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Francja (2002)

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Francja 2002 roku

Podzial administracyjny 22 regions (regions, singular - region); Alsace, Aquitaine, Auvergne, Basse-Normandie, Bourgogne, Bretagne, Centre, Champagne-Ardenne, Corse, Franche-Comte, Haute-Normandie, Ile-de-Francja, Languedoc-Roussillon, Limousin, Lorraine, Midi-Pyrenees, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Pays de la Loire, Picardie, Poitou-Charentes, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, Rhone-Alpes

note: metropolitan Francja is divided into 22 regions (including the "territorial collectivity" of Corse or Corsica) and is subdivided into 96 departments; see separate entries dla the overseas departments (Gujana Francuska, Gwadelupa, Martynika, Reunion) and the overseas territorial collectivities (Majotta, Saint-Pierre i Miquelon)
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 18.5% (male 5,675,269; female 5,401,661)

15-64 years: 65.2% (male 19,503,556; female 19,479,646)

65 years and over: 16.3% (male 3,948,433; female 5,757,418) (2002 est.)
Rolinictwo wheat, cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, wine grapes; beef, dairy products; fish
Lotniska 477 (2001)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 273

over 3,047 m: 13

2,438 to 3,047 m: 28

1,524 to 2,437 m: 95

914 to 1,523 m: 80

under 914 m: 57 (2002)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 204

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 74

under 914 m: 128 (2002)
Terytorium total: 547,030 sq km

land: 545,630 sq km

water: 1,400 sq km

note: includes only metropolitan Francja; excludes the overseas administrative divisions
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly less than twice the size of Colorado
Tlo historyczne Although ultimately a victor w Swiat Wars I and II, Francja suffered extensive losses w its empire, wealth, manpower, and rank as a dominant nation-state. Nevertheless, Francja today is one of the most modern countries w the world and is a leader among European nations. Since 1958, it has constructed a presidential democracy resistant to the instabilities experienced w earlier parliamentary democracies. In recent years, its reconciliation and cooperation z Niemcy have proved central to the economic integration of Europe, including the advent of the euro w styczen 1999. Presently, Francja is at the forefront of European states seeking to exploit the momentum of monetary union to advance the creation of a more unified and capable European defense and security apparatus.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 11.94 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budzet revenues: $210 billion

expenditures: $240 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Stolica Paris
Klimat generally cool winters and mild summers, but mild winters and hot summers along the Mediterranean; occasional strong, cold, dry, north-to-northwesterly wind known as mistral
Linia brzegowa 3,427 km
Konstytucja 28 wrzesien 1958, amended concerning election of president w 1962, amended to comply z provisions of EC Maastricht Treaty w 1992, Amsterdam Treaty w 1996, Treaty of Nice w 2000; amended to tighten immigration laws 1993
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: French Republic

conventional short form: Francja

local long form: Republique Francaise

local short form: Francja
Waluta euro (EUR); French franc (FRF)

note: on 1 styczen 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions of member countries; on 1 styczen 2002, the euro became the sole currency dla everyday transactions within the member countries
Wspolczynnik zgonow 9.04 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $106 billion (1998)
Zalezne tereny Bassas da Indie, Clipperton, Europa (wyspa), Polinezja Francuska, Francuskie Terytoria Poludniowe i Antarktyczne, Wyspy Glorioso, Juan de Nova, Nowa Kaledonia, Wyspa Tromelin, Wallis i Futuna

note: the US does not recognize claims to Antarktyda
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Howard H. LEACH

embassy: 2 Avenue Gabriel, 75008 Paris

mailing address: PSC 116, B210 APO AE 09777

telephone: [33] (1) 43-12-22-22

FAX: [33] (1) 42 66 97 83

consulate(s) general: Marseille, Strasbourg
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Jean-David LEVITTE

