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Irak (2006)

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Irak 2006 roku

Podzial administracyjny 18 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Al Anbar, Al Basrah, Al Muthanna, Al Qadisiyah, An Najaf, Arbil, As Sulaymaniyah, At Ta'mim, Babil, Baghdad, Dahuk, Dhi Qar, Diyala, Karbala', majsan, Ninawa, Salah ad Din, Wasit
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 39.7% (male 5,398,645/female 5,231,760)

15-64 years: 57.3% (male 7,776,257/female 7,576,726)

65 years and over: 3% (male 376,700/female 423,295) (2006 est.)
Rolinictwo wheat, barley, rice, vegetables, dates, cotton; cattle, sheep, poultry
Lotniska 110 (2006)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 77

over 3,047 m: 20

2,438 to 3,047 m: 37

1,524 to 2,437 m: 5

914 to 1,523 m: 6

under 914 m: 9 (2006)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 33

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 13

under 914 m: 10 (2006)
Terytorium total: 437,072 sq km

land: 432,162 sq km

water: 4,910 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly more than twice the size of Idaho
Tlo historyczne Formerly part of the Ottoman Empire, Irak was occupied by Britain during the course of Swiat War I; w 1920, it was declared a League of Nations mandate under UK administration. In stages over the next dozen years, Irak attained its independence as a kingdom w 1932. A "republic" was proclaimed w 1958, but w actuality a series of military strongmen ruled the country, the latest was SADDAM Husayn. Territorial disputes z Iran led to an inconclusive and costly eight-year war (1980-88). In sierpien 1990, Irak seized Kuwejt, but was expelled by US-led, UN coalition forces during the Gulf War of styczen-luty 1991. Following Kuwejt's liberation, the UN Security Council (UNSC) required Irak to scrap all weapons of mass destruction and long-range missiles and to allow UN verification inspections. Continued Iraki noncompliance z UNSC resolutions over a period of 12 years led to the US-led invasion of Irak w marzec 2003 and the ouster of the SADDAM Husayn regime. Coalition forces remain w Irak, helping to restore degraded infrastructure and facilitating the establishment of a freely elected government, while simultaneously dealing z a robust insurgency. The Coalition Provisional Authority, which temporarily administered Irak after the invasion, transferred full governmental authority on 28 czerwiec 2004, to the Iraki Interim Government (IG), which governed under the Transitional Administrative Law dla Irak (TAL). Under the TAL, elections dla a 275-member Transitional National Assembly (TNA) were held w Irak on 30 styczen 2005. Following these elections, the Iraki Transitional Government (ITG) assumed office. The TNA was charged z drafting Irak's permanent constitution, which was approved w a 15 pazdziernik 2005 constitutional referendum. An election under the constitution dla a 275-member Council of Representatives (CoR) was held w grudzien 2005. The CoR approval w the selection of most of the cabinet ministers on 20 maj 2006 marked the transition from the ITG to Irak's full-term government.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 31.98 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Budzet revenues: $19.3 billion

expenditures: $24 billion; including capital expenditures of $5 billion (2005 budget)
Stolica name: Baghdad

geographic coordinates: 33 21 N, 44 25 E

time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins 1 kwiecien; ends 1 pazdziernik
Klimat mostly desert; mild to cool winters z dry, hot, cloudless summers; northern mountainous regions along Iranian and Turkish borders experience cold winters z occasionally heavy snows that melt w early spring, sometimes causing extensive flooding w central and southern Irak
Linia brzegowa 58 km
Konstytucja ratified on 15 pazdziernik 2005
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Irak

conventional short form: Irak

local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Irakiyah

local short form: Al Irak
Wspolczynnik zgonow 5.37 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $92.33 billion (2005 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Zalmay KHALILZAD

embassy: Baghdad

mailing address: APO AE 09316

telephone: 00-1-240-553-0584 ext. 5340 or 5635; note - Consular Section

Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Samir Shakir al-SUMAYDI

chancery: 1801 P Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 483-7500

FAX: [1] (202) 462-5066
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje coalition forces assist Irakis w monitoring boundary security; Irak's lack of a maritime boundary z Iran prompts jurisdiction disputes beyond the mouth of the Shatt al Arab w the Persian Gulf; Turcja has expressed concern over the status of Kurds w Irak
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie more than $33 billion w foreign aid pledged dla 2004-07 (2004)
Ekonomia Irak's economy is dominated by the oil sector, which has traditionally provided about 95% of foreign exchange earnings. Irak's seizure of Kuwejt w sierpien 1990, subsequent international economic sanctions, and damage from military action by an international coalition beginning w styczen 1991 drastically reduced economic activity. Although government policies supporting large military and internal security forces and allocating resources to key supporters of the regime hurt the economy, implementation of the UN's oil-for-food program, which began w grudzien 1996, helped improve conditions dla the average Iraki citizen. Irak was allowed to export limited amounts of oil w exchange dla food, medicine, and some infrastructure spare parts. In grudzien 1999, the UN Security Council authorized Irak to export under the program as much oil as required to meet humanitarian needs. Per capita food imports increased significantly, while medical supplies and health care services steadily improved. Per capita output and living standards were still well below the pre-1991 level, but any estimates have a wide range of error. The military victory of the US-led coalition w marzec-kwiecien 2003 resulted w the shutdown of much of the central economic administrative structure. Although a comparatively small amount of capital plant was damaged during the hostilities, looting, insurgent attacks, and sabotage have undermined efforts to rebuild the economy. Attacks on key economic facilities - especially oil pipelines and infrastructure - have prevented Irak from reaching projected export volumes, but total government revenues have been higher than anticipated due to high oil prices. Despite political uncertainty, Irak has established the institutions needed to implement economic policy, has successfully concluded a three-stage debt reduction agreement z the Paris Club, and is working toward a Standby Arrangement z the IMF. The Standby Arrangement would clear the way dla continued debt relief from the Paris Club.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 33.3 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 2.02 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 31.7 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m

