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Hong Kong (2008)

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Hong Kong 2008 year

 Hong Kong
Administrative divisions none (special administrative region of China)
Age structure 0-14 years: 13% (male 476,089/female 434,326)

15-64 years: 74% (male 2,515,518/female 2,652,660)

65 years and over: 12.9% (male 419,479/female 482,340) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products fresh vegetables; poultry, pork; fish
Airports 2 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 2

over 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2007)
Area total: 1,092 sq km

land: 1,042 sq km

water: 50 sq km
Area - comparative six times the size of Washington, DC
Background Occupied by the UK in 1841, Hong Kong was formally ceded by China the following year; various adjacent lands were added later in the 19th century. Pursuant to an agreement signed by China and the UK on 19 December 1984, Hong Kong became the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China on 1 July 1997. In this agreement, China has promised that, under its "one country, two systems" formula, China's socialist economic system will not be imposed on Hong Kong and that Hong Kong will enjoy a high degree of autonomy in all matters except foreign and defense affairs for the next 50 years.
Birth rate 7.34 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: $36.9 billion

expenditures: $29.4 billion (FY07-08 est.)
Climate subtropical monsoon; cool and humid in winter, hot and rainy from spring through summer, warm and sunny in fall
Coastline 733 km
Constitution Basic Law, approved in March 1990 by China's National People's Congress, is Hong Kong's "mini-constitution"
Country name conventional long form: Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

conventional short form: Hong Kong

local long form: Xianggang Tebie Xingzhengqu

local short form: Xianggang

abbreviation: HK
Death rate 6.45 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $588 billion (2007 est.)
Dependency status special administrative region of China
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Consul General James B. CUNNINGHAM

consulate(s) general: 26 Garden Road, Hong Kong

mailing address: PSC 461, Box 1, FPO AP 96521-0006

telephone: [852] 2523-9011

FAX: [852] 2845-1598
Diplomatic representation in the US none (special administrative region of China); Hong Kong Economic and Trade Office in Washington and two other cities carries out normal liaison and communication with the US Government and other US entities
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $6.95 million (2004)
Economy - overview Hong Kong has a free market economy highly dependent on international trade. In 2006, the total value of goods and services trade, including the sizable share of reexports, was equivalent to 400% of GDP. The territory has become increasingly integrated with mainland China over the past few years through trade, tourism, and financial links. The mainland has long been Hong Kong's largest trading partner, accounting for 46% of Hong Kong's total trade by value in 2006. As a result of China's easing of travel restrictions, the number of mainland tourists to the territory has surged from 4.5 million in 2001 to 13.6 million in 2006, when they outnumbered visitors from all other countries combined. Hong Kong has also established itself as the premier stock market for Chinese firms seeking to list abroad. Bolstered by several successful initial public offerings in 2007, mainland companies by September 2007 accounted for one-third of the firms listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, and over half of the Exchange's market capitalization. Hong Kong's service industry over the past decade has grown rapidly as its manufacturing industry has moved to the mainland and now accounts for 91% of the territory's GDP. Hong Kong's natural resources are limited, and food and raw materials must be imported. GDP growth averaged a strong 5% from 1989 to 2007, despite the economy suffering two recessions during the Asian financial crisis in 1997-98 and the global downturn in 2001-02. Hong Kong continues to link its currency closely to the US dollar, maintaining an arrangement established in 1983.
Electricity - consumption 40.3 billion kWh (2006)
Electricity - exports 4.5 billion kWh (2006)
Electricity - imports 10.9 billion kWh (2006)
Electricity - production 38.6 billion kWh (2006)
Elevation extremes lowest point: South China Sea 0 m

highest point: Tai Mo Shan 958 m
Environment - current issues air and water pollution from rapid urbanization
Environment - international agreements party to: Marine Dumping (associate member), Ship Pollution (associate member)
Ethnic groups Chinese 94.9%, Filipino 2.1%, other 3% (2001 census)
Exchange rates Hong Kong dollars per US dollar - 7.802 (2007), 7.7678 (2006), 7.7773 (2005), 7.788 (2004), 7.7868 (2003)
Executive branch chief of state: President of China HU Jintao (since 15 March 2003)

