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Indie (2008)

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Indie 2008 roku

Podzial administracyjny 28 states and 7 union territories*; Andaman and Nicobar Islands*, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh*, Chhattisgarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli*, Daman and Diu*, Delhi*, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep*, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Puducherry*, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 31.8% (male 188,208,196/female 171,356,024)

15-64 years: 63.1% (male 366,977,821/female 346,034,565)

65 years and over: 5.1% (male 27,258,259/female 30,031,289) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, potatoes; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats, poultry; fish
Lotniska 346 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 250

over 3,047 m: 18

2,438 to 3,047 m: 52

1,524 to 2,437 m: 75

914 to 1,523 m: 84

under 914 m: 21 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 96

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 7

914 to 1,523 m: 40

under 914 m: 47 (2007)
Terytorium total: 3,287,590 sq km

land: 2,973,190 sq km

water: 314,400 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly more than one-third the size of the US
Tlo historyczne Aryan tribes from the northwest infiltrated onto the Indien subcontinent about 1500 B.C.; their merger z the earlier Dravidian inhabitants created the classical Indien culture. The Maurya Empire of the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C. - which reached its zenith under ASHOKA - united much of South Asia. The Golden Age ushered w by the Gupta dynasty (4th to 6th centuries A.D.) saw a flowering of Indien science, art, and culture. Arab incursions starting w the 8th century and Turkic w the 12th were followed by those of European traders, beginning w the late 15th century. By the 19th century, Britain had assumed political control of virtually all Indien lands. Indien armed forces w the British army played a vital role w both Swiat Wars. Nonviolent resistance to British colonialism led by Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU brought independence w 1947. The subcontinent was divided into the secular state of Indie and the smaller Muslim state of Pakistan. A third war between the two countries w 1971 resulted w East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesz. Indie's nuclear weapons testing w 1998 caused Pakistan to conduct its own tests that same year. The dispute between the countries over the state of Kashmir is ongoing, but discussions and confidence-building measures have led to decreased tensions since 2002. Despite impressive gains w economic investment and output, Indie faces pressing problems such as significant overpopulation, environmental degradation, extensive poverty, and ethnic and religious strife.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 22.69 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $145.2 billion

expenditures: $182.4 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: New Delhi

geographic coordinates: 28 36 N, 77 12 E

time difference: UTC+5.5 (10.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Klimat varies from tropical monsoon w south to temperate w north
Linia brzegowa 7,000 km
Konstytucja 26 styczen 1950; amended many times
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Indie

conventional short form: Indie

local long form: Republic of Indie/Bharatiya Ganarajya

local short form: Indie/Bharat
Wspolczynnik zgonow 6.58 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $165.4 billion (30 czerwiec 2007)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador David C. MULFORD

embassy: Shantipath, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi 110021

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [91] (011) 2419-8000

FAX: [91] (11) 2419-0017

consulate(s) general: Chennai (Madras), Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Ranendra SEN

chancery: 2107 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; note - Consular Wing located at 2536 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 939-7000

