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Cape Verde (2003)

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 Cape Verde
Administrative divisions 17 municipalities (concelhos, singular - concelho); Boa Vista, Brava, Maio, Mosteiros, Paul, Praia, Porto Novo, Ribeira Grande, Sal, Santa Catarina, Santa Cruz, Sao Domingos, Sao Filipe, Sao Miguel, Sao Nicolau, Sao Vicente, Tarrafal
Age structure 0-14 years: 41% (male 85,254; female 83,716)

15-64 years: 52.3% (male 103,690; female 111,992)

65 years and over: 6.7% (male 10,498; female 16,987) (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products bananas, corn, beans, sweet potatoes, sugarcane, coffee, peanuts; fish
Airports 9

note: 3 airports are reported to be nonoperational (2002)
Airports - with paved runways total: 6

over 3,047 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 5 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2002)
Area total: 4,033 sq km

land: 4,033 sq km

water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than Rhode Island
Background The uninhabited islands were discovered and colonized by the Portuguese in the 15th century; they subsequently became a trading center for African slaves and later an important coaling and resupply stop for whaling and transatlantic shipping. Following independence in 1975, and a tentative interest in unification with Guinea-Bissau, a one-party system was established and maintained until multi-party elections were held in 1990. Cape Verde continues to exhibit one of Africa's most stable democratic governments. Repeated droughts during the second half of the 20th century caused significant hardship and prompted heavy emigration. As a result, Cape Verde's expatriate population is greater than its domestic one. Most Cape Verdeans have both African and Portuguese antecedents.
Birth rate 26.95 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budget revenues: $112 million

expenditures: $198 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000)
Capital Praia
Climate temperate; warm, dry summer; precipitation meager and very erratic
Coastline 965 km
Constitution new constitution came into force 25 September 1992; underwent a major revision on 23 November 1995, substantially increasing the powers of the president, and a further revision in 1999, to create the position of national ombudsman (Provedor de Justica)
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Cape Verde

conventional short form: Cape Verde

local long form: Republica de Cabo Verde

local short form: Cabo Verde
Currency Cape Verdean escudo (CVE)
Death rate 6.86 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Debt - external $325 million (2002)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Donald C. JOHNSON

embassy: Rua Abilio m. Macedo 81, Praia

mailing address: C. P. 201, Praia

telephone: [238] 61 56 16, 61 56 17

FAX: [238] 61 13 55
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Jose BRITO

chancery: 3415 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007

telephone: [1] (202) 965-6820

FAX: [1] (202) 965-1207

consulate(s) general: Boston
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $136 million (1999)
Economy - overview This island economy suffers from a poor natural resource base, including serious water shortages exacerbated by cycles of long-term drought. The economy is service-oriented, with commerce, transport, tourism, and public services accounting for 72% of GDP. Although nearly 70% of the population lives in rural areas, the share of agriculture in GDP in 2001 was only 11%, of which fishing accounts for 1.5%. About 82% of food must be imported. The fishing potential, mostly lobster and tuna, is not fully exploited. Cape Verde annually runs a high trade deficit, financed by foreign aid and remittances from emigrants; remittances supplement GDP by more than 20%. Economic reforms are aimed at developing the private sector and attracting foreign investment to diversify the economy. Prospects for 2003 depend heavily on the maintenance of aid flows, tourism, remittances, and the momentum of the government's development program.
Electricity - consumption 39.08 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 42.03 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mt. Fogo 2,829 m (a volcano on Fogo Island)
Environment - current issues soil erosion; demand for wood used as fuel has resulted in deforestation; desertification; environmental damage has threatened several species of birds and reptiles; illegal beach sand extraction; overfishing
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Creole (mulatto) 71%, African 28%, European 1%
Exchange rates Cape Verdean escudos (CVE) per US dollar - NA (2002), 123.21 (2001), 115.88 (2000), 102.7 (1999), 98.16 (1998)
Executive branch chief of state: President Pedro PIRES (since 22 March 2001)

head of government: Prime Minister Jose Maria Pereira NEVES (since 1 February 2001)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 11 and 25 February 2001 (next to be held NA February 2006); prime minister nominated by the National Assembly and appointed by the president

