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Chiny (2008)

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Chiny 2008 roku

 Chiny
Podzial administracyjny 23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 4 municipalities (shi, singular and plural)


provinces: Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang; (see note on Tajwan)


autonomous regions: Guangxi, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Xinjiang Uygur, Xizang (Tibet)


municipalities: Beijing, Chongqing, Shanghai, Tianjin


note: Chiny considers Tajwan its 23rd province; see separate entries dla the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Makau
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 20.4% (male 143,527,634/female 126,607,344)


15-64 years: 71.7% (male 487,079,770/female 460,596,384)


65 years and over: 7.9% (male 49,683,856/female 54,356,900) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo rice, wheat, potatoes, corn, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, apples, cotton, oilseed; pork; fish
Lotniska 467 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 403


over 3,047 m: 58


2,438 to 3,047 m: 128


1,524 to 2,437 m: 130


914 to 1,523 m: 20


under 914 m: 67 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 64


over 3,047 m: 4


2,438 to 3,047 m: 4


1,524 to 2,437 m: 13


914 to 1,523 m: 17


under 914 m: 26 (2007)
Terytorium total: 9,596,960 sq km


land: 9,326,410 sq km


water: 270,550 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than the US
Tlo historyczne For centuries Chiny stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world w the arts and sciences, but w the 19th and early 20th centuries, the country was beset by civil unrest, major famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After Swiat War II, the Communists under MAO Zedong established an autocratic socialist system that, while ensuring Chiny's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978, his successor DENG Xiaoping and other leaders focused on market-oriented economic development and by 2000 output had quadrupled. For much of the population, living standards have improved dramatically and the room dla personal choice has expanded, yet political controls remain tight.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 13.45 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $640.6 billion


expenditures: $634.6 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Beijing


geographic coordinates: 39 55 N, 116 23 E


time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)


note: despite its size, all of Chiny falls within one time zone
Klimat extremely diverse; tropical w south to subarctic w north
Linia brzegowa 14,500 km
Konstytucja most recent promulgation 4 grudzien 1982
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: People's Republic of Chiny


conventional short form: Chiny


local long form: Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo


local short form: Zhongguo


abbreviation: PRC
Wspolczynnik zgonow 7 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $363 billion (31 grudzien 2007 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Clark T. RANDT, Jr.


embassy: Xiu Shui Bei Jie 3, 100600 Beijing


mailing address: PSC 461, Box 50, FPO AP 96521-0002


telephone: [86] (10) 6532-3831


FAX: [86] (10) 6532-3178


consulate(s) general: Chengdu, Guangzhou, Hong Kong and Makau, Shanghai, Shenyang
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador ZHOU Wenzhong


