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Burkina Faso (2002)

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 Burkina Faso
Administrative divisions 30 provinces; Bam, Bazega, Bougouriba, Boulgou, Boulkiemde, Ganzourgou, Gnagna, Gourma, Houe, Kadiogo, Kenedougou, Komoe, Kossi, Kouritenga, Mouhoun, Namentenga, Naouri, Oubritenga, Oudalan, Passore, Poni, Sanguie, Sanmatenga, Seno, Sissili, Soum, Sourou, Tapoa, Yatenga, Zoundweogo

note: a new electoral code was approved by the National Assembly in January 1997; the number of administrative provinces was increased from 30 to 45 (Bale, Bam, Banwa, Bazega, Bougouriba, Boulgou, Boulkiemde, Comoe, Ganzourgou, Gnagna, Gourma, Houet, Ioba, Kadiogo, Kenedougou, Komandjari, Kompienga, Kossi, Koupelogo, Kouritenga, Kourweogo, Leraba, Loroum, Mouhoun, Nahouri, Namentenga, Nayala, Naumbiel, Oubritenga, Oudalan, Passore, Poni, Samentenga, Sanguie, Seno, Sissili, Soum, Sourou, Tapoa, Tuy, Yagha, Yatenga, Ziro, Zondomo, Zoundweogo), however, this change has not yet been confirmed by the US Board on Geographic Names
Age structure 0-14 years: 47.3% (male 3,007,675; female 2,960,697)

15-64 years: 49.8% (male 3,000,411; female 3,271,594)

65 years and over: 2.9% (male 151,976; female 210,832) (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products peanuts, shea nuts, sesame, cotton, sorghum, millet, corn, rice; livestock
Airports 33 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways total: 2

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 31

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 11

under 914 m: 17 (2002)
Area total: 274,200 sq km

land: 273,800 sq km

water: 400 sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than Colorado
Background Independence from France came to Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta) in 1960. Governmental instability during the 1970s and 1980s was followed by multiparty elections in the early 1990s. Several hundred thousand farm workers migrate south every year to Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana.
Birth rate 44.34 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budget revenues: $316 million

expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001)
Capital Ouagadougou
Climate tropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution 2 June 1991 approved by referendum; 11 June 1991 formally adopted
Country name conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Burkina Faso

former: Upper Volta, Republic of Upper Volta
Currency Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States
Death rate 17.07 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Debt - external $1.5 billion (1999)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Anthony HOLMES

embassy: 602 Avenue Raoul Follereau, Koulouba, Secteur 4

mailing address: 01 B. P. 35, Ouagadougou 01; pouch mail - U. S. Department of State, 2440 Ouagadougou Place, Washington, DC 20521-2440

telephone: [226] 306723

FAX: [226] 303890
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Tertius ZONGO

chancery: 2340 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 332-5577

FAX: [1] (202) 667-1882
Disputes - international two villages are in dispute with Benin
Economic aid - recipient $484.1 million (1995) (1995)
Economy - overview One of the poorest countries in the world, landlocked Burkina Faso has a high population density, few natural resources, and a fragile soil. About 90% of the population is engaged in (mainly subsistence) agriculture, which is highly vulnerable to variations in rainfall. Industry remains dominated by unprofitable government-controlled corporations. Following the African franc currency devaluation in January 1994 the government updated its development program in conjunction with international agencies, and exports and economic growth have increased. Maintenance of macroeconomic progress depends on continued low inflation, reduction in the trade deficit, and reforms designed to encourage private investment.
Electricity - consumption 262.26 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - production 282 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 71%

hydro: 29%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2000)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Mouhoun (Black Volta) River 200 m

highest point: Tena Kourou 749 m
Environment - current issues recent droughts and desertification severely affecting agricultural activities, population distribution, and the economy; overgrazing; soil degradation; deforestation
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban
Ethnic groups Mossi over 40%, Gurunsi, Senufo, Lobi, Bobo, Mande, Fulani
Exchange rates Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 742.79 (January 2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997); note - from 1 January 1999, the XOF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XOF per euro
Executive branch chief of state: President Blaise COMPAORE (since 15 October 1987)

