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Guinea-Bissau (2007)

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Guinea-Bissau 2007 year

Administrative divisions 9 regions (regioes, singular - regiao); Bafata, Biombo, Bissau, Bolama, Cacheu, Gabu, Oio, Quinara, Tombali; note - Bolama may have been renamed Bolama/Bijagos
Age structure 0-14 years: 41.2% (male 302,408/female 303,786)

15-64 years: 55.8% (male 394,799/female 427,055)

65 years and over: 3% (male 18,463/female 26,269) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products rice, corn, beans, cassava (tapioca), cashew nuts, peanuts, palm kernels, cotton; timber; fish
Airports 27 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 3

over 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 24

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 19 (2007)
Area total: 36,120 sq km

land: 28,000 sq km

water: 8,120 sq km
Area - comparative slightly less than three times the size of Connecticut
Background Since independence from Portugal in 1974, Guinea-Bissau has experienced considerable political and military upheaval. In 1980, a military coup established authoritarian dictator Joao Bernardo 'Nino' VIEIRA as president. Despite setting a path to a market economy and multiparty system, VIEIRA's regime was characterized by the suppression of political opposition and the purging of political rivals. Several coup attempts through the 1980s and early 1990s failed to unseat him. In 1994 VIEIRA was elected president in the country's first free elections. A military mutiny and resulting civil war in 1998 eventually led to VIEIRA's ouster in May 1999. In February 2000, a transitional government turned over power to opposition leader Kumba YALA, after he was elected president in transparent polling. In September 2003, after only three years in office, YALA was ousted by the military in a bloodless coup, and businessman Henrique ROSA was sworn in as interim president. In 2005, former President VIEIRA was re-elected president pledging to pursue economic development and national reconciliation.
Birth rate 36.81 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: $NA

expenditures: $NA
Capital name: Bissau

geographic coordinates: 11 51 N, 15 35 W

time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Climate tropical; generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds
Coastline 350 km
Constitution 16 May 1984; amended 4 May 1991, 4 December 1991, 26 February 1993, 9 June 1993, and in 1996
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Guinea-Bissau

conventional short form: Guinea-Bissau

local long form: Republica da Guine-Bissau

local short form: Guine-Bissau

former: Portuguese Guinea
Death rate 16.29 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $941.5 million (2000 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US the US Embassy suspended operations on 14 June 1998 in the midst of violent conflict between forces loyal to then President VIEIRA and military-led junta; the US Ambassador to Senegal is accredited to Guinea-Bissau
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: none; note - Guinea-Bissau does not have official representation in Washington, DC
Disputes - international in 2006, political instability within Senegal's Casamance region resulted in thousands of Senegalese refugees, cross-border raids, and arms smuggling into Guinea-Bissau
Economic aid - recipient $79.12 million (2005)
Economy - overview One of the 10 poorest countries in the world, Guinea-Bissau depends mainly on farming and fishing. Cashew crops have increased remarkably in recent years, and the country now ranks sixth in cashew production. Guinea-Bissau exports fish and seafood along with small amounts of peanuts, palm kernels, and timber. Rice is the major crop and staple food. However, intermittent fighting between Senegalese-backed government troops and a military junta destroyed much of the country's infrastructure and caused widespread damage to the economy in 1998; the civil war led to a 28% drop in GDP that year, with partial recovery in 1999-2002. Before the war, trade reform and price liberalization were the most successful part of the country's structural adjustment program under IMF sponsorship. The tightening of monetary policy and the development of the private sector had also begun to reinvigorate the economy. Because of high costs, the development of petroleum, phosphate, and other mineral resources is not a near-term prospect. However, offshore oil prospecting has begun and could lead to much-needed revenue in the long run. The inequality of income distribution is one of the most extreme in the world. The government and international donors continue to work out plans to forward economic development from a lamentably low base. In December 2003, the World Bank, IMF, and UNDP were forced to step in to provide emergency budgetary support in the amount of $107 million for 2004, representing over 80% of the total national budget. Government drift and indecision, however, resulted in continued low growth in 2002-06.
Electricity - consumption 55.8 million kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - production 60 million kWh (2005)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: unnamed location in the northeast corner of the country 300 m
Environment - current issues deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; overfishing
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups African 99% (includes Balanta 30%, Fula 20%, Manjaca 14%, Mandinga 13%, Papel 7%), European and mulatto less than 1%
Exchange rates Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 522.59 (2006), 527.47 (2005), 528.29 (2004), 581.2 (2003), 696.99 (2002)

note: since 1 January 1999, the XOF franc has been pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XOF francs per euro
Executive branch chief of state: President Joao Bernardo 'Nino' VIEIRA (since 1 October 2005)

head of government: Prime Minister Martinho N'Dafa CABI (since 9 April 2007)