chancery: 2300 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 328-2500


FAX: [1] (202) 328-2582


consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje based on principles drafted w 2005, Chiny and Indie continue discussions to resolve all aspects of their extensive boundary and territorial disputes together z a security and foreign policy dialogue to consolidate discussions related to the boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, and other matters; recent talks and confidence-building measures have begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute z portions under the de facto administration of Chiny (Aksai Chin), Indie (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Terytoriums); Indie does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to Chiny w 1964; lacking any treaty describing the boundary, Bhutan and Chiny continue negotiations to establish a boundary alignment to resolve substantial cartographic discrepancies, the largest of which lies w Bhutan's northwest; Chiny asserts sovereignty over the Wyspy Spratly together z Malezja, Filipiny, Tajwan, Wietnam, and possibly Brunei; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties w the South Chiny Sea" eased tensions w the Spratly's but is not the legally binding "code of conduct" sought by some parties; Wietnam and Chiny continue to expand construction of facilities w the Spratly's and w marzec 2005, the national oil companies of Chiny, the Filipiny, and Wietnam signed a joint accord on marine seismic activities w the Wyspy Spratly; Chiny occupies some of the Wyspy Paracelskie also claimed by Wietnam and Tajwan; Chiny and Tajwan continue to reject both Japonia's claims to the uninhabited islands of Senkaku-shoto (Diaoyu Tai) and Japonia's unilaterally declared equidistance line w the East Chiny Sea, the site of intensive hydrocarbon prospecting; certain islands w the Yalu and Tumen rivers are w dispute z North Korea; Chiny seeks to stem illegal migration of North Koreans; Chiny and Rosja have demarcated the once disputed islands at the Amur and Ussuri confluence and w the Argun River w accordance z their 2004 Agreement; w 2006, Chiny and Tadzykistan pledged to commence demarcation of the revised boundary agreed to w the delimitation of 2002; demarcation of the Chiny-Wietnam land boundary proceeds slowly and although the maritime boundary delimitation and fisheries agreements were ratified w czerwiec 2004, implementation remains stalled; w 2004, international environmentalist and political pressure from Birma and Tajlandia prompted Chiny to halt construction of 13 dams on the Salween River
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $1.641 billion (FY07)
Ekonomia Chiny's economy during the last quarter century has changed from a centrally planned system that was largely closed to international trade to a more market-oriented economy that has a rapidly growing private sector and is a major player w the global economy. Reforms started w the late 1970s z the phasing out of collectivized agriculture, and expanded to include the gradual liberalization of prices, fiscal decentralization, increased autonomy dla state enterprises, the foundation of a diversified banking system, the development of stock markets, the rapid growth of the non-state sector, and the opening to foreign trade and investment. Chiny has generally implemented reforms w a gradualist or piecemeal fashion, including the sale of minority shares w four of Chiny's largest state banks to foreign investors and refinements w foreign exchange and bond markets w 2005. After keeping its currency tightly linked to the US dollar dla years, Chiny w lipiec 2005 revalued its currency by 2.1% against the US dollar and moved to an exchange rate system that references a basket of currencies. Cumulative appreciation of the renminbi against the US dollar since the end of the dollar peg reached 15% w styczen 2008. The restructuring of the economy and resulting efficiency gains have contributed to a more than tenfold increase w Produkt krajowy brutto since 1978. Measured on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis, Chiny w 2007 stood as the second-largest economy w the world after the US, although w per capita terms the country is still lower middle-income. Annual inflows of foreign direct investment w 2007 rose to $75 billion. By the end of 2007, more than 5,000 domestic Chinese enterprises had established direct investments w 172 countries and regions around the world. The Chinese government faces several economic development challenges: (a) to sustain adequate job growth dla tens of millions of workers laid off from state-owned enterprises, migrants, and new entrants to the work force; (b) to reduce corruption and other economic crimes; and (c) to contain environmental damage and social strife related to the economy's rapid transformation. Economic development has been more rapid w coastal provinces than w the interior, and approximately 200 million rural laborers have relocated to urban areas to find work. One demographic consequence of the "one child" policy is that Chiny is now one of the most rapidly aging countries w the world. Deterioration w the environment - notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall of the water table, especially w the north - is another long-term problem. Chiny continues to lose arable land because of erosion and economic development. In 2007 Chiny intensified government efforts to improve environmental conditions, tying the evaluation of local officials to environmental targets, publishing a national climate change policy, and establishing a high level leading group on climate change, headed by Premier WEN Jiabao. The Chinese government seeks to add energy production capacity from sources other than coal and oil as its double-digit economic growth increases demand. Chinese energy officials w 2007 agreed to purchase five third generation nuclear reactors from Western companies. More power generating capacity came on line w 2006 as large scale investments - including the Three Gorges Dam across the Yangtze River - were completed.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 2.859 trillion kWh (2006)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 11.27 billion kWh (2006)
Elektrycznosc - import 5.39 billion kWh (2006)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 3.256 trillion kWh (2007)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Turpan Pendi -154 m


highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy air pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide particulates) from reliance on coal produces acid rain; water shortages, particularly w the north; water pollution from untreated wastes; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural land since 1949 to soil erosion and economic development; desertification; trade w endangered species
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 8.1%
Kurs waluty yuan per US dollar - 7.61 (2007), 7.97 (2006), 8.1943 (2005), 8.2768 (2004), 8.277 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President HU Jintao (since 15 marzec 2003); Vice President ZENG Qinghong (since 15 marzec 2003)


head of government: Premier WEN Jiabao (since 16 marzec 2003); Vice Premier WU Yi (17 marzec 2003), Vice Premier ZENG Peiyan (since 17 marzec 2003), and Vice Premier HUI Liangyu (since 17 marzec 2003)


