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Cyprus (2008)

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Administrative divisions 6 districts; Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos; note - Turkish Cypriot area's administrative divisions include Kyrenia, all but a small part of Famagusta, and small parts of Lefkosia (Nicosia) and Larnaca
Age structure 0-14 years: 19.9% (male 80,273/female 76,826)

15-64 years: 68.3% (male 272,924/female 265,738)

65 years and over: 11.8% (male 40,458/female 52,238) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products citrus, vegetables, barley, grapes, olives, vegetables; poultry, pork, lamb; dairy, cheese
Airports 16 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 13

2,438 to 3,047 m: 7

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

under 914 m: 2 (2007)
Area total: 9,250 sq km (of which 3,355 sq km are in north Cyprus)

land: 9,240 sq km

water: 10 sq km
Area - comparative about 0.6 times the size of Connecticut
Background A former British colony, Cyprus became independent in 1960 following years of resistance to British rule. Tensions between the Greek Cypriot majority and Turkish Cypriot minority came to a head in December 1963, when violence broke out in the capital of Nicosia. Despite the deployment of UN peacekeepers in 1964, sporadic intercommunal violence continued forcing most Turkish Cypriots into enclaves throughout the island. In 1974, a Greek Government-sponsored attempt to seize control of Cyprus was met by military intervention from Turkey, which soon controlled more than a third of the island. In 1983, the Turkish-held area declared itself the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC), but it is recognized only by Turkey. The latest two-year round of UN-brokered talks - between the leaders of the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities to reach an agreement to reunite the divided island - ended when the Greek Cypriots rejected the UN settlement plan in an April 2004 referendum. The entire island entered the EU on 1 May 2004, although the EU acquis - the body of common rights and obligations - applies only to the areas under direct government control, and is suspended in the areas administered by Turkish Cypriots. However, individual Turkish Cypriots able to document their eligibility for Republic of Cyprus citizenship legally enjoy the same rights accorded to other citizens of European Union states. Nicosia continues to oppose EU efforts to establish direct trade and economic links to north Cyprus as a way of encouraging the Turkish Cypriot community to continue to support reunification.
Birth rate 12.56 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget area under government control: revenues: $8.957 billion; expenditures: $9.16 billion (2007 est.)

area administered by Turkish Cypriots: revenues: $722 million; expenditures: $1.04 billion (2003 est.)
Capital name: Nicosia (Lefkosia)

geographic coordinates: 35 10 N, 33 22 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Climate temperate; Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool winters
Coastline 648 km
Constitution 16 August 1960

note: from December 1963, the Turkish Cypriots no longer participated in the government; negotiations to create the basis for a new or revised constitution to govern the island and for better relations between Greek and Turkish Cypriots have been held intermittently since the mid-1960s; in 1975, following the 1974 Turkish intervention, Turkish Cypriots created their own constitution and governing bodies within the "Turkish Federated State of Cyprus," which became the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC)" when the Turkish Cypriots declared their independence in 1983; a new constitution for the "TRNC" passed by referendum on 5 May 1985, although the "TRNC" remains unrecognized by any country other than Turkey
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Cyprus

conventional short form: Cyprus

local long form: Kypriaki Dimokratia/Kibris Cumhuriyeti

local short form: Kypros/Kibris

note: the Turkish Cypriot community, which administers the northern part of the island, refers to itself as the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC)
Death rate 7.72 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external area under government control: $26.12 billion

area administered by Turkish Cypriots: $NA (31 December 2007 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Ronald L. SCHLICHER

embassy: corner of Metochiou and Ploutarchou Streets, 2407 Engomi, Nicosia

mailing address: P. O. Box 24536, 1385 Nicosia

telephone: [357] (22) 393939

FAX: [357] (22) 780944
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Andreas KAKOURIS

chancery: 2211 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 462-5772, 462-0873

FAX: [1] (202) 483-6710

consulate(s) general: New York

note: representative of the Turkish Cypriot community in the US is Hilmi AKIL; office at 1667 K Street NW, Washington, DC; telephone [1] (202) 887-6198
Disputes - international hostilities in 1974 divided the island into two de facto autonomous entities, the internationally recognized Cypriot Government and a Turkish-Cypriot community (north Cyprus); the 1,000-strong UN Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) has served in Cyprus since 1964 and maintains the buffer zone between north and south; on 1 May 2004, Cyprus entered the European Union still divided, with the EU's body of legislation and standards (acquis communitaire) suspended in the north
Economic aid - recipient area under government control: $59.86 million

