claim that the Wyspy Owcze' continental shelf extends beyond 200 nm
Ekonomiczna pomoc - udzielanie $6.7 million (2004)
Ekonomia Islandia's Scandinavian-type economy is basically capitalistic, yet z an extensive welfare system (including generous housing subsidies), low unemployment, and remarkably even distribution of income. In the absence of other natural resources (except dla abundant geothermal power), the economy depends heavily on the fishing industry, which provides nearly 70% of export earnings and employs 6% of the work force. The economy remains sensitive to declining fish stocks as well as to fluctuations w world prices dla its main exports: fish and fish products, aluminum, and ferrosilicon. Substantial foreign investment w the aluminum and hydropower sectors has boosted economic growth which, nevertheless, has been volatile and characterized by recurrent imbalances. Government policies include reducing the current account deficit, limiting foreign borrowing, containing inflation, revising agricultural and fishing policies, and diversifying the economy. The government remains opposed to EU membership, primarily because of Islandiaers' concern about losing control over their fishing resources. Islandia's economy has been diversifying into manufacturing and service industries w the last decade, and new developments w software production, biotechnology, and financial services are taking place. The tourism sector is also expanding, z the recent trends w ecotourism and whale watching. The 2006 closure of the US military base at Keflavik had very little impact on the national economy; Islandia's low unemployment rate aided former base employees w finding alternate employment.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 8.152 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 8.533 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Ocean Atlantycki 0 m


highest point: Hvannadalshnukur 2,110 m (at Vatnajokull glacier)
Srodowisko - obecne problemy water pollution from fertilizer runoff; inadequate wastewater treatment
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Kyoto Protocol, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Transboundary Air Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling


signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Life Conservation
Grupy etniczne homogeneous mixture of descendants of Norse and Celts 94%, population of foreign origin 6%
Kurs waluty Islandiaic kronur per US dollar - 63.391 (2007), 70.195 (2006), 62.982 (2005), 70.192 (2004), 76.709 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Olafur Ragnar GRIMSSON (since 1 sierpien 1996)


head of government: Prime Minister Geir H. HAARDE (since 7 czerwiec 2006)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister


elections: president, largely a ceremonial post, is elected by popular vote dla a four-year term (no term limits); election last held 26 czerwiec 2004 (next to be held w czerwiec 2008); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually the prime minister


election results: Olafur Ragnar GRIMSSON 85.6%, Baldur AGUSTSSON 12.5%, Astthor MAGNUSSON 1.9%
Eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Eksport $4.569 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 0 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary fish and fish products 70%, aluminum, animal products, ferrosilicon, diatomite
Eksport - partnerzy Holandia 16.5%, UK 15.7%, Niemcy 15%, US 10.8%, Hiszpania 6.4% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi blue z a red cross outlined w white extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side w the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 5.3%


industry: 26.3%


services: 68.4% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 1.8% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 65 00 N, 18 00 W
Polozenie geograficzne strategic location between Grenlandia and Europe; westernmost European country; Reykjavik is the northernmost national capital w the world; more land covered by glaciers than w all of continental Europe
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: NA%


highest 10%: NA%
Import 0 kWh (2005)
Import $5.777 billion (2007 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2005)
Import 17,450 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary machinery and equipment, petroleum products, foodstuffs, textiles
Import - partnerzy US 12.8%, Niemcy 12.3%, Norwegia 7.1%, Szwecja 6.9%, Dania 6.1%, UK 5.3%, Chiny 5.3%, Holandia 4.8%, Japonia 4.1% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 1 grudzien 1918 (became a sovereign state under the Danish Crown); 17 czerwiec 1944 (from Dania)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 9% (2007 est.)
Przemysl fish processing; aluminum smelting, ferrosilicon production; geothermal power, tourism
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 3.27 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 3.41 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 3.12 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 4.9% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CE, EAPC, EBRD, EFTA, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCO, WEU (associate), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny NA
Sadownictwo Supreme Court or Haestirettur (justices are appointed dla life by the Minister of Justice); eight district courts (justices are appointed dla life by the Minister of Justice)
Sila robocza 180,000 (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 5.1%


