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Dominican Republic (2002)

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Dominican Republic 2002 year

 Dominican Republic
Administrative divisions 29 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 district* (distrito); Azua, Baoruco, Barahona, Dajabon, Distrito Nacional*, Duarte, Elias Pina, El Seibo, Espaillat, Hato Mayor, Independencia, La Altagracia, La Romana, La Vega, Maria Trinidad Sanchez, Monsenor Nouel, Monte Cristi, Monte Plata, Pedernales, Peravia, Puerto Plata, Salcedo, Samana, Sanchez Ramirez, San Cristobal, San Juan, San Pedro de Macoris, Santiago, Santiago Rodriguez, Valverde
Age structure 0-14 years: 33.7% (male 1,503,344; female 1,439,157)

15-64 years: 61.3% (male 2,720,308; female 2,621,539)

65 years and over: 5% (male 206,556; female 230,690) (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products sugarcane, coffee, cotton, cocoa, tobacco, rice, beans, potatoes, corn, bananas; cattle, pigs, dairy products, beef, eggs
Airports 29 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways total: 13

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 17

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 10 (2002)
Area total: 48,730 sq km

land: 48,380 sq km

water: 350 sq km
Area - comparative slightly more than twice the size of New Hampshire
Background Explored and claimed by Columbus on his first voyage in 1492, the island of Hispaniola became a springboard for Spanish conquest of the Caribbean and the American mainland. In 1697, Spain recognized French dominion over the western third of the island, which in 1804 became Haiti. The remainder of the island, by then known as Santo Domingo, sought to gain its own independence in 1821, but was conquered and ruled by the Haitians for 22 years; it finally attained independence as the Dominican Republic in 1844. A legacy of unsettled, mostly non-representative, rule for much of its subsequent history was brought to an end in 1966 when Joaquin BALAGUER became president. He maintained a tight grip on power for most of the next 30 years when international reaction to flawed elections forced him to curtail his term in 1996. Since then, regular competitive elections have been held in which opposition candidates have won the presidency. The Dominican economy has had one of the fastest growth rates in the hemisphere.
Birth rate 24.4 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budget revenues: $2.9 billion

expenditures: $3.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.1 billion (2001 est.)
Capital Santo Domingo
Climate tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation; seasonal variation in rainfall
Coastline 1,288 km
Constitution 28 November 1966
Country name conventional long form: Dominican Republic

conventional short form: none

local long form: Republica Dominicana

local short form: none
Currency Dominican peso (DOP)
Death rate 4.68 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Debt - external $5.4 billion (2001 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Hans H. HERTELL

embassy: corner of Calle Cesar Nicolas Penson and Calle Leopoldo Navarro, Santo Domingo

mailing address: Unit 5500, APO AA 34041-5500

telephone: [1] (809) 221-2171

FAX: [1] (809) 686-7437
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Hugo GUILIANI Cury

chancery: 1715 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 332-6280

FAX: [1] (202) 265-8057

consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Jacksonville, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico), Miami, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)

consulate(s): Mobile and Ponce (Puerto Rico)
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $239.6 million (1995) (1995)
Economy - overview The Dominican economy experienced dramatic growth over the last decade, even though the economy was hit hard by Hurricane Georges in 1998. Although the country has long been viewed primarily as an exporter of sugar, coffee, and tobacco, in recent years the service sector has overtaken agriculture as the economy's largest employer, due to growth in tourism and free trade zones. The country suffers from marked income inequality; the poorest half of the population receives less than one-fifth of GNP, while the richest 10% enjoy 40% of national income. A US $500 million foreign bond issue in September 2001 will contribute to increased public investment spending.
Electricity - consumption 8,812.029 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - production 9.475 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 87%

hydro: 13%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2000)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Lago Enriquillo -46 m

highest point: Pico Duarte 3,175 m
Environment - current issues water shortages; soil eroding into the sea damages coral reefs; deforestation; Hurricane Georges damage
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Ethnic groups white 16%, black 11%, mixed 73%
Exchange rates Dominican pesos per US dollar - 17.310 (January 2002), 16.952 (2001), 16.415 (2000), 16.033 (1999), 15.267 (1998), 14.265 (1997)
Executive branch chief of state: President Rafael Hipolito MEJIA Dominguez (since 16 August 2000); Vice President Milagros ORTIZ-BOSCH (since 16 August 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Rafael Hipolito MEJIA Dominguez (since 16 August 2000); Vice President Milagros ORTIZ-BOSCH (since 16 August 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the president

elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 16 May 2000 (next to be held NA May 2004)

