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Egipt (2008)

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Egipt 2008 roku

 Egipt
Podzial administracyjny 26 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah, Al Isma'iliyah, Al Jizah, Al Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah, Al Qalyubiyah, Al Wadi al Jadid, As Suways, Ash Sharqiyah, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa'id, Dumyat, Janub Sina', Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina', Suhaj
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 32.2% (male 13,234,428/female 12,631,681)


15-64 years: 63.2% (male 25,688,703/female 25,082,200)


65 years and over: 4.6% (male 1,576,376/female 2,121,648) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits, vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats
Lotniska 88 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 72


over 3,047 m: 15


2,438 to 3,047 m: 36


1,524 to 2,437 m: 16


under 914 m: 5 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 16


2,438 to 3,047 m: 1


1,524 to 2,437 m: 3


914 to 1,523 m: 5


under 914 m: 7 (2007)
Terytorium total: 1,001,450 sq km


land: 995,450 sq km


water: 6,000 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly more than three times the size of New Meksyk
Tlo historyczne The regularity and richness of the annual Nile River flood, coupled z semi-isolation provided by deserts to the east and west, allowed dla the development of one of the world's great civilizations. A unified kingdom arose circa 3200 B.C., and a series of dynasties ruled w Egipt dla the next three millennia. The last native dynasty fell to the Persians w 341 B.C., who w turn were replaced by the Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines. It was the Arabs who introduced Islam and the Arabic language w the 7th century and who ruled dla the next six centuries. A local military caste, the Mamluks took control about 1250 and continued to govern after the conquest of Egipt by the Ottoman Turks w 1517. Following the completion of the Suez Canal w 1869, Egipt became an important world transportation hub, but also fell heavily into debt. Ostensibly to protect its investments, Britain seized control of Egipt's government w 1882, but nominal allegiance to the Ottoman Empire continued until 1914. Partially independent from the UK w 1922, Egipt acquired full sovereignty z the overthrow of the British-backed monarchy w 1952. The completion of the Aswan High Dam w 1971 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honored place of the Nile River w the agriculture and ecology of Egipt. A rapidly growing population (the largest w the Arab world), limited arable land, and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and stress society. The government has struggled to meet the demands of Egipt's growing population through economic reform and massive investment w communications and physical infrastructure.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 22.53 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $37.47 billion


expenditures: $44.48 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Cairo


geographic coordinates: 30 03 N, 31 15 E


time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)


daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Friday w kwiecien; ends last Thursday w wrzesien
Klimat desert; hot, dry summers z moderate winters
Linia brzegowa 2,450 km
Konstytucja 11 wrzesien 1971; amended 22 maj 1980, 25 maj 2005, and 26 marzec 2007
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Arab Republic of Egipt


conventional short form: Egipt


local long form: Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah


local short form: Misr


former: United Arab Republic (with Syria)
Wspolczynnik zgonow 5.11 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $29.9 billion (30 czerwiec 2007)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Francis J. RICCIARDONE, Jr.


embassy: 8 Kamal El Din Salah St., Garden City, Cairo


mailing address: Unit 64900, Box 15, APO AE 09839-4900


telephone: [20] (2) 2797-3300


FAX: [20] (2) 2797-3200
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Nabil FAHMY


chancery: 3521 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 895-5400


FAX: [1] (202) 244-4319


consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, New York, San Francisco
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje while Sudan retains claim to the Hala'ib Triangle north of the 1899 Treaty boundary along the 22nd Parallel, both states withdrew their military presence w the 1990s and Egipt has invested w and effectively administers the area; Egipt vigilantly monitors the Sinai and borders z Izrael and the Gaza to deter terrorist, smuggling, and other illegal activities; Egipt does not extend domestic asylum to some 70,000 persons who identify themselves as Palestinians but who largely lack UNRWA assistance and, until recently, UNHCR recognition as refugees
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie ODA, $925.9 million (2005)
Ekonomia Occupying the northeast corner of the African continent, Egipt is bisected by the highly fertile Nile valley, where most economic activity takes place. In the last 30 years, the government has reformed the highly centralized economy it inherited from President Gamel Abdel NASSER. In 2005, Prime Minister Ahmed NAZIF's government reduced personal and corporate tax rates, reduced energy subsidies, and privatized several enterprises. The stock market boomed, and Produkt krajowy brutto grew about 5% per year w 2005-06, and topped 7% w 2007. Despite these achievements, the government has failed to raise living standards dla the average Egiptian, and has had to continue providing subsidies dla basic necessities. The subsidies have contributed to a sizeable budget deficit - roughly 7.5% of Produkt krajowy brutto w 2007 - and represent a significant drain on the economy. Foreign direct investment has increased significantly w the past two years, but the NAZIF government will need to continue its aggressive pursuit of reforms w order to sustain the spike w investment and growth and begin to improve economic conditions dla the broader population. Egipt's export sectors - particularly natural gas - have bright prospects.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 84.49 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 946 million kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 168 million kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 102.5 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Qattara Depression -133 m


