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Czech Republic (2008)

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 Czech Republic
Administrative divisions 13 regions (kraje, singular - kraj) and 1 capital city* (hlavni mesto); Jihocesky Kraj, Jihomoravsky Kraj, Karlovarsky Kraj, Kralovehradecky Kraj, Liberecky Kraj, Moravskoslezsky Kraj, Olomoucky Kraj, Pardubicky Kraj, Plzensky Kraj, Praha (Prague)*, Stredocesky Kraj, Ustecky Kraj, Vysocina, Zlinsky Kraj
Age structure 0-14 years: 14.1% (male 738,391/female 698,999)

15-64 years: 71.2% (male 3,657,877/female 3,627,493)

65 years and over: 14.7% (male 588,531/female 917,453) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products wheat, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; pigs, poultry
Airports 122 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 45

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 10

1,524 to 2,437 m: 13

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 18 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 77

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 26

under 914 m: 50 (2007)
Area total: 78,866 sq km

land: 77,276 sq km

water: 1,590 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than South Carolina
Background Following the First World War, the closely related Czechs and Slovaks of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire merged to form Czechoslovakia. During the interwar years, the new country's leaders were frequently preoccupied with meeting the demands of other ethnic minorities within the republic, most notably the Sudeten Germans and the Ruthenians (Ukrainians). After World War II, a truncated Czechoslovakia fell within the Soviet sphere of influence. In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of the country's leaders to liberalize Communist party rule and create "socialism with a human face." Anti-Soviet demonstrations the following year ushered in a period of harsh repression. With the collapse of Soviet authority in 1989, Czechoslovakia regained its freedom through a peaceful "Velvet Revolution." On 1 January 1993, the country underwent a "velvet divorce" into its two national components, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004.
Birth rate 8.96 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: $69.49 billion

expenditures: $75.8 billion (2007 est.)
Capital name: Prague

geographic coordinates: 50 05 N, 14 28 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Climate temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution ratified 16 December 1992, effective 1 January 1993
Country name conventional long form: Czech Republic

conventional short form: Czech Republic

local long form: Ceska Republika

local short form: Cesko
Death rate 10.64 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $61.74 billion (30 June 2007)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Richard W. GRABER

embassy: Trziste 15, 11801 Prague 1

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [420] 257 022 000

FAX: [420] 257 022 809
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Petr KOLAR

chancery: 3900 Spring of Freedom Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 274-9100

FAX: [1] (202) 966-8540

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Disputes - international in 2006, Austrian public protests for the Czech Republic to close the Temelin nuclear power plant resulted in an Austrian parliamentary motion threatening international legal action
Economic aid - recipient $278.7 million in available EU structural adjustment and cohesion funds (2004)
Economy - overview The Czech Republic is one of the most stable and prosperous of the post-Communist states of Central and Eastern Europe. Growth in 2000-07 was supported by exports to the EU, primarily to Germany, and a strong recovery of foreign and domestic investment. Domestic demand is playing an ever more important role in underpinning growth as the availability of credit cards and mortgages increases. The current account deficit has declined to around 3.3% of GDP as demand for automotive and other products from the Czech Republic remains strong in the European Union. Rising inflation from higher food and energy prices are a risk to balanced economic growth. Significant increases in social spending in the run-up to June 2006 elections prevented, the government from meeting its goal of reducing its budget deficit to 3% of GDP in 2007. Negotiations on pension and additional healthcare reforms are continuing without clear prospects for agreement and implementation. Intensified restructuring among large enterprises, improvements in the financial sector, and effective use of available EU funds should strengthen output growth. The pro-business Civic Democratic Party-led government approved reforms in 2007 designed to cut spending on some social welfare benefits and reform the tax system with the aim of eventually reducing the budget deficit to 2.3% of GDP by 2010. Parliamentary approval for any additional reforms could prove difficult, however, because of the parliament's even split. The government withdrew a 2010 target date for euro adoption and instead aims to meet the eurozone criteria around 2012.
Electricity - consumption 59.72 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports 24.99 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports 12.35 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - production 77.38 billion kWh (2005)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Elbe River 115 m