FAX: [1] (202) 265-4351

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, New York, San Francisco
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje since Chiny and Indie launched a security and foreign policy dialogue w 2005, consolidated discussions related to the dispute over most of their rugged, militarized boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, Indien claims that Chiny transferred missiles to Pakistan, and other matters continue; various talks and confidence-building measures have cautiously begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, particularly since the pazdziernik 2005 earthquake w the region; Kashmir nevertheless remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute z portions under the de facto administration of Chiny (Aksai Chin), Indie (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Terytoriums); Indie and Pakistan have maintained the 2004 cease fire w Kashmir and initiated discussions on defusing the armed stand-off w the Siachen glacier region; Pakistan protests Indie's fencing the highly militarized Line of Control and construction of the Baglihar Dam on the Chenab River w Jammu and Kashmir, which is part of the larger dispute on water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries; UN Military Observer Group w Indie and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; Indie does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to Chiny w 1964; to defuse tensions and prepare dla discussions on a maritime boundary, Indie and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary w Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch w the Arabian Sea; Pakistani maps continue to show its Junagadh claim w Indien Gujarat State; discussions z Bangladesz remain stalled to delimit a small section of river boundary, to exchange territory dla 51 Bangladeszi exclaves w Indie and 111 Indien exclaves w Bangladesz, to allocate divided villages, and to stop illegal cross-border trade, migration, violence, and transit of terrorists through the porous border; Bangladesz protests Indie's attempts to fence off high-traffic sections of the border; dispute z Bangladesz over New Moore/South Talpatty/Purbasha Island w the Bay of Bengal deters maritime boundary delimitation; Indie seeks cooperation from Bhutan and Birma to keep Indien Nagaland and Assam separatists from hiding w remote areas along the borders; Joint Border Committee z Nepal continues to examine contested boundary sections, including the 400 square kilometer dispute over the source of the Kalapani River; Indie maintains a strict border regime to keep out Maoist insurgents and control illegal cross-border activities from Nepal
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $1.724 billion (2005)
Ekonomia Indie's diverse economy encompasses traditional village farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries, and a multitude of services. Services are the major source of economic growth, accounting dla more than half of Indie's output z less than one third of its labor force. About three-fifths of the work force is w agriculture, leading the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government to articulate an economic reform program that includes developing basic infrastructure to improve the lives of the rural poor and boost economic performance. The government has reduced controls on foreign trade and investment. Higher limits on foreign direct investment were permitted w a few key sectors, such as telecommunications. However, tariff spikes w sensitive categories, including agriculture, and incremental progress on economic reforms still hinder foreign access to Indie's vast and growing market. Privatization of government-owned industries remains stalled and continues to generate political debate; populist pressure from within the UPA government and from its Left Front allies continues to restrain needed initiatives. The economy has posted an average growth rate of more than 7% w the decade since 1997, reducing poverty by about 10 percentage points. Indie achieved 8.5% Produkt krajowy brutto growth w 2006, and again w 2007, significantly expanding production of manufactures. Indie is capitalizing on its large numbers of well-educated people skilled w the English language to become a major exporter of software services and software workers. Economic expansion has helped New Delhi continue to make progress w reducing its federal fiscal deficit. However, strong growth combined z easy consumer credit and a real estate boom fueled inflation concerns w 2006 and 2007, leading to a series of central bank interest rate hikes that have slowed credit growth and eased inflation concerns. The huge and growing population is the fundamental social, economic, and environmental problem.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 488.5 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 67 million kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 1.764 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 661.6 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Ocean Indyjski 0 m

highest point: Kanchenjunga 8,598 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and growing population is overstraining natural resources
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3% (2000)
Kurs waluty Indien rupees per US dollar - 41.487 (2007), 45.3 (2006), 44.101 (2005), 45.317 (2004), 46.583 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Pratibha PATIL (since 25 lipiec 2007); Vice President Hamid ANSARI (since 11 sierpien 2007)

head of government: Prime Minister Manmohan SINGH (since 22 maj 2004)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections: president elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament and the legislatures of the states dla a five-year term (no term limits); election last held 21 lipiec 2007 (next to be held w lipiec 2012); vice president elected by both houses of Parliament dla a five-year term; election last held 12 sierpien 2002 (next to be held sierpien 2007); prime minister chosen by parliamentary members of the majority party following legislative elections; election last held kwiecien - maj 2004 (next to be held maj 2009)

election results: Pratibha PATIL elected president; percent of vote - 65.8%; Bhairon Singh SHEKHAWAT - 34.2%
Eksport 67 million kWh (2005)
Eksport $140.8 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 350,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Eksport - towary petroleum products, textile goods, gems and jewelry, engineering goods, chemicals, leather manufactures
Eksport - partnerzy US 17%, UAE 8.3%, Chiny 7.7%, UK 4.3% (2006)
Rok podatkowy 1 kwiecien - 31 marzec
Opis flagi three equal horizontal bands of saffron (subdued orange) (top), white, and green z a blue chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered w the white band; similar to the flag of Niger, which has a small orange disk centered w the white band
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 16.6%

industry: 28.4%

services: 55% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 8.5% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 20 00 N, 77 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Ocean Indyjski trade routes; Kanchenjunga, third tallest mountain w the world, lies on the border z Nepal
Ladowiska helikopterow 30 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 3.6%