highest point: Mount Catherine 2,629 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy agricultural land being lost to urbanization and windblown sands; increasing soil salination below Aswan High Dam; desertification; oil pollution threatening coral reefs, beaches, and marine habitats; other water pollution from agricultural pesticides, raw sewage, and industrial effluents; very limited natural fresh water resources away from the Nile, which is the only perennial water source; rapid growth w population overstraining the Nile and natural resources
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Egiptian 98%, Berber, Nubian, Bedouin, and Beja 1%, Greek, Armenian, other European (primarily Italian and French) 1%
Kurs waluty Egiptian pounds per US dollar - 5.67 (2007), 5.725 (2006), 5.78 (2005), 6.1962 (2004), 5.8509 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Mohamed Hosni MUBARAK (since 14 pazdziernik 1981)


head of government: Prime Minister Ahmed Mohamed NAZIF (since 9 lipiec 2004)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla six-year term (no term limits); note - a national referendum w maj 2005 approved a constitutional amendment that changed the presidential election to a multicandidate popular vote; previously the president was nominated by the People's Assembly and the nomination was validated by a national, popular referendum; last referendum held 26 wrzesien 1999; first election under terms of constitutional amendment held 7 wrzesien 2005; next election scheduled dla 2011


election results: Hosni MUBARAK reelected president; percent of vote - Hosni MUBARAK 88.6%, Ayman NOUR 7.6%, Noman GOMAA 2.9%
Eksport 946 million kWh (2005)
Eksport $27.42 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 7.951 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 152,600 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Eksport - towary crude oil and petroleum products, cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals
Eksport - partnerzy Wlochy 12.1%, US 11.3%, Hiszpania 8.7%, UK 5.5%, Francja 5.4%, Syria 5.1%, Arabia Saudyjska 4.3%, Niemcy 4.2% (2006)
Rok podatkowy 1 lipiec - 30 czerwiec
Opis flagi three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; the national emblem (a gold Eagle of Saladin facing the hoist side z a shield superimposed on its chest above a scroll bearing the name of the country w Arabic) centered w the white band; design is based on the Arab Liberation flag and similar to the flag of Syria, which has two green stars w the white band, Irak, which has an Arabic inscription centered w the white band, and Jemen, which has a plain white band
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 13.8%


industry: 41.1%


services: 45.1% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 7.2% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 27 00 N, 30 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, a sea link between Ocean Indyjski and Mediterranean Sea; size, and juxtaposition to Izrael, establish its major role w Middle Eastern geopolitics; dependence on upstream neighbors; dominance of Nile basin issues; prone to influxes of refugees
Ladowiska helikopterow 3 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 3.7%


highest 10%: 29.5% (2000)
Narkotyki transit point dla cannabis, heroin, and opium moving to Europe, Izrael, and North Africa; transit stop dla Nigerian drug couriers; concern as money laundering site due to lax enforcement of financial regulations
Import 168 million kWh (2005)
Import $40.48 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2005)
Import 69,860 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, wood products, fuels
Import - partnerzy US 11.4%, Chiny 8.3%, Niemcy 6.6%, Wlochy 5.4%, Arabia Saudyjska 5%, Francja 4.6% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 28 luty 1922 (from UK)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 13.8% (2007 est.)
Przemysl textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, hydrocarbons, construction, cement, metals, light manufactures
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 29.5 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 31.22 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 27.68 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 8.8% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ABEDA, ACCT, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, BSEC (observer), CAEU, COMESA, EBRD, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, MINURSO, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 34,220 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Konstytucjaal Court
Sila robocza 22.49 million (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 32%


industry: 17%


services: 51% (2001 est.)
Granica total: 2,665 km


border countries: Gaza 11 km, Izrael 266 km, Libia 1,115 km, Sudan 1,273 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 2.92%