highest point: Snezka 1,602 m
Environment - current issues air and water pollution in areas of northwest Bohemia and in northern Moravia around Ostrava present health risks; acid rain damaging forests; efforts to bring industry up to EU code should improve domestic pollution
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Czech 90.4%, Moravian 3.7%, Slovak 1.9%, other 4% (2001 census)
Exchange rates koruny per US dollar - 20.53 (2007), 22.596 (2006), 23.957 (2005), 25.7 (2004), 28.209 (2003)
Executive branch chief of state: President Vaclav KLAUS (since 7 March 2003)

head of government: Prime Minister Mirek TOPOLANEK (since 9 January 2007); Deputy Prime Ministers Petr NECAS (since 9 January 2007), Martin BURSIK (since 9 January 2007), and Alexandr VONDRA (since 9 January 2007)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections: president elected by Parliament for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); last successful election held 15 February 2008 (after earlier elections held 8 and 9 February 2008 were inconclusive; next election to be held in February 2013); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Vaclav KLAUS reelected president on 15 February 2008; Vaclav KLAUS 141 votes, Jan SVEJNAR 111 votes (third round; combined votes of both chambers of parliament)
Exports 24.99 billion kWh (2005)
Exports $113 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports 81.52 million cu m (2005 est.)
Exports 20,930 bbl/day (2004)
Exports - commodities machinery and transport equipment 52%, chemicals 5%, raw materials and fuel 9% (2003)
Exports - partners Germany 32%, Slovakia 8.5%, Poland 5.7%, France 5.5%, Austria 5.1%, UK 4.8%, Italy 4.6% (2006)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side

note: identical to the flag of the former Czechoslovakia
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 2.4%

industry: 39.7%

services: 57.9% (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 5.7% (2007 est.)
Geographic coordinates 49 45 N, 15 30 E
Geography - note landlocked; strategically located astride some of oldest and most significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a traditional military corridor between the North European Plain and the Danube in central Europe
Heliports 1 (2007)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 4.3%

highest 10%: 22.4% (1996)
Illicit drugs transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and minor transit point for Latin American cocaine to Western Europe; producer of synthetic drugs for local and regional markets; susceptible to money laundering related to drug trafficking, organized crime; significant consumer of ecstasy
Imports 12.35 billion kWh (2005)
Imports $109.8 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports 8.976 billion cu m (2005)
Imports 203,700 bbl/day (2004)
Imports - commodities machinery and transport equipment 46%, raw materials and fuels 15%, chemicals 10% (2003)
Imports - partners Germany 32.5%, Netherlands 6.8%, Slovakia 6.2%, Poland 6.1%, Russia 5.7%, Austria 5%, Italy 4.4%, France 4.3% (2006)
Independence 1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia)
Industrial production growth rate 9% (2007 est.)
Industries metallurgy, machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, glass, armaments
Infant mortality rate total: 3.86 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 4.21 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 3.49 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2.6% (2007 est.)
International organization participation ACCT (observer), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ESA (cooperating state), EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNOMIG, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Irrigated land 240 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Court; Constitutional Court; chairman and deputy chairmen are appointed by the president for a 10-year term
Labor force 5.35 million (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 4.1%

industry: 37.6%

services: 58.3% (2003)
Land boundaries total: 2,290.2 km

border countries: Austria 466.3 km, Germany 810.3 km, Poland 761.8 km, Slovakia 251.8 km
Land use arable land: 38.82%