cabinet: State Council appointed by the National People's Congress (NPC)


elections: president and vice president elected by the National People's Congress dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); elections last held 15-17 marzec 2003 (next to be held w mid-marzec 2008); premier nominated by the president, confirmed by the National People's Congress


election results: HU Jintao elected president by the 10th National People's Congress z a total of 2,937 votes (4 delegates voted against him, 4 abstained, and 38 did not vote); ZENG Qinghong elected vice president by the 10th National People's Congress z a total of 2,578 votes (177 delegates voted against him, 190 abstained, and 38 did not vote); 2 seats were vacant
Eksport 11.27 billion kWh (2006)
Eksport $1.221 trillion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 2.874 billion cu m (2006)
Eksport 79,060 bbl/day (2007)
Eksport - towary machinery, electrical products, data processing equipment, apparel, textile, steel, mobile phones
Eksport - partnerzy US 21%, Hong Kong 16%, Japonia 9.5%, South Korea 4.6%, Niemcy 4.2% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi red z a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller yellow five-pointed stars (arranged w a vertical arc toward the middle of the flag) w the upper hoist-side corner
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 11.7%


industry: 49.2%


services: 39.1%


note: industry includes construction (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 11.4% (official data) (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 35 00 N, 105 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne world's fourth largest country (after Rosja, Kanada, and US); Mount Everest on the border z Nepal is the world's tallest peak
Ladowiska helikopterow 35 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 1.6%


highest 10%: 34.9% (2004)
Narkotyki major transshipment point dla heroin produced w the Golden Triangle region of Southeast Asia; growing domestic drug abuse problem; source country dla chemical precursors, despite new regulations on its large chemical industry
Import 5.39 billion kWh (2006)
Import $917.4 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 976 million cu m (2006)
Import 3.19 million bbl/day (2007)
Import - towary machinery and equipment, oil and mineral fuels, plastics, LED screens, data processing equipment, optical and medical equipment, organic chemicals, steel, copper
Import - partnerzy Japonia 14.6%, South Korea 11.3%, Tajwan 10.9%, US 7.5%, Niemcy 4.8% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 221 BC (unification under the Qin or Ch'in Dynasty); 1 styczen 1912 (Manchu Dynasty replaced by a Republic); 1 pazdziernik 1949 (People's Republic established)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 12.9% (2007 est.)
Przemysl mining and ore processing, iron, steel, aluminum, and other metals, coal; machine building; armaments; textiles and apparel; petroleum; cement; chemicals; fertilizers; consumer products, including footwear, toys, and electronics; food processing; transportation equipment, including automobiles, rail cars and locomotives, ships, and aircraft; telecommunications equipment, commercial space launch vehicles, satellites
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 22.12 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 20.01 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 24.47 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 4.7% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ADB, AfDB, APEC, APT, Arctic Council (observer), ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, CDB, EAS, FAO, G-24 (observer), G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC (observer), SCO, UN, UN Security Council, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMIT, UNOCI, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Nawadniane tereny 545,960 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme People's Court (judges appointed by the National People's Congress); Local People's Courts (comprise higher, intermediate, and basic courts); Special People's Courts (primarily military, maritime, railway transportation, and forestry courts)
Sila robocza 803.3 million (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 43%


industry: 25%


services: 32% (2006 est.)
Granica total: 22,117 km


border countries: Afganistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Birma 2,185 km, Indie 3,380 km, Kazachstan 1,533 km, North Korea 1,416 km, Kirgistan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Mongolia 4,677 km, Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km, Rosja (northeast) 3,605 km, Rosja (northwest) 40 km, Tadzykistan 414 km, Wietnam 1,281 km


regional borders: Hong Kong 30 km, Makau 0.34 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 14.86%


permanent crops: 1.27%


other: 83.87% (2005)
Jezyki Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Tajwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Grupy etniczne entry)
System prawny based on civil law system; derived from Soviet and continental civil code legal principles; legislature retains power to interpret statutes; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui (2,987 seats; members elected by municipal, regional, and provincial people's congresses, and People's Liberation Army to serve five-year terms)


elections: last held grudzien 2007-luty 2008; date of next election - NA


election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - 2,987
Zywotnosc total population: 72.88 years