election results: Pedro PIRES elected president; percent of vote - Pedro PIRES (PAICV) 49.43%, Carlos VIEGA (MPD) 49.42%; note - the election was won by only twelve votes
Exports 0 kWh (2001)
Exports $30 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities fuel, shoes, garments, fish, hides
Exports - partners Portugal 38.5%, UK 26.4%, France 23.1%, US 8.2% (2002)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three horizontal bands of light blue (top, double width), white (with a horizontal red stripe in the middle third), and light blue; a circle of 10 yellow five-pointed stars is centered on the hoist end of the red stripe and extends into the upper and lower blue bands
GDP purchasing power parity - $600 million (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 11%

industry: 17%

services: 72% (2001)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,400 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 4% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 16 00 N, 24 00 W
Geography - note strategic location 500 km from west coast of Africa near major north-south sea routes; important communications station; important sea and air refueling site
Highways total: 1,100 km

paved: 858 km

unpaved: 242 km (1999 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Illicit drugs used as a transshipment point for illicit drugs moving from Latin America and Asia destined for Western Europe; the lack of a well-developed financial system limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center
Imports 0 kWh (2001)
Imports $220 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities foodstuffs, industrial products, transport equipment, fuels
Imports - partners Portugal 49.1%, Netherlands 7.2%, Germany 5.7% (2002)
Independence 5 July 1975 (from Portugal)
Industrial production growth rate NA%
Industries food and beverages, fish processing, shoes and garments, salt mining, ship repair
Infant mortality rate total: 50.5 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 55.83 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 45.01 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3% (2002)
International organization participation ACCT, ACP, AfDB, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2002)
Irrigated land 30 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Tribunal of Justice or Supremo Tribunal de Justia
Labor force NA
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land: 9.68%

permanent crops: 0.5%

other: 89.82% (1998 est.)
Languages Portuguese, Crioulo (a blend of Portuguese and West African words)
Legal system derived from the legal system of Portugal
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (72 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 14 January 2001 (next to be held NA December 2005)

election results: percent of vote by party - PAICV 47.3%, MPD 39.8%, ADM 6%, other 6.9%; seats by party - PAICV 40, MPD 30, ADM 2
Life expectancy at birth total population: 69.83 years

male: 66.53 years

female: 73.23 years (2003 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 76.6%

male: 85.8%

female: 69.2% (2003 est.)
Location Western Africa, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Senegal
Map references Political Map of the World
Maritime claims measured from claimed archipelagic baselines

contiguous zone: 24 NM

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM
Merchant marine total: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 5,395 GRT/6,614 DWT

ships by type: cargo 2, chemical tanker 1, passenger/cargo 1

note: includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: United Kingdom 1 (2002 est.)
Military branches Army, Coast Guard
Military expenditures - dollar figure $9.3 million (FY02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.6% (FY02)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 95,450 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 53,842 (2003 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 5 July (1975)
Nationality noun: Cape Verdean(s)

adjective: Cape Verdean
Natural hazards prolonged droughts; seasonal harmattan wind produces obscuring dust; volcanically and seismically active
Natural resources salt, basalt rock, limestone, kaolin, fish
Net migration rate -12.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Political parties and leaders African Party for Independence of Cape Verde or PAICV [Jose Maria Pereira NEVES, chairman]; Democratic Alliance for Change or ADM [Dr. Eurico MONTEIRO] (a coalition of PCD, PTS, and UCID); Democratic Christian Party or PDC [Manuel RODRIGUES, chairman]; Democratic Renovation Party or PRD [Jacinto SANTOS, president]; Movement for Democracy or MPD [Agostinho LOPES, president]; Party for Democratic Convergence or PCD [Dr. Eurico MONTEIRO, president]; Party of Work and Solidarity or PTS [Anibal MEDINA, president]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Joao ALEM, president]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 412,137 (July 2003 est.)
Population below poverty line 30% (2000)
Population growth rate 0.79% (2003 est.)
Ports and harbors Mindelo, Praia, Tarrafal
Radio broadcast stations AM 0, FM 15 (and 17 repeaters), shortwave 0 (2002)
Railways 0 km
Religions Roman Catholic (infused with indigenous beliefs); Protestant (mostly Church of the Nazarene)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female

total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: effective system, being improved

domestic: interisland microwave radio relay system with both analog and digital exchanges; work is in progress on a submarine fiber-optic cable system which is scheduled for completion in 2003

international: 2 coaxial submarine cables; HF radiotelephone to Senegal and Guinea-Bissau; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 60,935 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular 28,119 (2002)
Television broadcast stations 1 (and 7 repeaters) (2002)
Terrain steep, rugged, rocky, volcanic
Total fertility rate 3.77 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate 21% (2000 est.)
Waterways none
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