cabinet: NA

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held 24 July 2005 (next to be held in 2010); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Joao Bernardo VIEIRA elected president; percent of vote, second ballot - Joao Bernardo VIEIRA 52.4%, Malam Bacai SANHA 47.6%
Exports 0 kWh (2005)
Exports $116 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports NA bbl/day
Exports - commodities cashew nuts, shrimp, peanuts, palm kernels, sawn lumber
Exports - partners India 76.1%, Nigeria 18.1%, Italy 1.4% (2006)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and green with a vertical red band on the hoist side; there is a black five-pointed star centered in the red band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 62%

industry: 12%

services: 26% (1999 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 2.1% (2006 est.)
Geographic coordinates 12 00 N, 15 00 W
Geography - note this small country is swampy along its western coast and low-lying further inland
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 0.5%

highest 10%: 42.4% (1991)
Illicit drugs increasingly important transit country for South American cocaine enroute to Europe; enabling environment for trafficker operations thanks to pervasive corruption; archipelago-like geography around the capital facilitates drug smuggling
Imports 0 kWh (2005)
Imports $176 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Imports NA bbl/day
Imports - commodities foodstuffs, machinery and transport equipment, petroleum products
Imports - partners Portugal 18.8%, Senegal 16.3%, Italy 13%, Pakistan 4.5% (2006)
Independence 24 September 1973 (declared); 10 September 1974 (recognized by Portugal)
Industrial production growth rate 4.7% (2003 est.)
Industries agricultural products processing, beer, soft drinks
Infant mortality rate total: 103.5 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 113.7 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 93.01 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 4% (2002 est.)
International organization participation ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, CPLP, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Irrigated land 250 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal da Justica (consists of nine justices appointed by the president and serve at his pleasure; final court of appeals in criminal and civil cases); Regional Courts (one in each of nine regions; first court of appeals for Sectoral Court decisions; hear all felony cases and civil cases valued at over $1,000); 24 Sectoral Courts (judges are not necessarily trained lawyers; they hear civil cases under $1,000 and misdemeanor criminal cases)
Labor force 480,000 (1999)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 82%

industry and services: 18% (2000 est.)
Land boundaries total: 724 km

border countries: Guinea 386 km, Senegal 338 km
Land use arable land: 8.31%

permanent crops: 6.92%

other: 84.77% (2005)
Languages Portuguese (official), Crioulo, African languages
Legal system based on French civil law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral National People's Assembly or Assembleia Nacional Popular (100 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 28 March 2004 (next to be held in 2008)

election results: percent of vote by party - PAIGC 31.5%, PRS 24.8%, PUSD 16.1%, UE 4.1%, APU 1.3%, 13 other parties 22.2%; seats by party - PAIGC 45, PRS 35, PUSD 17, UE 2, APU 1
Life expectancy at birth total population: 47.18 years

male: 45.37 years

female: 49.04 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 42.4%

male: 58.1%

female: 27.4% (2003 est.)
Location Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea and Senegal
Map references Africa
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Military branches People's Revolutionary Armed Force (FARP): Army, Navy, Air Force; paramilitary force
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 3.1% (2005 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 24 September (1973)
Nationality noun: Guinean(s)

adjective: Guinean
Natural hazards hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry season; brush fires
Natural resources fish, timber, phosphates, bauxite, clay, granite, limestone, unexploited deposits of petroleum
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Political parties and leaders African Party for the Independence of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde or PAIGC [Carlos GOMES Junior]; Party for Social Renewal or PRS [Kumba YALA]; Democratic Social Front or FDS; Electoral Union or UE; Guinea-Bissau Civic Forum/Social Democracy or FCGSD [Antonieta Rosa GOMES]; Guinea-Bissau Democratic Party or PDG; Guinea-Bissau Socialist Democratic Party or PDSG [Serifo BALDE]; Labor and Solidarity Party or PST [Iancuba INDJAI]; Party for Democratic Convergence or PCD [Victor MANDINGA]; Party for Renewal and Progress or PRP; Progress Party or PP [Ibrahima SOW]; Union for Change or UM [Amine SAAD]; Union of Guinean Patriots or UPG [Francisca VAZ]; United Platform or UP (coalition formed by PCD, FDS, FLING, and RGB-MB); United Popular Alliance or APU; United Social Democratic Party or PUSD
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 1,472,780 (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 2.052% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 1 (transmitter out of service), FM 4, shortwave 0 (2001)
Religions indigenous beliefs 50%, Muslim 45%, Christian 5%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 0.995 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.924 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.703 male(s)/female

total population: 0.945 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: small system

domestic: combination of microwave radio relay, open-wire lines, radiotelephone, and cellular communications; fixed-line teledensity less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity reached 7 per 100 in 2005

international: country code - 245
Telephones - main lines in use 10,200 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular 95,000 (2005)
Television broadcast stations NA (2005)
Terrain mostly low coastal plain rising to savanna in east
Total fertility rate 4.79 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate NA%
Waterways rivers are navigable for some distance; many inlets and creeks give shallow-water access to much of interior (2007)
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