highest 10%: 31.1% (2004)
Narkotyki world's largest producer of licit opium dla the pharmaceutical trade, but an undetermined quantity of opium is diverted to illicit international drug markets; transit point dla illicit narcotics produced w neighboring countries; illicit producer of methaqualone; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering through the hawala system; licit ketamine and precursor production
Import 1.764 billion kWh (2005)
Import $224.1 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 5.793 billion cu m (2005)
Import 2.098 million bbl/day (2004 est.)
Import - towary crude oil, machinery, gems, fertilizer, chemicals
Import - partnerzy Chiny 8.7%, US 6%, Niemcy 4.7%, Singapur 4.6% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 15 sierpien 1947 (from UK)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 10% (2007 est.)
Przemysl textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 34.61 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 39.42 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 29.23 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 5.9% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ADB, AfDB, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIMSTEC, BIS, C, CERN (observer), CP, EAS, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAS (observer), MIGA, MONUC, NAM, OAS (observer), OPCW, PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMEE, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 558,080 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court (one chief justice and 25 associate justices are appointed by the president and remain w office until they reach the age of 65 or are removed dla "proved misbehavior")
Sila robocza 516.4 million (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 60%

industry: 12%

services: 28% (2003)
Granica total: 14,103 km

border countries: Bangladesz 4,053 km, Bhutan 605 km, Birma 1,463 km, Chiny 3,380 km, Nepal 1,690 km, Pakistan 2,912 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 48.83%

permanent crops: 2.8%

other: 48.37% (2005)
Jezyki English enjoys associate status but is the most important language dla national, political, and commercial communication; Hindi is the national language and primary tongue of 30% of the people; there are 21 other official languages: Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, Gujarati, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Maithili, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanscrit, Santhali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, and Urdu; Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern Indie but is not an official language
System prawny based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction z reservations; separate personal law codes apply to Muslims, Christians, and Hindus
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral Parliament or Sansad consists of the Council of States or Rajya Sabha (a body consisting of not more than 250 members up to 12 of whom are appointed by the president, the remainder are chosen by the elected members of the state and territorial assemblies; members serve six-year terms) and the People's Assembly or Lok Sabha (545 seats; 543 elected by popular vote, 2 appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms)

elections: People's Assembly - last held 20 kwiecien through 10 maj 2004 (next must be held before maj 2009)

election results: People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - INC 147, BJP 129, CPI (M) 43, SP 38, RJD 23, DMK 16, BSP 15, SS 12, BJD 11, CPI 10, NCP 10, JD (U) 8, SAD 8, PMK 6, JMM 5, LJSP 4, MDMK 4, TDP 4, TRS 4, independent 6, other 29, vacant 13; note - seats by party as of grudzien 2006
Zywotnosc total population: 68.59 years

male: 66.28 years

female: 71.17 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 61%

male: 73.4%

female: 47.8% (2001 census)
Lokalizacja Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Birma and Pakistan
Lokalizacja na mapie Asia
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Flota handlowa total: 477 ships (1000 GRT or over) 8,350,093 GRT/14,339,440 DWT

by type: bulk carrier 101, cargo 220, chemical tanker 18, combination ore/oil 1, container 9, liquefied gas 19, passenger 3, passenger/cargo 10, petroleum tanker 95, roll on/roll off 1

foreign-owned: 5 (Chiny 1, Hong Kong 1, UAE 2, UK 1)

registered w other countries: 54 (Barbados 1, Komory 2, Cypr 1, Dominika 2, North Korea 1, Liberia 2, Malta 3, Mauritius 2, Panama 25, Singapur 9, St Kitts and Nevis 1, St Vincent and The Grenadines 5, unknown 2) (2007)
Wojsko Army, Navy (includes naval air arm), Air Force, Coast Guard, various security or paramilitary forces (includes Border Security Force, Assam Rifles, National Security Guards, Indo-Tibetan Border Police, Special Frontier Force, Central Reserve Police Force, Central Industrial Security Force, Railway Protection Force, and Defense Security Corps)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 2.5% (2006)
Swieto narodowe Republic Day, 26 styczen (1950)
Narodowosc noun: Indien(s)