area administered by Turkish Cypriots: $700 million under a July 2006 agreement, Turkey plans to provide the area administered by Turkish Cypriots 1.875 billion YTL ($1.3 billion) over three years (600 million YTL in 2006, 625 million YTL in 2007 and 650 million YTL in 2008); Turkey has forgiven most past aid (2004)
Economy - overview The area of the Republic of Cyprus under government control has a market economy dominated by the service sector, which accounts for 78% of GDP. Tourism and financial services are the most important sectors; erratic growth rates over the past decade reflect the economy's reliance on tourism, which often fluctuates with political instability in the region and economic conditions in Western Europe. Nevertheless, the economy in the area under government control grew a healthy 3.7% to 3.8% per year in 2004, 2005 and 2006, well above the EU average. Cyprus joined the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM2) in May 2005 and adopted the euro as its national currency on 1 January 2008. The government initiated an aggressive austerity program, which cut the budget deficit to well below 3% of GDP. As in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots, water shortages are a perennial problem; a few desalination plants are now on line. After 10 years of drought, the country received substantial rainfall from 2001-04 alleviating immediate concerns. Rainfall in 2005 and 2006, however, was well below average, making water rationing a necessity in 2007. The Turkish Cypriot economy has roughly 30% of the per capita GDP of the south, and economic growth tends to be volatile, given the north's relative isolation, bloated public sector, reliance on the Turkish lira, and small market size. The Turkish Cypriot economy grew around 10.6% in 2006-07, fueled by growth in the construction and education sectors, as well as increased employment of Turkish Cypriots in the area under government control. Agriculture and services, together, employ more than half of the work force. The Turkish Cypriots are heavily dependent on transfers from the Turkish Government. Ankara directly finances around one-third of the "TRNC's" budget. Aid from Turkey has reached over $400 million annually in recent years.
Electricity - consumption area under government control: 3.953 billion kWh (2004)

area administered by Turkish Cypriots: 797.9 million kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports area under government control: 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports area under government control: 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - production area under government control: 4.117 billion kWh

area administered by Turkish Cypriots: 998.9 million kWh (2005)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m

highest point: Mount Olympus 1,951 m
Environment - current issues water resource problems (no natural reservoir catchments, seasonal disparity in rainfall, sea water intrusion to island's largest aquifer, increased salination in the north); water pollution from sewage and industrial wastes; coastal degradation; loss of wildlife habitats from urbanization
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Greek 77%, Turkish 18%, other 5% (2001)
Exchange rates Cypriot pounds per US dollar: 0.4286 (2007), 0.4586 (2006), 0.4641 (2005), 0.4686 (2004), 0.5174 (2003)

Turkish lira per US dollar: 1.319 (2007), 1.4451 (2006), 1.3436 (2005), 1.426 million (2004), 1.501 million (2003)
Executive branch chief of state: President Dimitris CHRISTOFIAS (since 28 February 2008); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; post of vice president is currently vacant; under the 1960 constitution, the post is reserved for a Turkish Cypriot

head of government: President Dimitris CHRISTOFIAS (since 28 February 2008)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed jointly by the president and vice president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 17 and 24 February 2008 (next to be held in February 2013)

election results: Dimitris CHRISTOFIAS elected president; percent of vote (first round) - Ioannis KASOULIDIS 33.5%, Dimitris CHRISTOFIAS 33.3%, Tassos PAPADOPOULOS 31.8%; (second round) Dimitris CHRISTOFIAS 53.4%, Ioannis KASOULIDIS 46.6%

note: Mehmet Ali TALAT became "president" of the "TRNC", 24 April 2005, after "presidential" elections on 17 April 2005; results - Mehmet Ali TALAT 55.6%, Dervis EROGLU 22.7%; Ferdi Sabit SOYER is "TRNC prime minister" and heads the Council of Ministers (cabinet) in coalition with "Foreign Minister and Deputy Prime Minister" Turgay AVCI
Exports area under government control: 0 kWh (2005)
Exports area under government control: $1.496 billion f.o.b.

area administered by Turkish Cypriots: $69 million f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Exports area under government control: 0 bbl/day (2004)
Exports - commodities area under government control: citrus, potatoes, pharmaceuticals, cement, clothing and cigarettes

area administered by Turkish Cypriots: citrus, dairy, potatoes, textiles
Exports - partners UK 15.1%, Greece 14.2%, France 7.7%, Germany 4.9%, UAE 4.2% (2006)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description white with a copper-colored silhouette of the island (the name Cyprus is derived from the Greek word for copper) above two green crossed olive branches in the center of the flag; the branches symbolize the hope for peace and reconciliation between the Greek and Turkish communities

note: the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" flag has a white field with narrow horizontal red stripes positioned a small distance from the top and bottom edges between which is centered a red crescent and red five-pointed star
GDP - composition by sector area under government control: agriculture 3.1%; industry 19.1%; services 77.8% (2007 est.)