permanent crops: 3%

other: 58.18% (2005)
Languages Czech 94.9%, Slovak 2%, other 2.3%, unidentified 0.8% (2001 census)
Legal system civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to bring it in line with Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) obligations and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory
Legislative branch bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (81 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms; one-third elected every two years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Poslanecka Snemovna (200 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held in two rounds 20-21 and 27-28 October 2006 (next to be held in October 2008); Chamber of Deputies - last held 2-3 June 2006 (next to be held by June 2010)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ODS 41, CSSD 12, KDU-CSL 11, others 15, independents 2; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - ODS 35.4%, CSSD 32.3%, KSCM 12.8%, KDU-CSL 7.2%, Greens 6.3%, other 6%; seats by party - ODS 81, CSSD 74, KSCM 26, KDU-CSL 13, Greens 6; note - seats by party as of December 2007 - ODS 81, CSSD 72, KSCM 26, KDU-CSL 13, Greens 6, unaffiliated 2 (former CSSD members)
Life expectancy at birth total population: 76.42 years

male: 73.14 years

female: 79.88 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: NA

total population: 99%

male: 99%

female: 99% (2003 est.)
Location Central Europe, southeast of Germany
Map references Europe
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Merchant marine registered in other countries: 1 (St Vincent and The Grenadines 1) (2007)
Military branches Army of the Czech Republic (ACR): Joint Forces Command (includes Army and Air Forces), Support and Training Forces Command (2007)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.46% (2007 est.)
National holiday Czech Founding Day, 28 October (1918)
Nationality noun: Czech(s)

adjective: Czech
Natural hazards flooding
Natural resources hard coal, soft coal, kaolin, clay, graphite, timber
Net migration rate 0.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Pipelines gas 7,010 km; oil 547 km; refined products 94 km (2007)
Political parties and leaders Association of Independent Candidates-European Democrats or SNK-ED [Helmut DOHNALEK]; Christian Democratic Union-Czechoslovak People's Party or KDU-CSL [Jiri CUNEK]; Civic Democratic Party or ODS [Mirek TOPOLANEK]; Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia or KSCM [Vojtech FILIP]; Czech Social Democratic Party or CSSD [Jiri PAROUBEK]; Union of Freedom-Democratic Union or US-DEU [Jan CERNY]; Green Party [Martin BURSIK]; Independent Democrats (NEZDEM) [Vladimir ZELEZNY]; Party of Open Society (SOS) [Pavel NOVACEK]; Path of Change [Jiri LOBKOWITZ]
Political pressure groups and leaders Czech-Moravian Confederation of Trade Unions or CMKOS [Milan STECH]
Population 10,228,744 (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate -0.071% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 31, FM 304, shortwave 17 (2000)
Railways total: 9,597 km

standard gauge: 9,597 km 1.435-m gauge (3,041 km electrified) (2006)
Religions Roman Catholic 26.8%, Protestant 2.1%, other 3.3%, unspecified 8.8%, unaffiliated 59% (2001 census)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.056 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.008 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.641 male(s)/female

total population: 0.951 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: privatization and modernization of the Czech telecommunication system got a late start but is advancing steadily; access to the fixed-line telephone network expanded throughout the 1990s; mobile telephone usage increased sharply beginning in the mid-1990s and there are now about 120 mobile telephones per 100 persons

domestic: 93% of exchanges now digital; existing copper subscriber systems enhanced with Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) equipment to accommodate Internet and other digital signals; trunk systems include fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relay

international: country code - 420; satellite earth stations - 2 Intersputnik (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Intelsat, 1 Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat, 1 Globalstar (2007)
Telephones - main lines in use 3,217,300 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular 12.15 million (2006)
Television broadcast stations 150 (plus 1,434 repeaters) (2000)
Terrain Bohemia in the west consists of rolling plains, hills, and plateaus surrounded by low mountains; Moravia in the east consists of very hilly country
Total fertility rate 1.22 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate 6.6% (2007 est.)
Waterways 664 km (principally on Elbe, Vltava, Oder, and other navigable rivers, lakes, and canals) (2006)
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