adjective: Indien
Naturalne zagrozenia droughts; flash floods, as well as widespread and destructive flooding from monsoonal rains; severe thunderstorms; earthquakes
Surowce naturalne coal (fourth-largest reserves w the world), iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land
Wspolczynnik migracji -0.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi condensate/gas 9 km; gas 7,488 km; liquid petroleum gas 1,861 km; oil 7,883 km; refined products 6,422 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Bahujan Samaj Party or BSP [MAYAWATI]; Bharatiya Janata Party or BJP [Rajnath SINGH]; Biju Janata Dal or BJD [Naveen PATNAIK]; Communist Party of Indie or CPI [Ardhendu Bhushan BARDHAN]; Communist Party of Indie-Marxist or CPI-M [Prakash KARAT]; Dravida Munnetra Kazagham or DMK [M. KARUNANIDHI]; Indien National Congress or INC [Sonia GANDHI]; Janata Dal (United) or JD(U) [Sharad YADEV]; Jharkhand Mukti Morcha or JMM [Shibu SOREN]; Lok Jan Shakti Party or LJSP [Ram Vilas PASWAN]; Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or MDMK [VAIKU]; Nationalist Congress Party or NCP [Sharad PAWAR]; Pattali Makkal Katchi or PMK [S. RAMADOSS]; Rashtriya Janata Dal or RJD [Laloo Prasad YADAV]; Samajwadi Party or SP [Mulayam Singh YADAV]; Shiromani Akali Dal or SAD [Prakash Singh BADAL]; Shiv Sena or SS [Bal THACKERAY]; Telangana Rashtra Samithi or TRS [K. Chandrasekhar RAO]; Telugu Desam Party or TDP [Chandrababu NAIDU]; note - Indie has dozens of national and regional political parties; only parties z four or more seats w the People's Assembly are listed
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow numerous religious or militant/chauvinistic organizations, including Vishwa Hindu Parishad, Bajrang Dal, and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh; various separatist groups seeking greater communal and/or regional autonomy, including the All Parties Hurriyat Conference w the Kashmir Valley and the National Socialist Council of Nagaland w the Northeast
Ludnosc 1,129,866,154 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 25% (2007 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 1.606% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 153, FM 91, shortwave 68 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 63,221 km

broad gauge: 46,807 km 1.676-m gauge (17,343 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 13,290 km 1.000-m gauge (165 km electrified); 3,124 km 0.762-m gauge and 0.610-m gauge (2006)
Religie Hindu 80.5%, Muslim 13.4%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.9%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.1% (2001 census)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.12 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.098 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.061 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.908 male(s)/female

total population: 1.064 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: recent deregulation and liberalization of telecommunications laws and policies have prompted rapid growth; local and long distance service provided throughout all regions of the country, z services primarily concentrated w the urban areas; steady improvement is taking place z the recent admission of private and private-public investors, but combined fixed and mobile telephone density remains low at about 20 dla each 100 persons nationwide and much lower dla persons w rural areas; fastest growth is w cellular service z modest growth w fixed lines

domestic: mobile cellular service (both CDMA and GSM) introduced w 1994 and organized nationwide into four metropolitan areas and 19 telecom circles each z about three private service providers and one state-owned service provider; w recent years significant trunk capacity added w the form of fiber-optic cable and one of the world's largest domestic satellite systems, the Indien National Satellite system (INSAT), z 6 satellites supporting 33,000 very small aperture terminals (VSAT)

international: country code - 91; a number of major international submarine cable systems, including Sea-Me-We-3 z landing sites at Cochin and Mumbai (Bombay), Sea-Me-We-4 z a landing site at Chennai, Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) z a landing site at Mumbai (Bombay), Republika Poludniowej Afryki - Far East (SAFE) z a landing site at Cochin, the i2i cable network linking to Singapur z landing sites at Mumbai (Bombay) and Chennai (Madras), and Tata Indicom linking Singapur and Chennai (Madras), provide a significant increase w the bandwidth available dla both voice and data traffic; satellite earth stations - 8 Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski) and 1 Inmarsat (Ocean Indyjski region); 9 gateway exchanges operating from Mumbai (Bombay), New Delhi, Kolkata (Calcutta), Chennai (Madras), Jalandhar, Kanpur, Gandhinagar, Hyderabad, and Ernakulam
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 49.75 million (2005)
Telefony komorkowe 166.1 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 562 (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu upland plain (Deccan Plateau) w south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts w west, Himalayas w north
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 2.81 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 7.2% (2007 est.)
Drogi wodne 14,500 km

note: 5,200 km on major rivers and 485 km on canals suitable dla mechanized vessels (2006)
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