chancery: 4101 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007

telephone: [1] (202) 944-6000

FAX: [1] (202) 944-6166

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Madagaskar claims Bassas da Indie, Europa (wyspa), Wyspy Glorioso, Juan de Nova, and Wyspa Tromelin; Komory claims Majotta; Mauritius claims Wyspa Tromelin; territorial dispute between Surinam and Gujana Francuska; territorial claim w Antarktyda (Adelie Land); Matthew and Hunter Islands, east of Nowa Kaledonia, claimed by Francja and Vanuatu
Ekonomiczna pomoc - udzielanie ODA, $6.3 billion (1997) (1997)
Ekonomia Francja is w the midst of a gradual transition, from a well-to-do modern economy that has featured extensive government ownership and intervention to one that relies more on market mechanisms. The government has partially or fully privatized many large companies, banks, and insurers, but still retains large stakes w several leading firms, including Air Francja, Francja Telecom, and Renault, and remains dominant w some sectors, particularly the power, public transport, and defense industries. The telecommunications sector is gradually being opened to competition. Francja's leaders remain committed to a capitalism w which they maintain social equity by means of laws, tax policies, and social spending that reduce income disparity and the impact of free markets on public health and welfare. The government has lowered income taxes and introduced measures to boost employment but has done little to reform an overly expensive pension system, rigid labor market, and restrictive bureaucracy which discourage hiring and make the tax burden one of the highest w Europe. In addition to the tax burden, the reduction of the workweek to 35 hours has drawn criticism dla lowering the competitiveness of French businesses. The current economic slowdown has thrown the government's goal of balancing the budget by 2004 off track.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 408.51 billion kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 73.172 billion kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - import 3.737 billion kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 513.92 billion kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - zrodla energii fossil fuel: 10%

hydro: 13%

nuclear: 77%

other: 1% (2000)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Rhone River delta -2 m

highest point: Mont Blanc 4,807 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy some forest damage from acid rain (major forest damage occurred as a result of severe grudzien 1999 windstorm); air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution from urban wastes, agricultural runoff
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol
Grupy etniczne Celtic and Latin z Teutonic, Slavic, North African, Indochinese, Basque minorities
Kurs waluty euros per US dollar - 1.1324 (styczen 2002), 1.1175 (2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); French francs per US dollar - 5.65 (styczen 1999), 5.8995 (1998), 5.8367 (1997)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 maj 1995)

head of government: Prime Minister Jean-Pierre RAFFARIN (since 7 maj 2002)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the suggestion of the prime minister

elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (changed from seven-year term w 2001); election last held 21 kwiecien and 5 maj 2002 (next to be held, first round NA kwiecien 2007, second round NA maj 2007); prime minister nominated by the National Assembly majority and appointed by the president

election results: Jacques CHIRAC reelected president; percent of vote, second ballot - Jacques CHIRAC (RPR) 81.96%, Jean-Marie LE PEN (FN) 18.04%
Eksport 73.172 billion kWh (2000)
Eksport $307.8 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Eksport - towary machinery and transportation equipment, aircraft, plastics, chemicals, pharmaceutical products, iron and steel, beverages
Eksport - partnerzy EU 61.3% (Niemcy 14.7%, UK 9.8%, Hiszpania 9.6%, Wlochy 8.8%), US 8.7% (2001)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), white, and red; known as the French Tricouleur (Tricolor); the design and/or colors are similar to a number of other flags, including those of Belgia, Czad, Irlandia, Cote d'Ivoire, Luksemburg, and Holandia; the official flag dla all French dependent areas
Produkt krajowy brutto purchasing power parity - $1.54 trillion (2002 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 3%

industry: 26%

services: 71% (2002 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita purchasing power parity - $25,700 (2002 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 1.1% (2002 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 46 00 N, 2 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne largest West European nation
Ladowiska helikopterow 3 (2002)
Autostrady total: 892,900 km

paved: 892,900 km (including 9,900 km of expressways)

