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Cape Verde (2008)

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 Cape Verde
Administrative divisions 17 municipalities (concelhos, singular - concelho); Boa Vista, Brava, Maio, Mosteiros, Paul, Praia, Porto Novo, Ribeira Grande, Sal, Santa Catarina, Santa Cruz, Sao Domingos, Sao Filipe, Sao Miguel, Sao Nicolau, Sao Vicente, Tarrafal
Age structure 0-14 years: 36.9% (male 78,971/female 77,524)

15-64 years: 56.4% (male 116,751/female 122,065)

65 years and over: 6.7% (male 10,423/female 17,879) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products bananas, corn, beans, sweet potatoes, sugarcane, coffee, peanuts; fish
Airports 8 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 8

over 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Area total: 4,033 sq km

land: 4,033 sq km

water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than Rhode Island
Background The uninhabited islands were discovered and colonized by the Portuguese in the 15th century; Cape Verde subsequently became a trading center for African slaves and later an important coaling and resupply stop for whaling and transatlantic shipping. Following independence in 1975, and a tentative interest in unification with Guinea-Bissau, a one-party system was established and maintained until multi-party elections were held in 1990. Cape Verde continues to exhibit one of Africa's most stable democratic governments. Repeated droughts during the second half of the 20th century caused significant hardship and prompted heavy emigration. As a result, Cape Verde's expatriate population is greater than its domestic one. Most Cape Verdeans have both African and Portuguese antecedents.
Birth rate 24.4 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: $444.7 million

expenditures: $496 million (2007 est.)
Capital name: Praia

geographic coordinates: 14 55 N, 23 31 W

time difference: UTC-1 (4 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Climate temperate; warm, dry summer; precipitation meager and very erratic
Coastline 965 km
Constitution 25 September 1992; a major revision on 23 November 1995 substantially increased the powers of the president; a 1999 revision created the position of national ombudsman (Provedor de Justica)
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Cape Verde

conventional short form: Cape Verde

local long form: Republica de Cabo Verde

local short form: Cabo Verde
Death rate 6.5 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $325 million (2002)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Roger D. PIERCE

embassy: Rua Abilio Macedo n6, Praia

mailing address: C. P. 201, Praia

telephone: [238] 2-60-89-00

FAX: [238] 2-61-13-55
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Fatima Lima VEIGA (since 16 August 2007)

chancery: 3415 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007

telephone: [1] (202) 965-6820

FAX: [1] (202) 965-1207

consulate(s) general: Boston
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $160.6 million (2005)
Economy - overview This island economy suffers from a poor natural resource base, including serious water shortages exacerbated by cycles of long-term drought. The economy is service-oriented, with commerce, transport, tourism, and public services accounting for 66% of GDP. Although nearly 70% of the population lives in rural areas, the share of food production in GDP is low. About 82% of food must be imported. The fishing potential, mostly lobster and tuna, is not fully exploited. Cape Verde annually runs a high trade deficit, financed by foreign aid and remittances from emigrants; remittances supplement GDP by more than 20%. Economic reforms are aimed at developing the private sector and attracting foreign investment to diversify the economy. Future prospects depend heavily on the maintenance of aid flows, the encouragement of tourism, remittances, and the momentum of the government's development program.
Electricity - consumption 41.85 million kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - production 45 million kWh (2005)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mt. Fogo 2,829 m (a volcano on Fogo Island)
Environment - current issues soil erosion; deforestation due to demand for wood used as fuel; water shortages; desertification; environmental damage has threatened several species of birds and reptiles; illegal beach sand extraction; overfishing
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Creole (mulatto) 71%, African 28%, European 1%
Exchange rates Cape Verdean escudos (CVE) per US dollar - 81.235 (2007), 87.946 (2006), 88.67 (2005), 88.808 (2004), 97.703 (2003)
Executive branch chief of state: President Pedro Verona PIRES (since 22 March 2001)

head of government: Prime Minister Jose Maria Pereira NEVES (since 1 February 2001)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 12 February 2006 (next to be held in February 2011); prime minister nominated by the National Assembly and appointed by the president

election results: Pedro PIRES reelected president; percent of vote - Pedro PIRES (PAICV) 51.2%, Carlos VIEGA (MPD) 48.8%
Exports 0 kWh (2005)
Exports $100.2 million f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Exports 0 bbl/day (2004)
Exports - commodities fuel, shoes, garments, fish, hides
Exports - partners Spain 39.4%, Portugal 19.3%, Netherlands 11.3%, Germany 10.9%, Morocco 4.1% (2006)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description five unequal horizontal bands; the top-most band of blue - equal to one half the width of the flag - is followed by three bands of white, red, and white, each equal to 1/12 of the width, and a bottom stripe of blue equal to one quarter of the flag width; a circle of 10, yellow, five-pointed stars, each representing one of the islands, is centered on the red stripe and positioned 3/8 of the length of the flag from the hoist side
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 9.3%