permanent crops: 0.5%


other: 96.58% (2005)
Jezyki Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes
System prawny based on Islamic and civil law (particularly Napoleonic codes); judicial review by Supreme Court and Council of State (oversees validity of administrative decisions); accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction z reservations
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral system consists of the People's Assembly or Majlis al-Sha'b (454 seats; 444 elected by popular vote, 10 appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms) and the Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura that traditionally functions only w a consultative role but 2007 constitutional amendments could grant the Council new powers (264 seats; 176 elected by popular vote, 88 appointed by the president; members serve six-year terms; mid-term elections dla half of the elected members)


elections: People's Assembly - three-phase voting - last held 7 and 20 listopad, 1 grudzien 2005;(next to be held listopad-grudzien 2010); Advisory Council - last held czerwiec 2007 (next to be held maj-czerwiec 2010)


election results: People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NDP 311, NWP 6, Tagammu 2, Tomorrow Party 1, independents 112 (12 seats to be determined by rerun elections, 10 seats appointed by President); Advisory Council - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NDP 84, Tagammu 1, independents 3
Zywotnosc total population: 71.57 years


male: 69.04 years


female: 74.22 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 71.4%


male: 83%


female: 59.4% (2005 est.)
Lokalizacja Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libia and the Gaza, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula
Lokalizacja na mapie Africa
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


contiguous zone: 24 nm


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Flota handlowa total: 77 ships (1000 GRT or over) 1,032,116 GRT/1,553,065 DWT


by type: bulk carrier 13, cargo 33, container 2, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 14, roll on/roll off 10


foreign-owned: 10 (Dania 1, Grecja 8, Liban 1)


registered w other countries: 55 (Boliwia 1, Kambodza 14, Georgia 14, Honduras 4, North Korea 1, Panama 13, Wyspy Swietego Tomasza i Ksiazeca 1, Arabia Saudyjska 1, St Kitts and Nevis 2, St Vincent and The Grenadines 4) (2007)
Wojsko Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Command
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 3.4% (2005 est.)
Swieto narodowe Revolution Day, 23 lipiec (1952)
Narodowosc noun: Egiptian(s)


adjective: Egiptian
Naturalne zagrozenia periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes, flash floods, landslides; hot, driving windstorm called khamsin occurs w spring; dust storms, sandstorms
Surowce naturalne petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc
Wspolczynnik migracji -0.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi condensate 483 km; condensate/gas 74 km; gas 6,466 km; liquid petroleum gas 957 km; oil 5,518 km; oil/gas/water 37 km; refined products 895 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy National Democratic Party or NDP (governing party) [Mohamed Hosni MUBARAK]; National Progressive Unionist Grouping or Tagammu [Rifaat EL-SAID]; New Wafd Party or NWP [Mahmoud ABAZA]; Tomorrow Party [Moussa Mustafa MOUSSA]


note: formation of political parties must be approved by the government; only parties z representation w elected bodies are listed
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow despite a constitutional ban against religious-based parties and political activity, the technically illegal Muslim Brotherhood constitutes Hosni MUBARAK's potentially most significant political opposition; MUBARAK has alternated between tolerating limited political activity by the Brotherhood and blocking its influence; civic society groups are sanctioned, but constrained w practical terms; only trade unions and professional associations affiliated z the government are officially sanctioned
Ludnosc 80,335,036 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 20% (2005 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 1.721% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 42 (plus 15 repeaters), FM 14, shortwave 3 (1999)
Linie kolejowe total: 5,063 km


standard gauge: 5,063 km 1.435-m gauge (62 km electrified) (2006)
Religie Muslim (mostly Sunni) 90%, Coptic 9%, other Christian 1%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.048 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.024 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.743 male(s)/female


total population: 1.017 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
System telefoniczny general assessment: large system; underwent extensive upgrading during 1990s and is reasonably modern; Telecom Egipt, the landline monopoly, has been increasing service availability and w 2006 fixed-line density stood at 14 per 100 persons; as of 2007 there were three mobile-cellular networks and service is expanding rapidly


domestic: principal centers at Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah, Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable and microwave radio relay


international: country code - 20; landing point dla both the SEA-ME-WE-3 AND SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks; linked to the international submarine cable FLAG (Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe); satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki and Ocean Indyjski), 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat; tropospheric scatter to Sudan; microwave radio relay to Izrael; a participant w Medarabtel
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 10.808 million (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 18.001 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 98 (wrzesien 1995)
Uksztaltowanie terenu vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 2.77 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 10.1% (2007 est.)
Drogi wodne 3,500 km


note: includes Nile River, Lake Nasser, Alexandria-Cairo Waterway, and numerous smaller canals w delta; Suez Canal (193.5 km including approaches) navigable by oceangoing vessels drawing up to 17.68 m (2006)
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