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East Timor (2003)

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 East Timor
Administrative divisions 13 administrative districts; Aileu, Ainaro, Baucau, Bobonaro (Maliana), Cova-Lima (Suai), Dili, Ermera, Lautem (Los Palos), Liquica, Manatuto, Manufahi (Same), Oecussi (Ambeno), Viqueque
Age structure NA (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products coffee, rice, maize, cassava, sweet potatoes, soybeans, cabbage, mangoes, bananas, vanilla
Airports 8 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways total: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,427 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 5

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 2 (2002)
Area total: 15,007 sq km

land: NA sq km

water: NA sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than Connecticut
Background The Portuguese colony of Timor declared itself independent from Portugal on 28 November 1975 and was invaded and occupied by Indonesian forces nine days later. It was incorporated into Indonesia in July 1976 as the province of East Timor. A campaign of pacification followed over the next two decades, during which an estimated 100,000 to 250,000 individuals lost their lives. On 30 August 1999, in a UN-supervised popular referendum, the people of East Timor voted for independence from Indonesia. During 1999-2001, pro-integrationist militias - supported by Indonesia - conducted indiscriminate violence. On 20 May 2002, East Timor was internationally recognized as an independent state and the world's newest democracy.
Birth rate 27.75 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budget revenues: $36 million

expenditures: $97 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2003 est.)
Capital Dili
Climate tropical; hot, humid; distinct rainy and dry seasons
Coastline 706 km
Constitution 22 March 2002 (based on the Portuguese model)
Country name conventional long form: Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste

conventional short form: East Timor

local long form: Republika Demokratika Timor Lorosa'e [Tetum]; Republica Democratica de Timor-Leste [Portuguese]

local short form: Timor Lorosa'e [Tetum]; Timor-Leste [Portuguese]

former: Portuguese Timor
Currency US dollar (USD)
Death rate 6.41 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Debt - external $NA
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Grover Joseph REES

embassy: Vila 10, Avenida de Portugal, Farol, Dili

mailing address: Department of State, 8250 Dili Place, Washington, DC 20521-8250

telephone: (670) 332-4684, 331-3205/3160/3472

FAX: (670) 331-3206
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Jose Luis GUTERRES

chancery: 3415 Massachusetts Avenue, Washington, DC 20007

telephone: 202 965-1515

FAX: 202 965-1517

consulate(s) general: New York (the ambassador resides in New York) (2003)
Disputes - international East Timor-Indonesia Boundary Committee meets regularly to survey and delimit the land boundary; some East Timor refugees delay return from camps in Indonesia; maritime delimitation and resource-sharing agreements signed with Australia resolved dispute over "Timor Gap" hydrocarbon reserves, but maritime agreement with Indonesia awaits further discussions
Economic aid - recipient $2.2 billion (1999-2002 est.)
Economy - overview In late 1999, about 70% of the economic infrastructure of East Timor was laid waste by Indonesian troops and anti-independence militias, and 260,000 people fled westward. Over the next three years, however, a massive international program, manned by 5,000 peacekeepers (8,000 at peak) and 1,300 police officers, led to substantial reconstruction in both urban and rural areas. By mid-2002, all but about 50,000 of the refugees had returned. The country faces great challenges in continuing the rebuilding of infrastructure and the strengthening of the infant civil administration. One promising long-term project is the planned development of oil resources in nearby waters.
Electricity - consumption NA kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - production NA kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Timor Sea, Savu Sea, and Banda Sea 0 m

highest point: Foho Tatamailau 2,963 m
Environment - current issues widespread use of slash and burn agriculture has led to deforestation and soil erosion
Environment - international agreements NA
Ethnic groups Austronesian (Malayo-Polynesian), Papuan, small Chinese minority
Exchange rates see US dollar
Executive branch chief of state: President Jose Alexander GUSMAO (since 20 May 2002); note - the president plays a largely symbolic role but is able to veto some legislation; he often is referred to as Xanana GUSMAO

head of government: Prime Minister Mari Bin Amude ALKATIRI (since 20 May 2002)

cabinet: Council of State

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 14 April 2002 (next to be held NA April 2007); after the first legislative elections, the leader of the majority party was appointed prime minister by the president, suggesting a precedent for the future

election results: Jose Alexander GUSMAO elected president; percent of vote - Jose Alexander GUSMAO 82.7%, Francisco Xavier do AMARAL 17.3%
Exports 0 kWh (2001)
Exports $8 million (2001 est.)
Exports - commodities coffee, sandalwood, marble; note - the potential for oil and vanilla exports
Exports - partners NA
Fiscal year 1 July - 30 June
Flag description red, with a black isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) superimposed on a slightly longer yellow arrowhead that extends to the center of the flag; there is a white star in the center of the black triangle
GDP purchasing power parity - $440 million (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 25.4%

industry: 17.2%

services: 57.4% (2001)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $500 (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 18% (2001 est.)
Geographic coordinates 8 50 S, 125 55 E
Geography - note Timor comes from the Malay word for "Orient;" the island of Timor is part of the Malay Archipelago and is the largest and easternmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands
Heliports 1 (2002)
Highways total: 3,800 km