male: 71.13 years


female: 74.82 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 90.9%


male: 95.1%


female: 86.5% (2000 census)
Lokalizacja Eastern Asia, bordering the East Chiny Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South Chiny Sea, between North Korea and Wietnam
Lokalizacja na mapie Asia
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


contiguous zone: 24 nm


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Flota handlowa total: 1,775 ships (1000 GRT or over) 22,219,786 GRT/33,819,636 DWT


by type: barge carrier 3, bulk carrier 415, cargo 689, carrier 3, chemical tanker 62, combination ore/oil 2, container 157, liquefied gas 35, passenger 8, passenger/cargo 84, petroleum tanker 250, refrigerated cargo 33, roll on/roll off 9, specialized tanker 8, vehicle carrier 17


foreign-owned: 12 (Ekwador 1, Grecja 1, Hong Kong 6, Japonia 2, South Korea 1, Norwegia 1)


registered w other countries: 1,366 (Bahamas 9, Bangladesz 1, Belize 107, Bermudy 10, Boliwia 1, Kambodza 166, Cypr 10, Francja 5, Georgia 4, Niemcy 2, Honduras 3, Hong Kong 309, Indie 1, Indonezja 2, Liberia 32, Malezja 1, Malta 13, Wyspy Marshalla 3, Mongolia 3, Norwegia 47, Panama 473, Filipiny 2, Sierra Leone 8, Singapur 19, St Vincent and The Grenadines 106, Tajlandia 1, Turcja 1, Tuvalu 25, unknown 33) (2007)
Wojsko People's Liberation Army (PLA): Ground Forces, Navy (includes marines and naval aviation), Air Force (includes airborne forces), and Second Artillery Corps (strategic missile force); People's Armed Police (PAP); Reserve and Militia Forces (2006)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 4.3% (2006)
Swieto narodowe Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of Chiny, 1 pazdziernik (1949)
Narodowosc noun: Chinese (singular and plural)


adjective: Chinese
Naturalne zagrozenia frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts; land subsidence
Surowce naturalne coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest)
Wspolczynnik migracji -0.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi gas 26,344 km; oil 17,240 km; refined products 6,106 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Chinese Communist Party or CCP [HU Jintao]; eight registered small parties controlled by CCP
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow no substantial political opposition groups exist, although the government has identified the Falungong spiritual movement and the Chiny Democracy Party as subversive groups
Ludnosc 1,321,851,888 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 8%


note: 21.5 million rural population live below the official "absolute poverty" line (approximately $90 per year); and an additional 35.5 million rural population above that but below the official "low income" line (approximately $125 per year) (2006 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 0.606% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 369, FM 259, shortwave 45 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 75,438 km


standard gauge: 75,438 km 1.435-m gauge (20,151 km electrified) (2005)
Religie Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Christian 3%-4%, Muslim 1%-2%


note: officially atheist (2002 est.)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.11 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.134 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.057 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.914 male(s)/female


total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: domestic and international services are increasingly available dla private use; unevenly distributed domestic system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and many towns; Chiny continues to develop its telecommunications infrastructure, and is partnering z foreign providers to expand its global reach; 3 of Chiny's 6 major telecommunications operators are part of an international consortium which, w grudzien 2006, signed an agreement z Verizon Business to build the first next-generation fiber optic submarine cable system directly linking the US mainland and Chiny


domestic: interprovincial fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular telephone systems have been installed; mobile-cellular subscribership is increasing rapidly; the number of internet users reached 162 million w 2007; a domestic satellite system z 55 earth stations is w place


international: country code - 86; a number of submarine cables provide connectivity to Asia, the Middle East, Europe, and the US; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Ocean Spokojny and 1 Ocean Indyjski), 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Indyjski region) and 1 Inmarsat (Pacific and Ocean Indyjski regions) (2007)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 368 million (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 461.1 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 3,240 (of which 209 are operated by Chiny Central Television, 31 are provincial TV stations, and nearly 3,000 are local city stations) (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts w west; plains, deltas, and hills w east
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.75 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 4% unemployment w urban areas; substantial unemployment and underemployment w rural areas (2007 est.)
Drogi wodne 124,000 km navigable (2006)
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