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El Salvador (2002)

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 El Salvador
Administrative divisions 14 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Ahuachapan, Cabanas, Chalatenango, Cuscatlan, La Libertad, La Paz, La Union, Morazan, San Miguel, San Salvador, Santa Ana, San Vicente, Sonsonate, Usulutan
Age structure 0-14 years: 37.4% (male 1,211,156; female 1,162,317)

15-64 years: 57.5% (male 1,735,744; female 1,922,395)

65 years and over: 5.1% (male 144,864; female 177,205) (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products coffee, sugar, corn, rice, beans, oilseed, cotton, sorghum; shrimp; beef, dairy products
Airports 83 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways total: 4

over 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 78

914 to 1,523 m: 17

under 914 m: 61 (2002)
Area total: 21,040 sq km

land: 20,720 sq km

water: 320 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Massachusetts
Background El Salvador achieved independence from Spain in 1821 and from the Central American Federation in 1839. A 12-year civil war, which cost about 75,000 lives, was brought to a close in 1992 when the government and leftist rebels signed a treaty that provided for military and political reforms.
Birth rate 28.3 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budget revenues: $2.1 billion

expenditures: $2.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.) (2001 est.)
Capital San Salvador
Climate tropical; rainy season (May to October); dry season (November to April); tropical on coast; temperate in uplands
Coastline 307 km
Constitution 23 December 1983
Country name conventional long form: Republic of El Salvador

conventional short form: El Salvador

local long form: Republica de El Salvador

local short form: El Salvador
Currency Salvadoran colon (SVC); US dollar (USD)
Death rate 6.1 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Debt - external $4.9 billion (2001 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Rose M. LIKINS

embassy: Final Boulevard Santa Elena Sur, Urbanizacion Santa Elena, Antiguo Cuscatlan, La Libertad, San Salvador

mailing address: Unit 3116, APO AA 34023

telephone: [503] 278-4444

FAX: [503] 278-6011
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Rene Antonio LEON Rodriguez

chancery: 2308 California Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 265-9671

consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, and San Francisco
Disputes - international El Salvador claims tiny Conejo Island off Honduras in the Golfo de Fonseca; many of the "bolsones" (disputed areas) along the El Salvador-Honduras boundary remain undemarcated despite ICJ adjudication in 1992; with respect to the maritime boundary in the Golfo de Fonseca, the ICJ referred to the line determined by the 1900 Honduras-Nicaragua Mixed Boundary Commission and advised that some tripartite resolution among El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua likely would be required
Economic aid - recipient total $252 million; $57 million from US (1999 est.)
Economy - overview El Salvador is a struggling Central American economy which has been suffering from a weak tax collection system, factory closings, the aftermaths of Hurricane Mitch of 1998 and the devastating earthquakes of early 2001, and weak world coffee prices. On the bright side, in recent years inflation has fallen to single digit levels, and total exports have grown substantially. The trade deficit has been offset by remittances (an estimated $1.6 billion in 2000) from Salvadorans living abroad and by external aid. As of 1 January 2001, the US dollar was made legal tender alongside the colon. Growth in 2002 will depend largely on the speed of recovery in the US.
Electricity - consumption 4.07 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 112 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 750 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production 3.69 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 42%

hydro: 36%

nuclear: 0%

other: 22% (2000)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Cerro El Pital 2,730 m
Environment - current issues deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution; contamination of soils from disposal of toxic wastes
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Ethnic groups mestizo 90%, Amerindian 1%, white 9%
Exchange rates Salvadoran colones per US dollar - 8.750 (fixed since January 2001), 8.755 (fixed rate since 1993)

note: since January 2001 the US dollar has also become legal tender; the exchange rate has been fixed at 8.75 colones per US dollar
Executive branch chief of state: President Francisco FLORES Perez (since 1 June 1999); Vice President Carlos QUINTANILLA Schmidt (since 1 June 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Francisco FLORES Perez (since 1 June 1999); Vice President Carlos QUINTANILLA Schmidt (since 1 June 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Council of Ministers selected by the president

elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 7 March 1999 (next to be held NA March 2004)

election results: Francisco FLORES Perez elected president; percent of vote - Francisco FLORES (ARENA) 52%, Facundo GUARDADO (FMLN) 29%, Ruben ZAMORA (CD) 7.5%, other (no individual above 3%) 11.5%
Exports 112 million kWh (2000)
Exports $2.9 billion (2001)
Exports - commodities offshore assembly exports, coffee, sugar, shrimp, textiles, chemicals, electricity
Exports - partners US 65%, Guatemala 11%, Honduras 8%, EU 5% (2000)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with the national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL; similar to the flag of Nicaragua, which has a different coat of arms centered in the white band - it features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; also similar to the flag of Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band
GDP purchasing power parity - $28.4 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 10%

industry: 30%

services: 60% (2000) (2000)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $4,600 (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 1.4% (2001 est.)
Geographic coordinates 13 50 N, 88 55 W
Geography - note smallest Central American country and only one without a coastline on Caribbean Sea
Heliports 1 (2002)
Highways total: 10,029 km