paved: 428 km

unpaved: 3,372 km (1995)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Illicit drugs NA
Imports 0 kWh (2001)
Imports $237 million (2001 est.)
Imports - commodities mainly food (2001)
Imports - partners NA
Independence 28 November 1975 (date of proclamation of independence from Portugal); note - 20 May 2002 is the official date of international recognition of East Timor's independence from Indonesia
Industrial production growth rate 8.5%
Industries printing, soap manufacturing, handicrafts, woven cloth
Infant mortality rate total: 50.47 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 57.05 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 43.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) NA%
International organization participation AsDB, IBRD, ICCt, IDA, IMF, Interpol, UN, WHO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) NA
Irrigated land 1,065 sq km (est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court of Justice, one judge appointed by the National Parliament and the rest appointed by the Superior Council for the Judiciary
Labor force NA
Labor force - by occupation NA
Land boundaries total: 228 km

border countries: Indonesia 228 km
Land use arable land: NA%

permanent crops: NA%

other: NA%
Languages Tetum (official), Portuguese (official), Indonesian, English

note: there are about 16 indigenous languages; Tetum, Galole, Mambae, and Kemak are spoken by significant numbers of people
Legal system UN-drafted legal system based on Indonesian law (2002)
Legislative branch unicameral National Parliament (number of seats can vary, minimum requirement of 52 and a maximum of 65 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms); note - for its first term of office, the National Parliament is comprised of 88 members on an exceptional basis

elections: last held 30 August 2001 (next to be held NA August 2006)

election results: percent of vote by party - FRETILIN 57.37%, PD 8.72%, PSD 8.18%, ASDT 7.84%, UDT 2.36%, PNT 2.21%, KOTA 2.13%, PPT 2.01%, PDC 1.98%, PST 1.78%, independents/other 5.42%; seats by party - FRETILIN 55, PD 7, PSD 6, ASDT 6, PDC 2, UDT 2, KOTA 2, PNT 2, PPT 2, UDC/PDC 1, PST 1, PL 1, independent 1
Life expectancy at birth total population: 65.2 years

male: 62.97 years

female: 67.55 years (2003 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 48% (2001)

male: NA%

female: NA%
Location Southeastern Asia, northwest of Australia in the Lesser Sunda Islands at the eastern end of the Indonesian archipelago; note - East Timor includes the eastern half of the island of Timor, the Oecussi (Ambeno) region on the northwest portion of the island of Timor, and the islands of Pulau Atauro and Pulau Jaco
Map references Southeast Asia
Maritime claims contiguous zone: NA NM

exclusive fishing zone: NA NM

continental shelf: NA NM

exclusive economic zone: NA NM

territorial sea: NA NM

extended fishing zone: NA NM
Merchant marine total: NA

ships by type: NA
Military branches The East Timor Defense Force or FALINTIL-FDTL comprises a light-infantry Army and a small Naval component; note - plans are to develop a force of 1,500 active personnel and 1,500 reserve personnel over the next five years
Military expenditures - dollar figure $4.4 million (FY03)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP NA%
Military manpower - availability NA
Military manpower - fit for military service NA
Military manpower - military age 18-21 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually NA
National holiday Independence Day, 28 November (1975)
Nationality noun: Timorese

adjective: Timorese
Natural hazards floods and landslides are common; earthquakes, tsunamis, tropical cyclones
Natural resources gold, petroleum, natural gas, manganese, marble
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Pipelines NA
Political parties and leaders Associacao Social-Democrata Timorense or ASDT [Francisco Xavier do AMARAL]; Christian Democratic Party of Timor or PDC [Antonio XIMENES]; Christian Democratic Union of Timor or UDC [Vicente da Silva GUTERRES]; Democratic Party or PD [Fernando de ARAUJO]; Liberal Party or PL [leader NA]; Maubere Democratic Party or PDM [leader NA]; People's Party of Timor or PPT [Jacob XAVIER]; Revolutionary Front of Independent East Timor or FRETILIN [Lu OLO]; Social Democrat Party of East Timor or PSD [Mario CARRASCALAO]; Socialist Party of Timor or PST [leader NA]; Sons of the Mountain Warriors (also known as Association of Timorese Heroes) or KOTA [Clementino dos Reis AMARAL]; Timor Democratic Union or UDT [Joao CARRASCALAO]; Timor Labor Party or PTT [Paulo Freitas DA SILVA]; Timorese Nationalist Party or PNT [Abilio ARAUJO]; Timorese Popular Democratic Association or APODETI [Frederico Almeida-Santos DA COSTA]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 997,853

note: other estimates range as low as 800,000 (2002 est.) (July 2003 est.)
Population below poverty line 42% (2002 est.)
Population growth rate 2.13% (2003 est.)
Ports and harbors NA
Radio broadcast stations AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA
Railways 0 km
Religions Roman Catholic 90%, Muslim 4%, Protestant 3%, Hindu 0.5%, Buddhist, Animist (1992 est.)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.97 male(s)/female

total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Suffrage 17 years of age; universal
Telephone system NA
Telephones - main lines in use NA
Telephones - mobile cellular NA
Television broadcast stations NA
Terrain mountainous
Total fertility rate 3.79 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate 50% (including underemployment)
Waterways NA
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