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Hong Kong (2002)

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Hong Kong 2002 year

 Hong Kong
Administrative divisions none (special administrative region of China)
Age structure 0-14 years: 17.5% (male 679,311; female 599,811)

15-64 years: 71.6% (male 2,587,509; female 2,641,418)

65 years and over: 10.9% (male 364,864; female 430,421) (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products fresh vegetables; poultry, fish, pork
Airports 3 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways total: 3

over 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2002)
Area total: 1,092 sq km

land: 1,042 sq km

water: 50 sq km
Area - comparative six times the size of Washington, DC
Background Occupied by the UK in 1841, Hong Kong was formally ceded by China the following year; various adjacent lands were added later in the 19th century. Pursuant to an agreement signed by China and the UK on 19 December 1984, Hong Kong became the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China on 1 July 1997. In this agreement, China has promised that, under its "one country, two systems" formula, China's socialist economic system will not be imposed on Hong Kong and that Hong Kong will enjoy a high degree of autonomy in all matters except foreign and defense affairs for the next 50 years.
Birth rate 10.92 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budget revenues: $22.9 billion

expenditures: $24.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $465 million (FY00/01)
Climate tropical monsoon; cool and humid in winter, hot and rainy from spring through summer, warm and sunny in fall
Coastline 733 km
Constitution Basic Law approved in March 1990 by China's National People's Congress is Hong Kong's "mini-constitution"
Country name conventional long form: Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

conventional short form: Hong Kong

local long form: Xianggang Tebie Xingzhengqu

local short form: Xianggang

abbreviation: HK
Currency Hong Kong dollar (HKD)
Death rate 6.11 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Debt - external $58.8 billion (2001 est.)
Dependency status special administrative region of China
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Consul General Michael KLOSSON

consulate(s) general: 26 Garden Road, Hong Kong

mailing address: PSC 464, Box 30, FPO AP 96522-0002

telephone: [852] 2523-9011

FAX: [852] 2845-1598
Diplomatic representation in the US none (special administrative region of China)
Disputes - international none
Economy - overview Hong Kong has a bustling free market economy highly dependent on international trade. Natural resources are limited, and food and raw materials must be imported. Indeed, imports and exports, including reexports, each exceed GDP in dollar value. Even before Hong Kong reverted to Chinese administration on 1 July 1997 it had extensive trade and investment ties with China. Per capita GDP compares with the level in the four big economies of Western Europe. GDP growth averaged a strong 5% in 1989-97. The widespread Asian economic difficulties in 1998 hit this trade-dependent economy quite hard, with GDP down 5%. The economy, with growth of 10% in 2000, recovered rapidly from the Asian financial crisis. The recent global downturn has badly hurt Hong Kong's exports and GDP growth is estimated to be 0% in 2001. Private sector analysts project 2002 GDP growth to be 1.8%.
Electricity - consumption 35.402 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 1.181 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 9.195 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production 29.449 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2000)
Elevation extremes lowest point: South China Sea 0 m

highest point: Tai Mo Shan 958 m
Environment - current issues air and water pollution from rapid urbanization
Environment - international agreements party to: Marine Dumping (associate member), Ship Pollution (associate member)
Ethnic groups Chinese 95%, other 5%
Exchange rates Hong Kong dollars per US dollar - 7.798 (January 2002), 7.7994 (2001), 7.7918 (2000), 7.7589 (1999), 7.7462 (1998), 7.7425 (1997); note - the Hong Kong dollar is linked to the US dollar at a rate of about 7.8 Hong Kong dollars per US dollar
Executive branch chief of state: President of China JIANG Zemin (since 27 March 1993)

head of government: Chief Executive TUNG Chee-hwa (since 1 July 1997)

cabinet: Executive Council consists of three ex-officio members and 10 appointed members; ex-officio members are: Chief Secretary Donald TSANG Yam-kuen (since 1 May 2001), Financial Secretary Antony LEUNG (since 1 May 2001), and Secretary of Justice Elsie LEUNG (since 1 July 1997)

elections: NA
Exports 1.181 billion kWh (2000)
Exports $191 billion f.o.b., including reexports (2001 est.)
Exports - commodities clothing, textiles, footwear, electrical appliances, watches and clocks, toys, plastics, precious stones
Exports - partners China 34%, US 23%, Japan 6%, Germany 4%, UK 4%, Taiwan 3%, Singapore 2% (2000)
Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March
Flag description red with a stylized, white, five-petal bauhinia flower in the center
GDP purchasing power parity - $180 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 0%

industry: 14%

services: 86% (1999 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $25,000 (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 0% (2001 est.)
Geographic coordinates 22 15 N, 114 10 E
Geography - note more than 200 islands
Heliports 2 (2002)
Highways total: 1,831 km

paved: 1,831 km

unpaved: 0 km (1997)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Illicit drugs strenuous law enforcement efforts, but faces serious challenges in controlling transit of heroin and methamphetamine to regional and world markets; modern banking system provides a conduit for money laundering; rising indigenous use of synthetic drugs, especially among young people
Imports 9.195 billion kWh (2000)
Imports $203 billion (2001 est.)
Imports - commodities foodstuffs, transport equipment, raw materials, semimanufactures, petroleum, plastics, machinery, electrical equipment; a large share is reexported
Imports - partners China 43%, Japan 12%, Taiwan 8%, US 7%, South Korea 5%, Singapore 3% (2000)
Independence none (special administrative region of China)
Industrial production growth rate -9% (2001 est.)
Industries textiles, clothing, tourism, banking, shipping, electronics, plastics, toys, watches, clocks
Infant mortality rate 5.73 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) -1.6% (2001 est.)
International organization participation APEC, AsDB, BIS, CCC, ESCAP (associate), ICC, ICFTU, IHO, IMO (associate), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, ISO (correspondent), WCL, WMO, WToO (associate), WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 17 (2000)
Irrigated land 20 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch The Court of Final Appeal in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
Labor force 3.44 million (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation wholesale and retail trade, restaurants, and hotels 31%, financing, insurance, and real estate 13%, community and social services 11%, manufacturing 7%, transport and communications 6%, construction 2%, other 30% (2001 est.)
Land boundaries total: 30 km