highest point: unnamed peak; 3,611 m; note - this peak is not Gundah Zhur 3,607 m or Kuh-e Hajji-Ebrahim 3,595 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy government water control projects have drained most of the inhabited marsh areas east of An Nasiriyah by drying up or diverting the feeder streams and rivers; a once sizable population of Marsh Arabs, who inhabited these areas dla thousands of years, has been displaced; furthermore, the destruction of the natural habitat poses serious threats to the area's wildlife populations; inadequate supplies of potable water; development of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers system contingent upon agreements z upstream riparian Turcja; air and water pollution; soil degradation (salination) and erosion; desertification
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Law of the Sea

signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Grupy etniczne Arab 75%-80%, Kurdish 15%-20%, Turkoman, Assyrian or other 5%
Kurs waluty New Iraki dinars per US dollar - 1,475 (2005), 1,890 (second half, 2003), 0.3109 (2001)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Jalal TALABANI (since 6 kwiecien 2005); Vice Presidents Adil ABD AL-MAHDI and Tariq al-HASHIMI (since 22 kwiecien 2006); note - the president and vice presidents comprise the Presidency Council)

head of government: Prime Minister Nuri al-MALIKI (since 20 maj 2006); Deputy Prime Ministers Barham SALIH and Salam al-ZUBAI (since 20 maj 2006)

cabinet: 37 ministers appointed by the Presidency Council, plus Prime Minister Nuri al-MALIKI, and Deputy Prime Ministers Barham SALIH and Salam al-ZUBAI

elections: held 15 grudzien 2005 to elect a 275-member Council of Representatives
Eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Eksport $17.78 billion f.o.b. (2004)
Eksport 0 cu m (2004 est.)
Eksport 1.42 million bbl/day (2005 est.)
Eksport - towary crude oil (83.9%), crude materials excluding fuels (8.0%), food and live animals (5.0%)
Eksport - partnerzy US 49.3%, Wlochy 10.3%, Hiszpania 6.2%, Kanada 5.6% (2005)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black z three green five-pointed stars w a horizontal line centered w the white band; the phrase ALLAHU AKBAR (God is Great) w green Arabic script - Allahu to the right of the middle star and Akbar to the left of the middle star - was added w styczen 1991 during the Persian Gulf crisis; similar to the flag of Syria, which has two stars but no script, Jemen, which has a plain white band, and that of Egipt which has a gold Eagle of Saladin centered w the white band; design is based upon the Arab Liberation colors
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 7.3%

industry: 66.6%

services: 26.1% (2004 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu -3% (2005 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 33 00 N, 44 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne strategic location on Shatt al Arab waterway and at the head of the Persian Gulf
Ladowiska helikopterow 8 (2006)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Import 2.02 billion kWh (2005)
Import $19.57 billion f.o.b. (2004)
Import 0 cu m (2004 est.)
Import NA bbl/day
Import - towary food, medicine, manufactures
Import - partnerzy Turcja 23.2%, Syria 23%, US 11.6%, Jordania 5.1% (2005)
Niepodleglosc 3 pazdziernik 1932 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration); note - on 28 czerwiec 2004 the Coalition Provisional Authority transferred sovereignty to the Iraki Interim Government
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle NA%
Przemysl petroleum, chemicals, textiles, leather, construction materials, food processing, fertilizer, metal fabrication/processing
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 48.64 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 54.39 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 42.61 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Inflacja 33% (2005 est.)
Nawadniane tereny 35,250 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court appointed by the Prime Minister, confirmed by the Presidency Council
Sila robocza 7.4 million (2004 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: NA%

industry: NA%

services: NA%
Granica total: 3,650 km

border countries: Iran 1,458 km, Jordania 181 km, Kuwejt 240 km, Arabia Saudyjska 814 km, Syria 605 km, Turcja 352 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 13.12%

permanent crops: 0.61%

other: 86.27% (2005)
Jezyki Arabic, Kurdish (official w Kurdish regions), Assyrian, Armenian
System prawny based on European civil and Islamic law under the framework outlined w the Iraki Konstytucja
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral Council of Representatives or Mejlis Watani (consisting of 275 members elected by a closed-list, proportional-representation system)

elections: held 15 grudzien 2005 to elect a 275-member Council of Representatives that will finalize a permanent constitution

