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Fiji (2002)

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Fiji 2002 year

Administrative divisions 4 divisions and 1 dependency*; Central, Eastern, Northern, Rotuma*, Western
Age structure 0-14 years: 32.5% (male 141,757; female 136,198)

15-64 years: 63.8% (male 273,658; female 273,100)

65 years and over: 3.7% (male 14,648; female 16,985) (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products sugarcane, coconuts, cassava (tapioca), rice, sweet potatoes, bananas; cattle, pigs, horses, goats; fish
Airports 27 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways total: 3

over 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 24

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 6

under 914 m: 18 (2002)
Area total: 18,270 sq km

land: 18,270 sq km

water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than New Jersey
Background Fiji became independent in 1970, after nearly a century as a British colony. Democratic rule was interrupted by two military coups in 1987, caused by concern over a government perceived as dominated by the Indian community (descendants of contract laborers brought to the islands by the British in the 19th century). A 1990 constitution favored native Melanesian control of Fiji, but led to heavy Indian emigration; the population loss resulted in economic difficulties, but ensured that Melanesians became the majority. Amendments enacted in 1997 made the constitution more equitable. Free and peaceful elections in 1999 resulted in a government led by an Indo-Fijian, but a coup in May of 2000 ushered in a prolonged period of political turmoil. Parliamentary elections held in August 2001 provided Fiji with a democratically elected government and gave a mandate to the government of Prime Minister Laisenia QARASE.
Birth rate 23.2 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budget revenues: $427.9 million

expenditures: $531.4 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Capital Suva
Climate tropical marine; only slight seasonal temperature variation
Coastline 1,129 km
Constitution promulgated on 25 July 1990 and amended on 25 July 1997 to allow nonethnic Fijians greater say in government and to make multiparty government mandatory; entered into force 28 July 1998; note - the May 1999 election was the first test of the amended constitution and introduced open voting - not racially prescribed - for the first time at the national level
Country name conventional long form: Republic of the Fiji Islands

conventional short form: Fiji
Currency Fijian dollar (FJD)
Death rate 5.72 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Debt - external $162.7 million (1999)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador David L. LYON

embassy: 31 Loftus Street, Suva

mailing address: P. O. Box 218, Suva

telephone: [679] 314466

FAX: [679] 300081
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Anare JALE

chancery: 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Suite 240, Washington, DC 20007

telephone: [1] (202) 337-8320

FAX: [1] (202) 337-1996
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $40.3 million (1995) (1995)
Economy - overview Fiji, endowed with forest, mineral, and fish resources, is one of the most developed of the Pacific island economies, though still with a large subsistence sector. Sugar exports and a growing tourist industry - with 300,000 to 400,000 tourists annually - are the major sources of foreign exchange. Sugar processing makes up one-third of industrial activity. Long-term problems include low investment and uncertain property rights. The political turmoil in Fiji has had a severe impact with the economy shrinking by 2.8% in 2000 and growing by only 1% in 2001. The Fiji Visitor's Bureau expects visitor arrivals to reach pre-coup levels during 2002. The government's ability to manage its budget - which is expected to run a net deficit of 6% in 2002 - will depend upon a return of political stability and investor confidence.
Electricity - consumption 478.95 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - production 515 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 18%

hydro: 82%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2000)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Tomanivi 1,324 m
Environment - current issues deforestation; soil erosion
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Fijian 51% (predominantly Melanesian with a Polynesian admixture), Indian 44%, European, other Pacific Islanders, overseas Chinese, and other 5% (1998 est.)
Exchange rates Fijian dollars per US dollar - 2.2934 (January 2002), 2.2766 (2001), 2.1286 (2000), 1.9696 (1999), 1.9868 (1998), 1.4437 (1997)
Executive branch chief of state: President Ratu Josefa ILOILOVATU Uluivuda (since NA 2000); Vice President Jope SENILOLI (since NA 2000)

head of government: Prime Minister Laisenia QARASE (since 10 September 2000); Deputy Prime Minister Ratu Epeli NAILATIKAU (since NA 2000)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among the members of Parliament and is responsible to Parliament; note - there is also a Presidential Council that advises the president on matters of national importance and a Great Council of Chiefs which consists of the highest ranking members of the traditional chief system

elections: president elected by the Great Council of Chiefs for a five-year term; prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Ratu Josefa ILOILOVATU Uluivuda elected president by the Great Council of Chiefs; percent of vote - NA%
Exports 0 kWh (2000)
Exports $572 million f.o.b. (2000)
Exports - commodities sugar, garments, gold, timber, fish, molasses, coconut oil
Exports - partners Australia 24.9%, US 20.8%, UK 14.4%, Japan 5.1%, other Pacific island countries 5.0%, NZ 3.6% (2000)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Fijian shield centered on the outer half of the flag; the shield depicts a yellow lion above a white field quartered by the cross of Saint George featuring stalks of sugarcane, a palm tree, bananas, and a white dove
GDP purchasing power parity - $4.4 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 17%

industry: 25%

services: 58% (2000 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $5,200 (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 1% (2001 est.)
Geographic coordinates 18 00 S, 175 00 E
Geography - note includes 332 islands of which approximately 110 are inhabited
Highways total: 3,440 km

