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Erytrea (2008)

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Erytrea 2008 roku

 Erytrea
Podzial administracyjny 6 regions (zobatat, singular - zoba); Anseba, Debub (Southern), Debubawi K'eyih Bahri (Southern Red Sea), Gash Barka, Ma'akel (Central), Semenawi Keyih Bahri (Northern Red Sea)
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 43.5% (male 1,073,404/female 1,060,674)


15-64 years: 52.9% (male 1,286,613/female 1,310,294)


65 years and over: 3.6% (male 85,052/female 90,548) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo sorghum, lentils, vegetables, corn, cotton, tobacco, sisal; livestock, goats; fish
Lotniska 18 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 4


over 3,047 m: 2


2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 14


over 3,047 m: 1


2,438 to 3,047 m: 1


1,524 to 2,437 m: 6


914 to 1,523 m: 4


under 914 m: 2 (2007)
Terytorium total: 121,320 sq km


land: 121,320 sq km


water: 0 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly larger than Pennsylvania
Tlo historyczne Erytrea was awarded to Etiopia w 1952 as part of a federation. Etiopia's annexation of Erytrea as a province 10 years later sparked a 30-year struggle dla independence that ended w 1991 z Erytrean rebels defeating governmental forces; independence was overwhelmingly approved w a 1993 referendum. A two-and-a-half-year border war z Etiopia that erupted w 1998 ended under UN auspices w grudzien 2000. Erytrea currently hosts a UN peacekeeping operation that is monitoring a 25 km-wide Temporary Security Zone (TSZ) on the border z Etiopia. An international commission, organized to resolve the border dispute, posted its findings w 2002. However, both parties have been unable to reach agreement on implementing the decision. On 30 listopad 2007, the Erytrea-Etiopia Boundary Commission remotely demarcated the border by coordinates and dissolved itself, leaving Etiopian still occupying several tracts of disputed territory, including the town of Badme. Erytrea accepted the EEBC's "virtual demarcation" decision and called on Etiopia to remove its troops from the TSZ which it states is Erytrean territory. Etiopia has not accepted the virtual demarcation decision.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 33.97 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $232.7 million


expenditures: $467.6 million (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Asmara (Asmera)


geographic coordinates: 15 20 N, 38 56 E


time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Klimat hot, dry desert strip along Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter w the central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually, heaviest czerwiec to wrzesien); semiarid w western hills and lowlands
Linia brzegowa 2,234 km (mainland on Red Sea 1,151 km, islands w Red Sea 1,083 km)
Konstytucja a transitional constitution, decreed on 19 maj 1993, was replaced by a new constitution adopted on 23 maj 1997, but not yet implemented
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: State of Erytrea


conventional short form: Erytrea


local long form: Hagere Ertra


local short form: Ertra


former: Erytrea Autonomous Region w Etiopia
Wspolczynnik zgonow 9.36 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $311 million (2000 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Ronald MCMULLEN


embassy: 179 Alaa Street, Asmara


mailing address: P. O. Box 211, Asmara


telephone: [291] (1) 120004


FAX: [291] (1) 127584
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador GHIRMAI Ghebremariam