area administered by Turkish Cypriots: agriculture 10.6%; industry 20.5%; services 68.9% (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate area under government control: 3.9%

area administered by Turkish Cypriots: 10.6% (2007 est.)
Geographic coordinates 35 00 N, 33 00 E
Geography - note the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily and Sardinia)
Heliports 10 (2007)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Illicit drugs minor transit point for heroin and hashish via air routes and container traffic to Europe, especially from Lebanon and Turkey; some cocaine transits as well; despite a strengthening of anti-money-laundering legislation, remains vulnerable to money laundering; reporting of suspicious transactions in offshore sector remains weak
Imports area under government control: 0 kWh (2005)
Imports area under government control: $6.828 billion f.o.b.

area administered by Turkish Cypriots: $415.2 million f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2005)
Imports area under government control: 51,640 bbl/day (2004)
Imports - commodities area under government control: consumer goods, petroleum and lubricants, intermediate goods, machinery, transport equipment

area administered by Turkish Cypriots: vehicles, fuel, cigarettes, food, minerals, chemicals, machinery
Imports - partners Greece 17.6%, Italy 11.4%, Germany 9%, UK 8.9%, Israel 6.3%, France 4.3%, Netherlands 4.3%, China 4.2% (2006)
Independence 16 August 1960 (from UK); note - Turkish Cypriots proclaimed self-rule on 13 February 1975 and independence in 1983, but these proclamations are only recognized by Turkey
Industrial production growth rate area under government control: 2%

area administered by Turkish Cypriots: 6.4% (2007 est.)
Industries tourism, food and beverage processing, cement and gypsum production, ship repair and refurbishment, textiles, light chemicals, metal products, wood, paper, stone, and clay products
Infant mortality rate total: 6.89 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 8.54 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 5.16 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) area under government control: 2.3% (2007 est.)

area administered by Turkish Cypriots: 9.1% (2004 est.)
International organization participation Australia Group, C, CE, EBRD, EIB, EMU, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Irrigated land 400 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (judges are appointed jointly by the president and vice president)

note: there is also a Supreme Court in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots
Labor force area under government control: 391,000

area administered by Turkish Cypriots: 95,025 (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation area under government control: agriculture 7.4%, industry 38.2%, services 54.4% (2004 est.)

area administered by Turkish Cypriots: agriculture 14.5%, industry 29%, services 56.5% (2004 est.)
Land boundaries total: 150.4 km (approximately)

border sovereign base areas: Akrotiri 47.4 km, Dhekelia 103 km (approximately )
Land use arable land: 10.81%

permanent crops: 4.32%

other: 84.87% (2005)
Languages Greek, Turkish, English
Legal system based on English common law, with civil law modifications; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Legislative branch unicameral - area under government control: House of Representatives or Vouli Antiprosopon (80 seats, 56 assigned to the Greek Cypriots, 24 to Turkish Cypriots; note - only those assigned to Greek Cypriots are filled; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms); area administered by Turkish Cypriots: Assembly of the Republic or Cumhuriyet Meclisi (50 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: area under government control: last held 21 May 2006 (next to be held 2011); area administered by Turkish Cypriots: last held 14 December 2003 (next to be held in 2008)

election results: area under government control: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - AKEL 31.1%, DISY 30.3%, DIKO 17.9%, EDEK 8.9%, EURO.KO 5.8%, Greens 2.0%; seats by party - AKEL (Communist) 18, DISY 18, DIKO 11, EDEK 5, EURO.KO 3, Greens 1; area administered by Turkish Cypriots: Assembly of the Republic - percent of vote by party - CTP 35.8%, UBP 32.3%, Peace and Democratic Movement 13.4%, DP 12.3%; seats by party - CTP 19, UBP 18, Peace and Democratic Movement 6, DP 7; note - "TRNC" seats by party as of September 2006 - CTP 25, OP 3, UBP 13, DP 6, BDH 1, independents 2
Life expectancy at birth total population: 77.98 years

male: 75.6 years

female: 80.49 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 97.6%

male: 98.9%

female: 96.3% (2003 est.)
Location Middle East, island in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Turkey
Map references Middle East
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Merchant marine total: 868 ships (1000 GRT or over) 19,408,418 GRT/30,843,848 DWT

by type: bulk carrier 311, cargo 197, chemical tanker 58, container 163, liquefied gas 7, passenger 6, passenger/cargo 24, petroleum tanker 64, refrigerated cargo 17, roll on/roll off 16, vehicle carrier 5

