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Guinea-Bissau (2001)

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Guinea-Bissau 2001 year

Administrative divisions 9 regions (regioes, singular - regiao); Bafata, Biombo, Bissau, Bolama, Cacheu, Gabu, Oio, Quinara, Tombali; note - Bolama may have been renamed Bolama/Bijagos
Age structure 0-14 years:
42.09% (male 276,312; female 277,536)

15-64 years:
55.05% (male 344,493; female 379,889)

65 years and over:
2.86% (male 16,850; female 20,742) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products rice, corn, beans, cassava (tapioca), cashew nuts, peanuts, palm kernels, cotton; timber; fish
Airports 29 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:
1 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
21 (2000 est.)
Area total:
36,120 sq km

28,000 sq km

8,120 sq km
Area - comparative slightly less than three times the size of Connecticut
Background In 1994, 20 years after independence from Portugal, the country's first multiparty legislative and presidential elections were held. An army uprising that triggered a bloody civil war in 1998, created hundreds of thousands of displaced persons. The president was ousted by a military junta in May 1999. An interim government turned over power in February 2000 when opposition leader Koumba YALLA took office following two rounds of transparent presidential elections. Guinea-Bissau's transition back to democracy will be complicated by a crippled economy devastated by civil war and the military's predilection for governmental meddling.
Birth rate 39.29 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:

$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Capital Bissau
Climate tropical; generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds
Coastline 350 km
Constitution 16 May 1984, amended 4 May 1991, 4 December 1991, 26 February 1993, 9 June 1993, and 1996
Country name conventional long form:
Republic of Guinea-Bissau

conventional short form:

local long form:
Republica da Guine-Bissau

local short form:

Portuguese Guinea
Currency Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States; previously the Guinea-Bissau peso (GWP) was used
Death rate 15.33 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $964 million (1998 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US the US Embassy suspended operations on 14 June 1998 in the midst of violent conflict between forces loyal to then President VIEIRA and military-led junta
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Mario LOPES DA ROSA

Suite 519, 1511 K Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005

[1] (202) 347-3950

[1] (202) 347-3954
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $115.4 million (1995)
Economy - overview One of the 20 poorest countries in the world, Guinea-Bissau depends mainly on farming and fishing. Cashew crops have increased remarkably in recent years, and the country now ranks sixth in cashew production. Guinea-Bissau exports fish and seafood along with small amounts of peanuts, palm kernels, and timber. Rice is the major crop and staple food. However, intermittent fighting between Senegalese-backed government troops and a military junta destroyed much of the country's infrastructure and caused widespread damage to the economy in 1998; the civil war led to a 28% drop in GDP that year, with partial recovery in 1999-2000. Before the war, trade reform and price liberalization were the most successful part of the country's structural adjustment program under IMF sponsorship. The tightening of monetary policy and the development of the private sector had also begun to reinvigorate the economy. Because of high costs, the development of petroleum, phosphate, and other mineral resources is not a near-term prospect. However, unexploited offshore oil reserves could provide much-needed revenue in the long run.
Electricity - consumption 51.2 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 55 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point:
unnamed location in the northeast corner of the country 300 m
Environment - current issues deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; overfishing
Environment - international agreements party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups African 99% (Balanta 30%, Fula 20%, Manjaca 14%, Mandinga 13%, Papel 7%), European and mulatto less than 1%
Exchange rates Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 699.21 (January 2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997); Guinea-Bissauan pesos per US dollar - 26,373 (1996)

as of 1 May 1997, Guinea-Bissau adopted the CFA franc as the national currency; since 1 January 1999, the CFA franc is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 CFA francs per euro
Executive branch chief of state:
President Koumba YALLA (since 18 February 2000)

head of government:
Prime Minister Faustino IMBALI (since 20 March 2001)


president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 28 November 1999 and 16 January 2000 (next to be held NA 2004); prime minister appointed by the president after consultation with party leaders in the legislature

election results:
Koumba YALLA elected president; percent of vote, second ballot - Koumba YALLA (PRS) 72%, Malan Bacai SANHA (PAIGC) 28%
Exports 0 kWh (1999)
Exports $80 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Exports - commodities cashew nuts 70%, shrimp, peanuts, palm kernels, sawn lumber (1996)
Exports - partners India 59%, Singapore 12%, Italy 10% (1998)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and green with a vertical red band on the hoist side; there is a black five-pointed star centered in the red band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
GDP purchasing power parity - $1.1 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