unpaved: 0 km (1999)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 3%

highest 10%: 25% (1995)
Narkotyki transshipment point dla and consumer of South American cocaine, Southwest Asian heroin, and European synthetics
Import 3.737 billion kWh (2000)
Import $303.7 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Import - towary machinery and equipment, vehicles, crude oil, aircraft, plastics, chemicals
Import - partnerzy EU 58.6% (Niemcy 16.7%, Benelux 7.0%, Wlochy 9.1%, UK 7.5%), US 8.9% (2001)
Niepodleglosc 486 (unified by Clovis)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle -0.3% (2002)
Przemysl machinery, chemicals, automobiles, metallurgy, aircraft, electronics; textiles, food processing; tourism
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow 4.41 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflacja 1.8% (2002 est.)
Dostawcy internetu 62 (2000)
Nawadniane tereny 20,000 sq km (1998 est.)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court of Appeals or Cour de Cassation (judges are appointed by the president from nominations of the High Council of the Judiciary); Konstytucjaal Council or Conseil Konstytucjanel (three members appointed by the president, three appointed by the president of the National Assembly, and three appointed by the president of the Senate); Council of State or Conseil d'Etat
Sila robocza 26.6 million (2001 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki services 71%, industry 25%, agriculture 4% (1997)
Granica total: 2,889 km

border countries: Andora 56.6 km, Belgia 620 km, Niemcy 451 km, Wlochy 488 km, Luksemburg 73 km, Monako 4.4 km, Hiszpania 623 km, Szwajcaria 573 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 33.3%

permanent crops: 2.11%

other: 64.59% (1998 est.)
Jezyki French 100%, rapidly declining regional dialects and languages (Provencal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque, Flemish)
System prawny civil law system z indigenous concepts; review of administrative but not legislative acts
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Senat (321 seats - 296 dla metropolitan Francja, 13 dla overseas departments and territories, and 12 dla French nationals abroad; members are indirectly elected by an electoral college to serve nine-year terms; elected by thirds every three years) and the National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (577 seats; members are elected by popular vote under a single-member majoritarian system to serve five-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held 23 wrzesien 2001 (next to be held NA wrzesien 2004); National Assembly - last held 8-16 czerwiec 2002 (next to be held NA czerwiec 2007)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - RPR 83, PS 68, UDC 37, DL 35, RDES 16, PCF 16, other 66; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - UMP 355, PS 140, UDF 29, PCF 21, Radical Party 7, The Greens 3, other 22
Zywotnosc total population: 79.05 years

male: 75.17 years

female: 83.14 years (2002 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99%

male: 99%

female: 99% (1980 est.)
Lokalizacja Western Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay and English Channel, between Belgia and Hiszpania, southeast of the UK; bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Wlochy and Hiszpania
Lokalizacja na mapie Europe
Morskie obszary contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM (does not apply to the Mediterranean)

territorial sea: 12 NM
Flota handlowa total: 49 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,263,691 GRT/1,769,932 DWT

ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 4, chemical tanker 9, combination bulk 1, container 3, liquefied gas 3, passenger 3, petroleum tanker 15, roll on/roll off 4, short-sea passenger 4

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Polinezja Francuska 2, Grecja 1, Japonia 1, Norwegia 1, Szwecja 9 (2002 est.)
Wojsko Army (includes marines), Navy (includes naval air), Air Force (includes Air Defense), National Gendarmerie
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $46.5 billion (2000)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 2.57% (2002)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (w wieku poborowym) males age 15-49: 14,534,480 (2002 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (zdolni do sluzby wojskowej) males age 15-49: 12,092,938 (2002 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (wiek zolniezy) 18 years of age (2002 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (osoby osiagajace wiek poborowy w ciagu roku) males: 390,064 (2002 est.)
Swieto narodowe Bastille Day, 14 lipiec (1789)
Narodowosc noun: Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women)