foreign-owned: 724 (Austria 1, Belgium 1, Canada 2, China 10, Cuba 2, Denmark 1, Estonia 5, Germany 197, Greece 292, Hong Kong 2, India 1, Iran 2, Ireland 1, Israel 4, Italy 5, Japan 19, South Korea 2, Latvia 1, Lebanon 1, Netherlands 23, Norway 17, Philippines 1, Poland 18, Portugal 1, Russia 50, Singapore 1, Slovenia 4, Spain 7, Sweden 2, Switzerland 3, Syria 2, Turkey 1, Ukraine 6, UAE 10, UK 21, US 8)

registered in other countries: 133 (Antigua and Barbuda 2, Bahamas 20, Belize 1, Cambodia 9, Comoros 1, Georgia 1, Gibraltar 5, Greece 5, Isle of Man 4, Liberia 5, Malta 15, Marshall Islands 39, Norway 2, Panama 15, Russia 2, Samoa 1, St Vincent and The Grenadines 3, Turkey 2, UK 1, unknown 1) (2007)
Military branches Republic of Cyprus: Greek Cypriot National Guard (GCNG; includes air and naval elements); north Cyprus: Turkish Cypriot Security Force (GKK)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 3.8% (2005 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 1 October (1960); note - Turkish Cypriots celebrate 15 November (1983) as Independence Day
Nationality noun: Cypriot(s)

adjective: Cypriot
Natural hazards moderate earthquake activity; droughts
Natural resources copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber, salt, marble, clay earth pigment
Net migration rate 0.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Political parties and leaders area under government control: Democratic Party or DIKO [Marios KAROYIAN]; Democratic Rally or DISY [Nikos ANASTASIADHIS]; European Democracy or EURO.DI [Prodromos PRODROMOU] (evolved from For Europe which merged with New Horizons); European Party or EURO.KO [Demetris SYLLOURIS]; Fighting Democratic Movement or ADIK [Dinos MIKHAILIDIS]; Green Party of Cyprus [George PERDIKIS]; Movement for Social Democrats or EDEK [Yannakis OMIROU]; Political Movement of Hunters [Michalis PAFITANIS]; Progressive Party of the Working People or AKEL (Communist Party) [Dimitrios CHRISTOFIAS]; United Democrats or EDI [Michalis PAPAPETROU]

area administered by Turkish Cypriots: Communal Liberation Party or TKP [Huseyin ANGOLEMLI]; Cyprus Socialist Party or KSP [Kazim ONGEN]; Democratic Party or DP [Serder DENKTASH]; Freedom and Reform Party or OP [Turgay AVCI]; National Unity Party or UBP [Tahsin ERTUGRULOGLU]; Nationalist Justice Party or MAP [Ata TEPE]; New Party or YP [Huseyin TURAN]; Our Party or BP [Okyay SADIKOGLU]; Patriotic Unity Movement or YBH [Oguz OZEN]; Peace and Democratic Movement or BDH [Mustafa AKINCI]; Renewal Progress Party or YAP [Ertugrul HASIPOGLU]; Republican Turkish Party or CTP [Ferdi Sabit SOYER]; United Cyprus Party or BKP [Isset IZCAN]
Political pressure groups and leaders Confederation of Cypriot Workers or SEK (pro-West); Confederation of Revolutionary Labor Unions or Dev-Is; Federation of Turkish Cypriot Labor Unions or Turk-Sen; Pan-Cyprian Labor Federation or PEO (Communist controlled)
Population 788,457 (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 0.527% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations area under government control: AM 5, FM 76, shortwave 0

area administered by Turkish Cypriots: AM 1, FM 20, shortwave 1 (2004)
Religions Greek Orthodox 78%, Muslim 18%, other (includes Maronite and Armenian Apostolic) 4%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.045 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.027 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.774 male(s)/female

total population: 0.997 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: excellent in both area under government control and area administered by Turkish Cypriots

domestic: open-wire, fiber-optic cable, and microwave radio relay

international: country code - 357 (area administered by Turkish Cypriots uses the country code of Turkey - 90); a number of submarine cables, including the SEA-ME-WE-3, combine to provide connectivity to Western Europe, the Middle East, and Asia; tropospheric scatter; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean), 2 Eutelsat, 2 Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat
Telephones - main lines in use area under government control: 408,300 (2006); area administered by Turkish Cypriots: 86,228 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular area under government control: 777,500 (2006); area administered by Turkish Cypriots: 143,178 (2002)
Television broadcast stations area under government control: 8

area administered by Turkish Cypriots: 2 (plus 4 relay) (2004)
Terrain central plain with mountains to north and south; scattered but significant plains along southern coast
Total fertility rate 1.8 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate area under government control: 3.8% (2005 est.)

area administered by Turkish Cypriots: 5.6% (2004 est.) (2007 est.)
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