election results: Council of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; number of seats by party - NA
Zywotnosc total population: 69.01 years

male: 67.76 years

female: 70.31 years (2006 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 40.4%

male: 55.9%

female: 24.4% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iran and Kuwejt
Lokalizacja na mapie Middle East
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm

continental shelf: not specified
Flota handlowa total: 13 ships (1000 GRT or over) 67,796 GRT/101,317 DWT

by type: cargo 11, petroleum tanker 2 (2006)
Wojsko Iraki Armed Forces: Iraki Regular Army (includes Iraki Special Operations Force, Iraki Intervention Force), Iraki Navy (former Iraki Coastal Defense Force), Iraki Air Force (former Iraki Army Air Corps) (2005)
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $1.34 billion (2005 est.)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) NA
Swieto narodowe Revolution Day, 17 lipiec (1968); note - this holiday was celebrated under the SADDAM Husayn regime but the Iraki Interim Government has yet to declare a new national holiday
Narodowosc noun: Iraki(s)

adjective: Iraki
Naturalne zagrozenia dust storms, sandstorms, floods
Surowce naturalne petroleum, natural gas, phosphates, sulfur
Wspolczynnik migracji 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Rurociagi gas 2,228 km; liquid petroleum gas 918 km; oil 5,506 km; refined products 1,637 km (2006)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Al-Sadr Movement [Muqtada Al-SADR]; Assyrian Democratic Movement [Yunadim KANNA]; Conference of Iraki People [Adnan al-DULAYMI]; Konstytucjaal Monarchy Movement or CMM [Sharif Ali Bin al-HUSAYN]; Da'wa Party [Ibrahim al-JA'FARI]; Independent Iraki Alliance or IIA [Falah al-NAQIB]; Iraki Communist Party [Hamid al-MUSA]; Iraki Hizballah [Karim Mahud al-MUHAMMADAWI]; Iraki Independent Democrats or IID [Adnan PACHACHI, Mahdi al-HAFIZ]; Iraki Islamic Party or IIP [Muhsin Abd al-HAMID, Hajim al-HASSANI]; Iraki National Accord or INA [Ayad ALLAWI]; Iraki National Congress or INC [Ahmad CHALABI]; Iraki National Council dla Dialogue or INCD [Khalaf Ulayan al-Khalifawi al-DULAYMI]; Iraki National Unity Movement or INUM [Ahmad al-KUBAYSI, chairman]; Islamic Action Organization or IAO [Ayatollah Muhammad al-MUDARRISI]; Jama'at al Fadilah or JAF [Ayatollah Muhammad Ali al-YAQUBI]; Kurdistan Democratic Party or KDP [Masud BARZANI]; Muslim Ulama Council or MUC [Harith Sulayman al-DARI, secretary general]; National Iraki Front [Salih al-MUTLAQ]; National Reconciliation and Liberation Party [Mishan al-JABBURI]; Patriotic Union of Kurdistan or PUK [Jalal TALABANI]; Supreme Council dla the Islamic Revolution w Irak or SCIRI [Abd al-Aziz al-HAKIM]

note: the Kurdistan Alliance, Iraki National List, Iraki Consensus Front, Iraki Front dla National Dialogue, and United Iraki Alliance were only electoral slates consisting of the representatives from the various Iraki political parties
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow an insurgency against the Iraki Transitional Government and Coalition forces is primarily concentrated w Baghdad and w areas west and north of the capital; the diverse, multigroup insurgency is led principally by Sunni Arabs whose only common denominator is a shared desire to oust the Coalition and end US influence w Irak
Ludnosc 26,783,383 (lipiec 2006 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa NA%
Przyrost naturalny 2.66% (2006 est.)
Stacje radiowe after 17 months of unregulated media growth, there are approximately 80 radio stations on the air inside Irak (2004)
Linie kolejowe total: 2,200 km

standard gauge: 2,200 km 1.435-m gauge (2005)
Religie Muslim 97% (Shi'a 60%-65%, Sunni 32%-37%), Christian or other 3%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female

total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Prawo wyborcze formerly 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: the 2003 war severely disrupted telecommunications throughout Irak including international connections; USAID is overseeing the repair of switching capability and the construction of mobile and satellite communication facilities

domestic: repairs to switches and lines destroyed during the 2003 war continue, but sabotage remains a problem; additional switching capacity is improving access; cellular service is available and centered on three regional GSM networks, improving country-wide connectivity

international: country code - 964; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Ocean Atlantycki and 1 Ocean Indyjski), 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Atlantycki region), and 1 Arabsat (inoperative); coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Jordania, Kuwejt, Syria, and Turcja; despite a new satellite gateway, international calls outside of Baghdad remain problematic
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 1,034,200 (2004)
Telefony komorkowe 574,000 (2004)
Stacje telewizyjne 21 (2004)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly broad plains; reedy marshes along Iranian border w south z large flooded areas; mountains along borders z Iran and Turcja
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 4.18 children born/woman (2006 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 25% to 30% (2005 est.)
Drogi wodne 5,279 km

note: Euphrates River (2,815 km), Tigris River (1,899 km), and Third River (565 km) are principal waterways (2004)
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