head of government: Chief Executive Donald TSANG (since 24 June 2005)

cabinet: Executive Council consists of 15 official members and 16 non-official members

elections: chief executive elected for five-year term by 800-member electoral committee; last held on 25 March 2007 (next to be held in 2012)

election results: Donald TSANG elected chief executive receiving 84.1% of the vote of the election committee; Alan LEONG received 15.9%
Exports 4.5 billion kWh (2006)
Exports $353.3 billion f.o.b., including reexports (2007 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2006 est.)
Exports 22,420 bbl/day (2006)
Exports - commodities electrical machinery and appliances, textiles, apparel, footwear, watches and clocks, toys, plastics, precious stones, printed material
Exports - partners China 47%, US 15.1%, Japan 4.9% (2006)
Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March
Flag description red with a stylized, white, five-petal bauhinia flower in the center
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 0.1%

industry: 8.1%

services: 91.8% (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 5.8% (2007 est.)
Geographic coordinates 22 15 N, 114 10 E
Geography - note more than 200 islands
Heliports 5 (2007)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Illicit drugs despite strenuous law enforcement efforts, faces difficult challenges in controlling transit of heroin and methamphetamine to regional and world markets; modern banking system provides conduit for money laundering; rising indigenous use of synthetic drugs, especially among young people
Imports 10.9 billion kWh (2006)
Imports $371.3 billion (2007 est.)
Imports 2.944 billion cu m (2006)
Imports 314,700 bbl/day (2006)
Imports - commodities raw materials and semi-manufactures, consumer goods, capital goods, foodstuffs, fuel (most is re-exported)
Imports - partners China 45.9%, Japan 10.3%, Taiwan 7.5%, Singapore 6.3%, US 4.8%, South Korea 4.6% (2006)
Independence none (special administrative region of China)
Industrial production growth rate -0.9% (2007 est.)
Industries textiles, clothing, tourism, banking, shipping, electronics, plastics, toys, watches, clocks
Infant mortality rate total: 2.94 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 3.12 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 2.74 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2% (2007 est.)
International organization participation ADB, APEC, BIS, ICC, IHO, IMF, IMO (associate), IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITUC, UNWTO (associate), UPU, WCL, WCO, WMO, WTO
Irrigated land 20 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Court of Final Appeal in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
Labor force 3.64 million (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation manufacturing 6.5%, construction 2.1%, wholesale and retail trade, restaurants, and hotels 43.3%, financing, insurance, and real estate 20.7%, transport and communications 7.8%, community and social services 19.5%

note: above data exclude public sector (2007 est.)
Land boundaries total: 30 km

regional border: China 30 km
Land use arable land: 5.05%

permanent crops: 1.01%

other: 93.94% (2001)
Languages Chinese (Cantonese) 89.2% (official), other Chinese dialects 6.4%, English 3.2% (official), other 1.2% (2001 census)
Legal system based on English common law
Legislative branch unicameral Legislative Council or LEGCO (60 seats; in 2004, 30 seats indirectly elected by functional constituencies, 30 elected by popular vote; members serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 12 September 2004 (next to be held in September 2008)

election results: percent of vote by party - pro-democracy 63%, pro-Beijing 37%; seats by party - (pro-Beijing 34) DAB 12, Liberal Party 10, FTU 1, independents 11; (pro-democracy 25) Democratic Party 9, CTU 2, ADPL 1, Frontier Party 1, NWSC 1, independents 11; non-voting LEGCO president 1
Life expectancy at birth total population: 81.68 years

male: 78.99 years

female: 84.6 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school

total population: 93.5%

male: 96.9%

female: 89.6% (2002)
Location Eastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and China
Map references Southeast Asia
Maritime claims territorial sea: 3 nm
Merchant marine total: 1,009 ships (1000 GRT or over) 34,556,075 GRT/57,423,309 DWT

by type: barge carrier 2, bulk carrier 499, cargo 135, chemical tanker 51, combination ore/oil 3, container 173, liquefied gas 24, passenger 6, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 91, roll on/roll off 4, specialized tanker 8, vehicle carrier 8