industry: 16.9%

services: 73.9% (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 7% (2007 est.)
Geographic coordinates 16 00 N, 24 00 W
Geography - note strategic location 500 km from west coast of Africa near major north-south sea routes; important communications station; important sea and air refueling site
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Illicit drugs used as a transshipment point for Latin American cocaine destined for Western Europe; the lack of a well-developed financial system limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center
Imports 0 kWh (2005)
Imports $727.1 million f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2005)
Imports 2,080 bbl/day (2004)
Imports - commodities foodstuffs, industrial products, transport equipment, fuels
Imports - partners Portugal 41.1%, Netherlands 10.6%, Spain 6.5%, Italy 5.5%, Cote d'Ivoire 5.2%, Brazil 4.8% (2006)
Independence 5 July 1975 (from Portugal)
Industrial production growth rate 9% (2007 est.)
Industries food and beverages, fish processing, shoes and garments, salt mining, ship repair
Infant mortality rate total: 45.27 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 50.31 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 40.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3% (2007 est.)
International organization participation ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, CPLP, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Irrigated land 30 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Tribunal of Justice or Supremo Tribunal de Justia
Labor force 120,600 (1990)
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land: 11.41%

permanent crops: 0.74%

other: 87.85% (2005)
Languages Portuguese, Crioulo (a blend of Portuguese and West African words)
Legal system based on the legal system of Portugal; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (72 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 22 January 2006 (next to be held in January 2011)

election results: percent of vote by party - PAICV 52.3%, MPD 44%, UCID 2.7%; seats by party - PAICV 41, MPD 29, UCID 2
Life expectancy at birth total population: 71.02 years

male: 67.69 years

female: 74.44 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 76.6%

male: 85.8%

female: 69.2% (2003 est.)
Location Western Africa, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Senegal
Map references Political Map of the World
Maritime claims measured from claimed archipelagic baselines

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Merchant marine total: 8 ships (1000 GRT or over) 13,922 GRT/7,726 DWT

by type: cargo 2, chemical tanker 1, passenger/cargo 5

foreign-owned: 2 (Spain 1, UK 1) (2007)
Military branches People's Revolutionary Armed Forces (FARP): Army, Coast Guard (includes maritime air wing) (2007)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 0.7% (2005)
National holiday Independence Day, 5 July (1975)
Nationality noun: Cape Verdean(s)

adjective: Cape Verdean
Natural hazards prolonged droughts; seasonal harmattan wind produces obscuring dust; volcanically and seismically active
Natural resources salt, basalt rock, limestone, kaolin, fish, clay, gypsum
Net migration rate -11.83 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Political parties and leaders African Party for Independence of Cape Verde or PAICV [Jose Maria Pereira NEVES, chairman]; Democratic Alliance for Change or ADM [Dr. Eurico MONTEIRO] (a coalition of PCD, PTS, and UCID); Democratic Christian Party or PDC [Manuel RODRIGUES]; Democratic Renovation Party or PRD [Victor FIDALGO]; Democratic and Independent Cape Verdean Union or UCID [Antonio MONTEIRO]; Movement for Democracy or MPD [Agostinho LOPES]; Party for Democratic Convergence or PCD [Dr. Eurico MONTEIRO]; Party of Work and Solidarity or PTS [Isaias RODRIGUES]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Joao ALEM]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 423,613 (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line 30% (2000)
Population growth rate 0.606% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 0, FM 22 (plus 12 repeaters), shortwave 0 (2001)
Religions Roman Catholic (infused with indigenous beliefs), Protestant (mostly Church of the Nazarene)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.019 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.956 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.583 male(s)/female

total population: 0.948 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: effective system, extensive modernization from 1996-2000 following partial privatization in 1995

domestic: major service provider is Cabo Verde Telecom (CVT); fiber-optic ring, completed in 2001, links all islands providing Internet access and ISDN services; cellular service introduced in 1998; broadband services launched in 2004

international: country code - 238; landing point for the Atlantis-2 fiber-optic transatlantic telephone cable that provides links to South America, Senegal, and Europe; HF radiotelephone to Senegal and Guinea-Bissau; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2007)
Telephones - main lines in use 71,600 (2006)
Telephones - mobile cellular 108,900 (2006)
Television broadcast stations 1 (plus 7 repeaters) (2001)
Terrain steep, rugged, rocky, volcanic
Total fertility rate 3.28 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate 21% (2000 est.)
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