chancery: 1708 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009


telephone: [1] (202) 319-1991


FAX: [1] (202) 319-1304


consulate(s) general: Oakland (California)
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Erytrea and Etiopia agreed to abide by 2002 Etiopia-Erytrea Boundary Commission's (EEBC) delimitation decision but, neither party responded to the revised line detailed w the listopad 2006 EEBC Demarcation Statement; UN Peacekeeping Mission to Etiopia and Erytrea (UNMEE), which has monitored the 25-km-wide Temporary Security Zone w Erytrea since 2000, is extended dla six months w 2007 despite Erytrean restrictions on its operations and reduced force of 17,000; Sudan accuses Erytrea of supporting eastern Sudanese rebel groups
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $355.2 million (2005)
Ekonomia Since independence from Etiopia w 1993, Erytrea has faced the economic problems of a small, desperately poor country, accentuated by the recent implementation of restrictive economic policies. Erytrea has a command economy under the control of the sole political party, the People's Front dla Democracy and Justice (PFDJ). Like the economies of many African nations, the economy is largely based on subsistence agriculture, z 80% of the population involved w farming and herding. The Etiopian-Erytrea war w 1998-2000 severely hurt Erytrea's economy. Produkt krajowy brutto growth fell to zero w 1999 and to -12.1% w 2000. The maj 2000 Etiopian offensive into northern Erytrea caused some $600 million w property damage and loss, including losses of $225 million w livestock and 55,000 homes. The attack prevented planting of crops w Erytrea's most productive region, causing food production to drop by 62%. Even during the war, Erytrea developed its transportation infrastructure, asphalting new roads, improving its ports, and repairing war-damaged roads and bridges. Since the war ended, the government has maintained a firm grip on the economy, expanding the use of the military and party-owned businesses to complete Erytrea's development agenda. The government strictly controls the use of foreign currency, limiting access and availability. Few private enterprises remain w Erytrea. Erytrea's economy is heavily dependent on taxes paid by members of the diaspora. Erratic rainfall and the delayed demobilization of agriculturalists from the military continue to interfere z agricultural production, and Erytrea's recent harvests have not been able to meet the food needs of the country. The government continues to place its hope dla additional revenue on the development of several international mining projects. Despite difficulties dla international companies w working z the Erytrean government, a Canadian mining company signed a contract z the GSE w 2007 and plans to begin mineral extraction w 2010. Erytrea also anticipates opening a free trade zone at the port of Massawa w 2008. Erytrea's economic future depends upon its ability to master social problems such as illiteracy, unemployment, and low skills, and more importantly, on the government's willingness to support a true market economy.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 228 million kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 274 million kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: near Kulul within the Denakil depression -75 m


highest point: Soira 3,018 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy deforestation; desertification; soil erosion; overgrazing; loss of infrastructure from civil warfare
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Tigrinya 50%, Tigre and Kunama 40%, Afar 4%, Saho (Red Sea coast dwellers) 3%, other 3%
Kurs waluty nakfa (ERN) per US dollar - 15.5 (2007), 15.4 (2006), 14.5 (2005), 13.788 (2004), 13.878 (2003)


note: the official exchange rate is 15 nakfa to the dollar
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President ISAIAS Afworki (since 8 czerwiec 1993); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government and is head of the State Council and National Assembly


head of government: President ISAIAS Afworki (since 8 czerwiec 1993)


cabinet: State Council is the collective executive authority; members appointed by the president


elections: president elected by the National Assembly dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); the most recent and only election held 8 czerwiec 1993 (next election date uncertain as the National Assembly did not hold a presidential election w grudzien 2001 as anticipated)


election results: ISAIAS Afworki elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - ISAIAS Afworki 95%, other 5%
Eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Eksport $16.82 million f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 54.59 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary livestock, sorghum, textiles, food, small manufactures (2000)
Eksport - partnerzy Wlochy 26.7%, Francja 13.8%, Australia 8.2%, Sudan 7.9%, US 7.8%, Chiny 6.2%, Arabia Saudyjska 5.5%, Jordania 5.2% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) dividing the flag into two right triangles; the upper triangle is green, the lower one is blue; a gold wreath encircling a gold olive branch is centered on the hoist side of the red triangle
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 21.7%


industry: 22.6%


services: 55.7% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 2% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 15 00 N, 39 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne strategic geopolitical position along world's busiest shipping lanes; Erytrea retained the entire coastline of Etiopia along the Red Sea upon de jure independence from Etiopia on 24 maj 1993
Ladowiska helikopterow 1 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: NA%


highest 10%: NA%
Import 0 kWh (2005)
Import $565.9 million f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2005)
Import 4,924 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary machinery, petroleum products, food, manufactured goods
Import - partnerzy Wlochy 15.8%, Arabia Saudyjska 15.7%, Chiny 15.6%, Holandia 6.7%, Turcja 6.2%, Niemcy 5.3%, Brazylia 4.3% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 24 maj 1993 (from Etiopia)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 2% (2007 est.)
Przemysl food processing, beverages, clothing and textiles, light manufacturing, salt, cement
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 45.24 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 51.05 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 39.25 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 15.5% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ACP, AfDB, AU, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS (observer), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC, LAS (observer), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Nawadniane tereny 210 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo High Court - regional, subregional, and village courts; also have military and special courts
Sila robocza NA
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 80%