foreign-owned: 617 (Belgium 4, Canada 39, China 309, Denmark 12, France 1, Germany 10, Greece 30, Indonesia 7, Japan 78, South Korea 6, Lebanon 1, Norway 30, Pakistan 1, Philippines 10, Portugal 1, Singapore 11, Syria 1, Taiwan 11, UAE 1, UK 32, US 22)

registered in other countries: 275 (Bahamas 3, Belize 5, Bermuda 4, Cambodia 11, China 6, Cyprus 2, Honduras 1, India 1, Liberia 21, Malaysia 14, Malta 1, Marshall Islands 4, Mongolia 1, Norway 5, Panama 137, Philippines 2, Seychelles 1, Singapore 37, St Vincent and The Grenadines 7, Tuvalu 10, UK 2, unknown 7) (2007)
Military - note defense is the responsibility of China
Military branches no regular indigenous military forces; Hong Kong garrison of China's People's Liberation Army (PLA) includes elements of Ground Forces, Navy, and Air Force; these forces are under the direct leadership of the Central Military Commission in Beijing and under administrative control of the adjacent Guangzhou Military Region
Military expenditures - percent of GDP NA
National holiday National Day (Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of China), 1 October (1949); note - 1 July 1997 is celebrated as Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Establishment Day
Nationality noun: Chinese/Hong Konger

adjective: Chinese/Hong Kong
Natural hazards occasional typhoons
Natural resources outstanding deepwater harbor, feldspar
Net migration rate 4.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Political parties and leaders Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood or ADPL [Frederick FUNG Kin-kee]; Citizens Party [Alex CHAN Kai-chung]; Civic Party [KUAN Hsin-chi]; Democratic Alliance for the Betterment and Progress of Hong Kong or DAB [TAM Yiu Cheng]; Democratic Party [Albert HO]; Frontier Party [Emily LAU Wai-hing]; League of Social Democrats [Raymond WONG]; Liberal Party [James TIEN Pei-chun]

note: political blocs include: pro-democracy - ADPL, Democratic Party, Frontier Party, League of Social Democrats; pro-Beijing - DAB, Liberal Party, The Alliance (a group of five generally pro-government and pro-business Legco members from functional constituencies); there is no political party ordinance, so there are no registered political parties; politically active groups register as societies or companies
Political pressure groups and leaders Chinese General Chamber of Commerce (pro-China); Chinese Manufacturers' Association of Hong Kong; Confederation of Trade Unions or CTU (pro-democracy) [LAU Chin-shek, president; LEE Cheuk-yan, general secretary]; Federation of Hong Kong Industries; Federation of Trade Unions or FTU (pro-China) [CHENG Yiu-tong, executive councilor]; Hong Kong Alliance in Support of the Patriotic Democratic Movement in China [Szeto WAH, chairman]; Hong Kong and Kowloon Trade Union Council (pro-Taiwan); Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce; Hong Kong Professional Teachers' Union [CHEUNG Man-kwong, president]; Neighborhood and Workers' Service Center or NWSC (pro-democracy); The Alliance [Bernard CHARNWUT, exco member]
Population 6,980,412 (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 0.561% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 5, FM 9, shortwave 0 (2004)
Religions eclectic mixture of local religions 90%, Christian 10%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.096 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.948 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female

total population: 0.956 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage direct election - 18 years of age for a number of non-executive positions; universal for permanent residents living in the territory of Hong Kong for the past seven years; indirect election - limited to about 220,000 members of functional constituencies and an 800-member election committee drawn from broad regional groupings, central government bodies, and municipal organizations
Telephone system general assessment: modern facilities provide excellent domestic and international services

domestic: microwave radio relay links and extensive fiber-optic network

international: country code - 852; multiple international submarine cables provide connections to Asia, US, Australia, the Middle East, and Western Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Pacific Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); coaxial cable to Guangzhou, China
Telephones - main lines in use 3.87 million (2007)
Telephones - mobile cellular 9.913 million (2007)
Television broadcast stations 55 (2 TV networks, each broadcasting on 2 channels) (2007)
Terrain hilly to mountainous with steep slopes; lowlands in north
Total fertility rate 0.98 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate 4.2% (2007 est.)
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