adjective: French
Naturalne zagrozenia flooding; avalanches; midwinter windstorms; drought; forest fires w south near the Mediterranean
Surowce naturalne coal, iron ore, bauxite, zinc, potash, timber, fish
Wspolczynnik migracji 0.64 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Rurociagi crude oil 3,059 km; petroleum products 4,487 km; natural gas 24,746 km
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Citizen adn Republican Movement or MCR [Jean Pierre CHEVENEMENT]; Democratic and European Social Rally or RDES (mainly RAD and PRG) [leader NA]; Forum of Social Republicans or FRS (offshoot from UMP) [Christine BOUTIN]; French Communist Party or PCF [Marie-George BUFFET]; Generation Ecology [Francja GAMERRE]; Hunting, Fishing, Nature, and Tradition or CPNT [Jean SAINT-JOSSE]; Independent Ecological Movement or MEI [Antoine WAECHTER]; Left Radical Party or PRG (previously Radical Socialist Party or PRS and the Left Radical Movement or MRG) [Jean-Michel BAYLET]; Liberal-Christian Right [Charles MILLON]; Liberal Democracy or DL (originally Republican Party or PR) [Alain MADELIN]; Movement dla Francja or MPF [Philippe DE VILLIERS]; National Front or FN [Jean-Marie LE PEN]; National Republican Movement or MNR [Bruno MEGRET]; Radical Party or RP [Francois LOOS]; Rally dla Francja or RPF [Charles PASQUA]; Rally dla the Republic or RPR [Michelle ALLIOT-MARIE]; Revolutionary Communists' League or LCR [Alain KRIVINE]; Socialist Party or PS [Francois HOLLANDE]; The Greens [Gilles LEMAIRE, national secretary]; Union dla French Democracy or UDF (coalition of DL, CDS, UDF, RP, and other parties) [Francois BAYROU]; Union dla a Popular Movement or UMP (including RPR, DL, and a part of UDF) [Alain JUPPE]; Union of the Center or UDC [leader NA]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow historically-Communist labor union (Confederation Generale du Travail) or CGT, approximately 700,000 members (claimed); left-leaning labor union (Confederation Francaise Democratique du Travail) or CFDT, approximately 865,000 members (claimed, of which 810,000 are actively employed); independent labor union (Confederation Generale du Travail - Force Ouvriere) or FO, 300,000 members (est.); independent white-collar union (Confederation Generale des Cadres) or CGC, 196,000 members (claimed); employers' union (Mouvement des Entreprises de Francja) or MEDEF, 750,000 companies as members (claimed)
Ludnosc 59,765,983 (lipiec 2002 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa NA%
Przyrost naturalny 0.35% (2002 est.)
Porty i stocznie Bordeaux, Boulogne, Cherbourg, Dijon, Dunkerque, La Pallice, Le Havre, Lyon, Marseille, Mullhouse, Nantes, Paris, Rouen, Saint Nazaire, Saint Malo, Strasbourg
Stacje radiowe AM 41, FM about 3,500 (this figure is an approximation and includes many repeaters), shortwave 2 (1998)
Radia 55.3 million (1997)
Linie kolejowe total: 31,939 km (operated by French National Linie kolejowe (SNCF); 14,176 km of SNCF routes are electrified and 12,132 km are double- or multiple-track)

standard gauge: 31,840 km 1.435-m gauge

narrow gauge: 99 km 1.000-m gauge (2000 est.)
Religie Roman Catholic 83%-88%, Protestant 2%, Jewish 1%, Muslim 5%-10%, unaffiliated 4%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: highly developed

domestic: extensive cable and microwave radio relay; extensive introduction of fiber-optic cable; domestic satellite system

international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (with total of 5 antennas - 2 dla Ocean Indyjski and 3 dla Ocean Atlantycki), NA Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat (Ocean Atlantycki region); HF radiotelephone communications z more than 20 countries
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 34.86 million (yearend 1998)
Telefony komorkowe 11.078 million (yearend 1998)
Stacje telewizyjne 584 (plus 9,676 repeaters) (1995)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly flat plains or gently rolling hills w north and west; remainder is mountainous, especially Pyrenees w south, Alps w east
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.74 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 9.1% (2002 est.)
Drogi wodne 14,932 km (6,969 km heavily traveled)
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