industry and services: 20% (2004 est.)
Granica total: 1,626 km


border countries: Dzibuti 109 km, Etiopia 912 km, Sudan 605 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 4.78%


permanent crops: 0.03%


other: 95.19% (2005)
Jezyki Afar, Arabic, Tigre and Kunama, Tigrinya, other Cushitic languages
System prawny primary basis is the Etiopian legal code of 1957, z revisions; new civil, commercial, and penal codes have not yet been promulgated; government also issues unilateral proclamations setting laws and policies; also relies on customary and post-independence-enacted laws and, dla civil cases involving Muslims, Islamic law; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral National Assembly (150 seats; members elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms)


elections: w maj 1997, following the adoption of the new constitution, 75 members of the PFDJ Central Committee (the old Central Committee of the EPLF), 60 members of the 527-member Constituent Assembly, which had been established w 1997 to discuss and ratify the new constitution, and 15 representatives of Erytreans living abroad were formed into a Transitional National Assembly to serve as the country's legislative body until countrywide elections to a National Assembly were held; although only 75 of 150 members of the Transitional National Assembly were elected, the constitution stipulates that once past the transition stage, all members of the National Assembly will be elected by secret ballot of all eligible voters; National Assembly elections scheduled dla grudzien 2001 were postponed indefinitely
Zywotnosc total population: 59.55 years


male: 57.88 years


female: 61.28 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 58.6%


male: 69.9%


female: 47.6% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Eastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Dzibuti and Sudan
Lokalizacja na mapie Africa
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm
Flota handlowa total: 5 ships (1000 GRT or over) 12,529 GRT/15,023 DWT


by type: cargo 2, liquefied gas 1, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1 (2007)
Wojsko Erytrean Armed Forces: Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force (2008)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 6.3% (2006 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 24 maj (1993)
Narodowosc noun: Erytrean(s)


adjective: Erytrean
Naturalne zagrozenia frequent droughts; locust swarms
Surowce naturalne gold, potash, zinc, copper, salt, possibly oil and natural gas, fish
Wspolczynnik migracji 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy People's Front dla Democracy and Justice or PFDJ [ISAIAS Afworki] (the only party recognized by the government); note - a National Assembly committee drafted a law on political parties w styczen 2001, but the full National Assembly has not yet debated or voted on it
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Erytrean Islamic Jihad or EIJ (also including Erytrean Islamic Jihad Movement or EIJM (also known as the Abu Sihel Movement)); Erytrean Islamic Salvation or EIS (also known as the Arafa Movement); Erytrean Liberation Front or ELF [ABDULLAH Muhammed]; Erytrean National Alliance or ENA (a coalition including EIJ, EIS, ELF, and a number of ELF factions) [HERUY Tedla Biru]; Erytrean Public Forum or EPF [ARADOM Iyob]; Erytrean Democratic Party (EDP) [HAGOS, Mesfin]
Ludnosc 4,906,585 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 50% (2004 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 2.461% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 2, FM NA, shortwave 2 (2000)
Linie kolejowe total: 306 km


narrow gauge: 306 km 0.950-m gauge (2006)
Religie Muslim, Coptic Christian, Roman Catholic, Protestant
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.012 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 0.982 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.939 male(s)/female


total population: 0.993 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: inadequate


domestic: inadequate; most telephones are w Asmara; government is seeking international tenders to improve the system (2002)


international: country code - 291; note - international connections exist
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 37,700 (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 62,000 (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 2 (2006)
Uksztaltowanie terenu dominated by extension of Etiopian north-south trending highlands, descending on the east to a coastal desert plain, on the northwest to hilly terrain and on the southwest to flat-to-rolling plains
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 4.96 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia NA%
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