paved: 1,986 km (including 327 km of expressways)

unpaved: 8,043 km (1997)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 1%

highest 10%: 39% (2001) (2001)
Illicit drugs transshipment point for cocaine; small amounts of marijuana produced for local consumption; domestic cocaine abuse on the rise
Imports 750 million kWh (2000)
Imports $5 billion (2001)
Imports - commodities raw materials, consumer goods, capital goods, fuels, foodstuffs, petroleum, electricity
Imports - partners US 50%, Guatemala 10%, EU 7%, Mexico 5%, (2000)
Independence 15 September 1821 (from Spain)
Industrial production growth rate 3% (2001 est.)
Industries food processing, beverages, petroleum, chemicals, fertilizer, textiles, furniture, light metals
Infant mortality rate 27.58 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3.8% (2001 est.)
International organization participation BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 4 (2000)
Irrigated land 360 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges are selected by the Legislative Assembly)
Labor force 2.35 million (1999) (1999)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 30%, industry 15%, services 55% (1999 est.)
Land boundaries total: 545 km

border countries: Guatemala 203 km, Honduras 342 km
Land use arable land: 27.27%

permanent crops: 12.11%

other: 60.62% (1998 est.)
Languages Spanish, Nahua (among some Amerindians)
Legal system based on civil and Roman law, with traces of common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Legislative branch unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea Legislativa (84 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote to serve three-year terms)

elections: last held 16 March 2003 (next to be held NA March 2006)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FMLN 31, ARENA 27, PCN 16, PDC 5, CD 5
Life expectancy at birth total population: 70.32 years

male: 66.72 years

female: 74.11 years (2002 est.)
Literacy definition: age 10 and over can read and write

total population: 71.5%

male: 73.5%

female: 69.8% (1995 est.)
Location Middle America, bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Guatemala and Honduras
Map references Central America and the Caribbean
Maritime claims territorial sea: 200 NM
Merchant marine none (2002 est.)
Military branches Army, Navy (FNES), Air Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure $112 million (FY99)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 0.7% (FY99)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 1,500,712 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 951,715 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 68,103 (2002 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Nationality noun: Salvadoran(s)

adjective: Salvadoran
Natural hazards known as the Land of Volcanoes; frequent and sometimes very destructive earthquakes and volcanic activity; extremely susceptible to hurricanes
Natural resources hydropower, geothermal power, petroleum, arable land
Net migration rate -3.88 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Political parties and leaders Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Rodolfo PARKER]; Democratic Convergence or CD [Ruben ZAMORA, secretary general] (includes Social Democratic Party or PSD [Juan MEDRANO, leader); Democratic Party or PD [Jorge MELENDEZ]; Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front or FMLN [Fabio CASTILLO]; Liberal Democratic Party or PLD [Kirio Waldo SALGADO, president]; National Action Party or PAN [Gustavo Rogelio SALINAS, secretary general]; National Conciliation Party or PCN [Ciro CRUZ Zepeda, president]; National Republican Alliance or ARENA [Walter ARAUJO]; Social Christian Union or USC (formed by the merger of Christian Social Renewal Party or PRSC and Unity Movement or MU) [Abraham RODRIGUEZ, president]
Political pressure groups and leaders labor organizations - Electrical Industry Union of El Salvador or SIES; Federation of the Construction Industry, Similar Transport and other activities, or FESINCONTRANS; National Confederation of Salvadoran Workers or CNTS; National Union of Salvadoran Workers or UNTS; Port Industry Union of El Salvador or SIPES; Salvadoran Union of Ex-Petrolleros and Peasant Workers or USEPOC; Salvadoran Workers Central or CTS; Workers Union of Electrical Corporation or STCEL; business organizations - National Association of Small Enterprise or ANEP; Salvadoran Assembly Industry Association or ASIC; Salvadoran Industrial Association or ASI
Population 6,353,681 (July 2002 est.)
Population below poverty line 48% (1999 est.)
Population growth rate 1.83% (2002 est.)
Ports and harbors Acajutla, Puerto Cutuco, La Libertad, La Union, Puerto El Triunfo
Radio broadcast stations AM 61 (plus 24 repeaters), FM 30, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios 2.75 million (1997)
Railways total: 562 km

narrow gauge: 562 km 0.914-m gauge

note: length of operational route is reduced to 283 km by disuse and lack of maintenance (2001 est.)
Religions Roman Catholic 83%

note: there is extensive activity by Protestant groups throughout the country; by the end of 1992, there were an estimated 1 million Protestant evangelicals in El Salvador
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: NA

domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to Central American Microwave System
Telephones - main lines in use 380,000 (1998)
Telephones - mobile cellular 40,163 (1997)
Television broadcast stations 5 (1997)
Terrain mostly mountains with narrow coastal belt and central plateau
Total fertility rate 3.29 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate 10% (2001 est.)
Waterways Rio Lempa partially navigable
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