paved: 1,692 km

unpaved: 1,748 km (1996)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Imports 0 kWh (2000)
Imports $833 million c.i.f. (2000)
Imports - commodities manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, petroleum products, food, chemicals
Imports - partners Australia 46.2%, NZ 13.1%, Singapore 6.6%, Japan 4.5%, Hong Kong 3.8%, US 3.2%, Taiwan 3.0% (2000)
Independence 10 October 1970 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate NA%
Industries tourism, sugar, clothing, copra, gold, silver, lumber, small cottage industries
Infant mortality rate 13.72 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3% (2000 est.)
International organization participation ACP, AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, OPCW, PCA, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNTAET, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 2 (2000)
Irrigated land 30 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president); Court of Appeal; High Court; Magistrates' Courts
Labor force 137,000 (1999)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture, including subsistence agriculture 70% (2001 est.)
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land: 10.95%

permanent crops: 4.65%

other: 84.4% (1998 est.)
Languages English (official), Fijian, Hindustani
Legal system based on British system
Legislative branch bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (34 seats; 24 appointed by the Great Council of Chiefs, nine appointed by the president, and one appointed by the council of Rotuma) and the House of Representatives (71 seats; 23 reserved for ethnic Fijians, 19 reserved for ethnic Indians, three reserved for other ethnic groups, one reserved for the council of Rotuma constituency encompassing the whole of Fiji, and 25 open seats; members serve five-year terms)

elections: House of Representatives - last held 25 August, 2 September, 19 September 2001 (next to be held NA September 2006)

election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - FLP 34.8%, SDL 26%, NFP 10.1%, MV 9.9%, independents 2.7%, other 16.5%; seats by party - SDL 32, FLP 27, MV 6, NFP 1, independents 2, other 3
Life expectancy at birth total population: 68.56 years

male: 66.13 years

female: 71.11 years (2002 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 92.5%

male: 90%

female: 95% (1999 est.)
Location Oceania, island group in the South Pacific Ocean, about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand
Map references Oceania
Maritime claims measured from claimed archipelagic baselines

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation; rectilinear shelf claim added

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM
Merchant marine total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 11,870 GRT/14,787 DWT

ships by type: chemical tanker 2, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1, specialized tanker 1, includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Australia 1, Singapore 4
(2002 est.)
Military branches Republic of Fiji Military Forces (RFMF), includes ground forces, naval division
Military expenditures - dollar figure $35 million (FY00)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2.2% (FY00)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 231,649 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 127,384 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 9,471 (2002 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, second Monday of October (1970)
Nationality noun: Fijian(s)

adjective: Fijian
Natural hazards cyclonic storms can occur from November to January
Natural resources timber, fish, gold, copper, offshore oil potential, hydropower
Net migration rate -3.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Political parties and leaders Bai Kei Viti Party or BKV [Ratu Tevita MOMOEDONU]; Christian Democrat Alliance or VLV [leader NA]; Conservative Alliance Party/Matanitu Vanua or MV [Ratu Rakuita VAKALALABURE]; Dodonu Ni Taukei Party or DNT [leader NA]; Fiji Labor Party or FLP [Mahendra CHAUDRHRY]; Fijian Association Party of FAP [Adi Kuini SPEED]; Fijian Political Party or SVT (primarily Fijian) [Felipe BOLE]; General Voters Party or GHP [leader NA]; Girmit Heritage Party or GHP [leader NA]; Justice and Freedom Party or AIM [leader NA]; Lio 'On Famor Rotuma Party or LFR [leader NA]; National Federation Party or NFP (primarily Indian) [Attar SINGH]; Nationalist Vanua Tako Lavo Party or NVTLP [Samisoni BOLATAGICI]; New Labor Unity Party or NLUP [Tupeni BABA]; Party of National Unity or PANU [leader NA]; Party of the Truth or POTT [leader NA]; United Fiji Party/Sogosogo Duavata ni Lewenivanua or SDL [Laisenia QARASE]; United General Party or UGP [Mick BEDDOES]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 856,346 (July 2002 est.)
Population below poverty line 26% (1990-91 )
Population growth rate 1.41% (2002 est.)
Ports and harbors Lambasa, Lautoka, Levuka, Malau, Savusavu, Suva, Vuda
Radio broadcast stations AM 13, FM 40, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios 541,476 (1999)
Railways total: 597 km

narrow gauge: 597 km 0.610-m gauge

note: belongs to the government-owned Fiji Sugar Corporation (1995)
Religions Christian 52% (Methodist 37%, Roman Catholic 9%), Hindu 38%, Muslim 8%, other 2%

note: Fijians are mainly Christian, Indians are Hindu, and there is a Muslim minority (1986)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female

total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Suffrage 21 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: modern local, interisland, and international (wire/radio integrated) public and special-purpose telephone, telegraph, and teleprinter facilities; regional radio communications center

domestic: NA

international: access to important cable links between US and Canada as well as between NZ and Australia; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 80,901 (1999)
Telephones - mobile cellular 5,200 (1997)
Television broadcast stations NA
Terrain mostly mountains of volcanic origin
Total fertility rate 2.83 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate 7.6% (1999)
Waterways 203 km

note: 122 km navigable by motorized craft and 200-metric-ton barges
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