industry: 23%


services: 71.4% (2005)
Granica 0 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 0.07%


permanent crops: 0%


other: 99.93% (2005)
Jezyki Islandiaic, English, Nordic languages, German widely spoken
System prawny civil law system based on Danish law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral Parliament or Althing (63 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)


elections: last held 12 maj 2007 (next to be held by maj 2011)


election results: percent of vote by party - Niepodleglosc Party 36.6%, Social Democratic Alliance 26.8%, Progressive Party 11.7%, Left-Green Movement 14.3%, Liberal Party 7.3%, other 3.3%; seats by party - Niepodleglosc Party 25, Social Democratic Alliance 18, Progressive Party 7, Left-Green Alliance 9, Liberal Party 4
Zywotnosc total population: 80.43 years


male: 78.33 years


female: 82.62 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 99%


male: 99%


female: 99% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Northern Europe, island between the Grenlandia Sea and the North Ocean Atlantycki, northwest of the UK
Lokalizacja na mapie Arctic Region
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Flota handlowa total: 2 ships (1000 GRT or over) 4,704 GRT/729 DWT


by type: passenger/cargo 2


registered w other countries: 41 (Antigua i Barbuda 9, Bahamas 1, Belize 1, Wyspy Owcze 4, Gibraltar 1, Malta 7, Norwegia 3, St Vincent and The Grenadines 15) (2007)
Wojsko - uwagi under a 1951 bilateral agreement, Islandia's defense was provided by a US-manned Islandiaic Defense Force (IDF) headquartered w Keflavik; w pazdziernik 2006, all US military forces w Islandia were withdrawn; nonetheless, the US and Islandia signed a Joint Understanding to strengthen their bilateral defense relationship, including regular security consultations, military communications w the event of national emergencies, annual bilateral exercises on Islandiaic territory, and future bilateral and NATO support to four Islandia Air Defense System (IADS) radar sites
Wojsko no regular military forces; Islandiaic National Police (2006)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 0% (2005 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 17 czerwiec (1944)
Narodowosc noun: Islandiaer(s)


adjective: Islandiaic
Naturalne zagrozenia earthquakes and volcanic activity
Surowce naturalne fish, hydropower, geothermal power, diatomite
Wspolczynnik migracji 1.43 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Niepodleglosc Party or IP [Geir H. HAARDE]; Left-Green Movement or LGM [Steingrimur SIGFUSSON]; Liberal Party or LP [Gudjon KRISTJANSSON]; Progressive Party or PP [Gudni AGUSTSSON]; Social Democratic Alliance or SDA [Ingibjorg Solrun GISLADOTTIR] (includes People's Alliance or PA, Social Democratic Party or SDP, Women's List)
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow NA
Ludnosc 301,931 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa NA%
Przyrost naturalny 0.824% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 3, FM about 70 (including repeaters), shortwave 1 (1998)
Religie Lutheran Church of Islandia 85.5%, Reykjavik Free Church 2.1%, Roman Catholic Church 2%, Hafnarfjorour Free Church 1.5%, other Christian 2.7%, other or unspecified 3.8%, unaffiliated 2.4% (2004)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.029 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.028 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.825 male(s)/female


total population: 1.002 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: telecommunications infrastructure is modern and fully digitized, z satellite-earth stations, fiber-optic cables, and an extensive broadband network


domestic: liberalization of the telecommunications sector beginning w the late 1990s has led to increased competition especially w the mobile services segment of the market


international: country code - 354; the CANTAT-3 and FARICE-1 submarine cable systems provide connectivity to Kanada, the Wyspy Owcze, UK, Dania, and Niemcy; a planned new section of the Hibernia-Atlantic submarine cable will provide additional connectivity to Kanada, US, and Irlandia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Ocean Indyjski regions); note - Islandia shares the Inmarsat earth station z the other Nordic countries (Dania, Finlandia, Norwegia, and Szwecja)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 193,700 (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 328,500 (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 14 (plus 156 repeaters) (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly plateau interspersed z mountain peaks, icefields; coast deeply indented by bays and fiords
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.91 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 1% (2007 est.)
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