border countries: China 30 km
Land use arable land: 5.05%

permanent crops: 1.01%

other: 93.94% (1998 est.)
Languages Chinese (Cantonese), English; both are official
Legal system based on English common law
Legislative branch unicameral Legislative Council or LEGCO (60 seats; 30 indirectly elected by functional constituencies, 24 elected by popular vote, and 6 elected by an 800-member election committee; members serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 10 September 2000 (next to be held NA 2004)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Democratic Party 12, Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong 10, Liberal Party 7, Frontier Party 5, Hong Kong Progressive Alliance 4, New Century Forum 2, Hong Kong Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood 1, independents 19
Life expectancy at birth total population: 79.8 years

male: 77.1 years

female: 82.69 years (2002 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school

total population: 92.2%

male: 96%

female: 88.2% (1996 est.)
Location Eastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and China
Map references Southeast Asia
Maritime claims territorial sea: 3 NM
Merchant marine total: 433 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 13,539,257 GRT/22,682,757 DWT

ships by type: barge carrier 1, bulk 264, cargo 38, chemical tanker 10, combination bulk 2, container 73, liquefied gas 8, multi-functional large-load carrier 1, petroleum tanker 32, refrigerated cargo 1, short-sea passenger 1, vehicle carrier 2

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Belgium 5, Belize 1, British Virgin Islands 1, China 115, Denmark 2, Germany 19, Greece 2, India 8, Japan 8, Liberia 1, Malaysia 7, Norway 1, Panama 2, Philippines 5, Singapore 7, South Korea 2, Taiwan 1, United Kingdom 27, Virgin Islands (UK) 1 (2002 est.)
Military - note defense is the responsibility of China
Military branches no regular indigenous military forces; Hong Kong garrison of China's People's Liberation Army (PLA) including elements of the PLA Ground Forces, PLA Navy, and PLA Air Force; these forces are under the direct leadership of the Central Military Commission in Beijing and under administrative control of the adjacent Guangzhou Military Region
Military expenditures - percent of GDP NA%
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 2,028,208 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 1,523,378 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 47,139 (2002 est.)
National holiday National Day (Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of China), 1 October (1949); note - 1 July 1997 is celebrated as Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Establishment Day
Nationality noun: Chinese

adjective: Chinese
Natural hazards occasional typhoons
Natural resources outstanding deepwater harbor, feldspar
Net migration rate 7.76 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Political parties and leaders Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood [Frederick FUNG Kin-kee, chairman]; Citizens Party [Alex CHAN Kai-chung]; Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong [Jasper TSANG Yok-sing, chairman]; Democratic Party [Martin LEE Chu-ming, chairman]; Frontier Party [Emily LAU Wai-hing, chairwoman]; Hong Kong Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood [leader NA]; Hong Kong Progressive Alliance [Ambrose LAU Hon-chuen]; Liberal Party [James TIEN Pei-chun, chairman]; New Century Forum [NQ Ching-fai, chairman]

note: political blocs include: pro-democracy - Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood, Citizens Party, Democratic Party, Frontier Party; pro-Beijing - Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Progressive Alliance, Liberal Party, New Century Forum
Political pressure groups and leaders Chinese General Chamber of Commerce (pro-China); Chinese Manufacturers' Association of Hong Kong; Confederation of Trade Unions (pro-democracy) [LAU Chin-shek, president; LEE Cheuk-yan, general secretary]; Federation of Hong Kong Industries; Federation of Trade Unions (pro-China) [LEE Chark-tim, president]; Hong Kong Alliance in Support of the Patriotic Democratic Movement in China [Szeto WAH, chairman]; Hong Kong and Kowloon Trade Union Council (pro-Taiwan); Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce; Hong Kong Professional Teachers' Union [CHEUNG Man-kwong, president]; Liberal Democratic Federation [HU Fa-kuang, chairman]
Population 7,303,334 (July 2002 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 1.26% (2002 est.)
Ports and harbors Hong Kong
Radio broadcast stations AM 7, FM 13, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios 4.45 million (1997)
Railways total: 34 km

standard gauge: 34 km 1.435-m gauge (electrified and double-tracked)

note: connects to China railway system at Hong Kong-China border (2001)
Religions eclectic mixture of local religions 90%, Christian 10%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.13 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Suffrage direct election 18 years of age; universal for permanent residents living in the territory of Hong Kong for the past seven years; indirect election limited to about 100,000 members of functional constituencies and an 800-member election committee drawn from broad regional groupings, municipal organizations, and central government bodies
Telephone system general assessment: modern facilities provide excellent domestic and international services

domestic: microwave radio relay links and extensive fiber-optic network

international: satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Pacific Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); coaxial cable to Guangzhou, China; access to 5 international submarine cables providing connections to ASEAN member nations, Japan, Taiwan, Australia, Middle East, and Western Europe
Telephones - main lines in use 3.839 million (1999)
Telephones - mobile cellular 3.7 million (December 1999)
Television broadcast stations 4 (plus two repeaters) (1997)
Terrain hilly to mountainous with steep slopes; lowlands in north
Total fertility rate 1.3 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate 5.2% (2001 est.)
Waterways none
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