election results: Raphael Hipolito MEJIA Dominguez elected president; percent of vote - Rafael Hipolito MEJIA Dominguez (PRD) 49.87%, Danilo MEDINA (PLD) 24.95%, Joaquin BALAGUER (PRSC) 24.6%
Exports 0 kWh (2000)
Exports $5.5 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Exports - commodities ferronickel, sugar, gold, silver, coffee, cocoa, tobacco, meats, consumer goods
Exports - partners US 87.3%, Netherlands 1.1%, Canada 0.7%, France 0.7% (2000 est.)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description a centered white cross that extends to the edges divides the flag into four rectangles - the top ones are blue (hoist side) and red, and the bottom ones are red (hoist side) and blue; a small coat of arms is at the center of the cross
GDP purchasing power parity - $50 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 11%

industry: 34%

services: 55% (2000) (2000)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $5,800 (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 1.5% (2001 est.)
Geographic coordinates 19 00 N, 70 40 W
Geography - note shares island of Hispaniola with Haiti (eastern two-thirds is the Dominican Republic, western one-third is Haiti)
Highways total: 12,600 km

paved: 6,224 km

unpaved: 6,376 km (1996)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2%

highest 10%: 40% (1989) (1989)
Illicit drugs transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US and Europe; has become a transshipment point for ecstasy from the Netherlands and Belgium destined for US and Canada; substantial money-laundering activity; Colombian narcotics traffickers favor the Dominican Republic for illicit financial transactions
Imports 0 kWh (2000)
Imports $8.7 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Imports - commodities foodstuffs, petroleum, cotton and fabrics, chemicals and pharmaceuticals
Imports - partners US 60.5%, Japan 10.4%, Mexico 4.7%, Venezuela 3% (2000 est.)
Independence 27 February 1844 (from Haiti)
Industrial production growth rate 2% (2001 est.)
Industries tourism, sugar processing, ferronickel and gold mining, textiles, cement, tobacco
Infant mortality rate 33.41 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 5% (2001 est.)
International organization participation ACP, Caricom (observer), ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (subscriber), ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, OPCW (signatory), PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIK, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 24 (2000)
Irrigated land 2,590 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges are elected by a Council made up of members of the legislative and executive branches with the president presiding)
Labor force 2.3 million - 2.6 million
Labor force - by occupation services and government 59%, industry 24%, agriculture 17% (1998 est.)
Land boundaries total: 360 km

border countries: Haiti 360 km
Land use arable land: 21.08%

permanent crops: 9.92%

other: 69% (1998 est.)
Languages Spanish
Legal system based on French civil codes
Legislative branch bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the Senate or Senado (30 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (149 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held 16 May 2002 (next to be held NA May 2006); Chamber of Deputies - last held 16 May 2002 (next to be held NA May 2006)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PRD 24, PLD 3, PRSC 3; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PRD 83, PLD 49, PRSC 17
Life expectancy at birth total population: 73.68 years

male: 71.57 years

female: 75.91 years (2002 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 82.1%

male: 82%

female: 82.2% (1995 est.)
Location Caribbean, eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of Haiti
Map references Central America and the Caribbean
Maritime claims contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 6 NM
Merchant marine total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,587 GRT/1,165 DWT

ships by type: cargo 1 (2002 est.)
Military branches Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police
Military expenditures - dollar figure $180 million (FY98)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.1% (FY98)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 2,323,088 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 1,455,887 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 87,404 (2002 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 27 February (1844)
Nationality noun: Dominican(s)

adjective: Dominican
Natural hazards lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding; periodic droughts
Natural resources nickel, bauxite, gold, silver
Net migration rate -3.59 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Pipelines crude oil 96 km; petroleum products 8 km
Political parties and leaders Dominican Liberation Party or PLD [Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna]; Dominican Revolutionary Party or PRD [Hatuey DE CAMPS]; Social Christian Reformist Party or PRSC [Joaquin BALAGUER Ricardo]
Political pressure groups and leaders Collective of Popular Organizations or COP
Population 8,721,594 (July 2002 est.)
Population below poverty line 25%
Population growth rate 1.61% (2002 est.)
Ports and harbors Barahona, La Romana, Manzanillo, Puerto Plata, San Pedro de Macoris, Santo Domingo
Radio broadcast stations AM 120, FM 56, shortwave 4 (1998)
Radios 1.44 million (1997)
Railways total: 757 km

standard gauge: 375 km 1.435-m gauge (Central Romana Railroad)

narrow gauge: 142 km 0.762-m gauge (Dominican Republic Government Railway)

miscellaneous gauge: 240 km operated by sugar companies in various gauges (0.558-m, 0.762-m, 1.067-m gauges) (2000 est.)
Religions Roman Catholic 95%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female

total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age, universal and compulsory; married persons regardless of age

note: members of the armed forces and police cannot vote
Telephone system general assessment: NA

domestic: relatively efficient system based on islandwide microwave radio relay network

international: 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 709,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 130,149 (1997)
Television broadcast stations 25 (1997)
Terrain rugged highlands and mountains with fertile valleys interspersed
Total fertility rate 2.94 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate 15% (2001 est.)
Waterways none
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