31% (1997 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $850 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 7.6% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 12 00 N, 15 00 W
Highways total:
4,400 km

453 km

3,947 km (1996)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
42.4% (1991)
Imports 0 kWh (1999)
Imports $55.2 million (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Imports - commodities foodstuffs, machinery and transport equipment, petroleum products (1996)
Imports - partners Portugal 26%, France 8%, Senegal 8%, Netherlands 7% (1998)
Independence 24 September 1973 (unilaterally declared by Guinea-Bissau); 10 September 1974 (recognized by Portugal)
Industrial production growth rate 2.6% (1997 est.)
Industries agricultural products processing, beer, soft drinks
Infant mortality rate 110.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3% (2000 est.)
International organization participation ACCT (associate), ACP, AfDB, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2000)
Irrigated land 17 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal da Justica (consists of nine justices who are appointed by the president and serve at his pleasure; final court of appeals in criminal and civil cases); Regional Courts (one in each of nine regions; first court of appeals for Sectoral Court decisions; hear all felony cases and civil cases valued at over $1,000); 24 Sectoral Courts (judges are not necessarily trained lawyers; they hear civil cases under $1,000 and misdemeanor criminal cases)
Labor force 480,000
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 78%
Land boundaries total:
724 km

border countries:
Guinea 386 km, Senegal 338 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

12% (1993 est.)
Languages Portuguese (official), Crioulo, African languages
Legal system NA
Legislative branch unicameral National People's Assembly or Assembleia Nacional Popular (100 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve a maximum of four years)

last held 28 November 1999 (next to be held by NA 2003)

election results:
percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PRS 37, RGB 27, PAIGC 25, 11 remaining seats went to 5 of the remaining 10 parties that fielded candidates
Life expectancy at birth total population:
49.42 years

47.12 years

51.78 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


40.7% (1997 est.)
Location Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea and Senegal
Map references Africa
Maritime claims exclusive economic zone:
200 NM

territorial sea:
12 NM
Merchant marine none (2000 est.)
Military branches People's Revolutionary Armed Force (FARP; includes Army, Navy, and Air Force), paramilitary force
Military expenditures - dollar figure $8 million (FY96)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2.8% (FY96)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
305,071 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
173,703 (2001 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 24 September (1973)
Nationality noun:
Guinean (s)

Natural hazards hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry season; brush fires
Natural resources fish, timber, phosphates, bauxite, unexploited deposits of petroleum
Net migration rate -1.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Political parties and leaders African Party for the Independence of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde or PAIGC [Francisco BENANTE]; Front for the Liberation and Independence of Guinea or FLING [Francois MENDY]; Guinea-Bissau Resistance-Ba Fata Movement or RGB-MB [Helder Vaz LOPES]; Guinean Civic Forum or FCG [Antonieta Rosa GOMES]; International League for Ecological Protection or LIPE [Alhaje Bubacar DJALO, president]; National Union for Democracy and Progress or UNDP [Abubacer BALDE, secretary general]; Party for Democratic Convergence or PCD [Victor MANDINGA]; Social Renovation Party or PRS [Koumba YALLA]; Union for Change or UM [Jorge MANDINGA, president, Dr. Anne SAAD, secretary general]; United Social Democratic Party or PUSD [Victor Sau'de MARIA]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 1,315,822 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line 50% (1991 est.)
Population growth rate 2.23% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Bissau, Buba, Cacheu, Farim
Radio broadcast stations AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios 49,000 (1997)
Railways 0 km
Religions indigenous beliefs 50%, Muslim 45%, Christian 5%
Sex ratio at birth:
1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
0.91 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.81 male(s)/female

total population:
0.94 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment:
small system

combination of microwave radio relay, open-wire lines, radiotelephone, and cellular communications

Telephones - main lines in use 8,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular NA
Television broadcast stations 2 (1997)
Terrain mostly low coastal plain rising to savanna in east
Total fertility rate 5.2 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate NA%
Waterways several rivers are accessible to coastal shipping
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