head of government: Prime Minister Ernest Paramanga YONLI (since 6 November 2000)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 15 November 1998 (next to be held NA 2005); in April 2000, the constitution was amended reducing the presidential term from seven to five years, enforceable as of 2005, and allowing the president to be reelected only once; it is unclear whether this amendment will be applied retroactively or not; prime minister appointed by the president with the consent of the legislature

election results: Blaise COMPAORE reelected president with 87.5% percent of the vote

note: President COMPAORE faces an increasingly well-coordinated opposition; recent charges against a former member of his Presidential Guard in the 1998 assassination of a newspaper editor signify an attempt to defuse chronic areas of dissatisfaction
Exports 0 kWh (2000)
Exports $265 million f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Exports - commodities cotton, animal products, gold
Exports - partners Venezuela 14.7%, Benelux 12.2%, Italy 9.6%, France 7.0% (2000)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a yellow five-pointed star in the center; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
GDP purchasing power parity - $12.8 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 31%

industry: 28%

services: 41% (2000)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,040 (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 4.7% (2001 est.)
Geographic coordinates 13 00 N, 2 00 W
Geography - note landlocked savanna cut by the three principal rivers of the Black, Red, and White Voltas
Highways total: 12,506 km

paved: 2,001 km

unpaved: 10,505 km (1999)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2%

highest 10%: 40% (1994) (1994)
Imports 0 kWh (2000)
Imports $580 million f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Imports - commodities capital goods, food products, petroleum
Imports - partners Cote d'Ivoire 25.1%, Venezuela 23.4%, France 17.0% (2000)
Independence 5 August 1960 (from France)
Industrial production growth rate 14% (2001 est.)
Industries cotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing, soap, cigarettes, textiles, gold
Infant mortality rate 105.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3.5% (2001 est.)
International organization participation ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (subscriber), ITU, MONUC, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2002)
Irrigated land 250 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court; Appeals Court
Labor force 5 million (1999)

note: a large part of the male labor force migrates annually to neighboring countries for seasonal employment (1999)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 90% (2000 est.)
Land boundaries total: 3,193 km

border countries: Benin 306 km, Cote d'Ivoire 584 km, Ghana 549 km, Mali 1,000 km, Niger 628 km, Togo 126 km
Land use arable land: 12.43%

permanent crops: 0.18%

other: 87.39% (1998 est.)
Languages French (official), native African languages belonging to Sudanic family spoken by 90% of the population
Legal system based on French civil law system and customary law
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (111 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: National Assembly election last held 5 May 2002 (next to be held NA May 2007)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - CDP 57, RDA-ADF 17, PDP/PS 10, CFD 5, PAI 5, others 17
Life expectancy at birth total population: 46.11 years

male: 45.45 years

female: 46.78 years (2002 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 36% (2001)

male: NA%

female: NA%
Location Western Africa, north of Ghana
Map references Africa
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military branches Army, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, National Police, People's Militia
Military expenditures - dollar figure $40.1 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.4% (FY01)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 2,688,072 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 1,379,010 (2002 est.)
National holiday Republic Day, 11 December (1958)
Nationality noun: Burkinabe (singular and plural)

adjective: Burkinabe
Natural hazards recurring droughts
Natural resources manganese, limestone, marble; small deposits of gold, antimony, copper, nickel, bauxite, lead, phosphates, zinc, silver
Net migration rate -0.84 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Political parties and leaders African Democratic Rally-Alliance for Democracy and Federation or RDA-ADF [Herman YAMEOGO]; Confederation for Federation and Democracy or CFD [Amadou Diemdioda DICKO]; Congress for Democracy and Progress or CDP [Roch Marc-Christian KABORE]; Movement for Tolerance and Progress or MTP [Noyabtigungu Congo KABORE]; Party for African Independence or PAI [Philippe OUEDRAOGO]; Party for Democracy and Progress or PDP [Joseph KI-ZERBO]; Union of Greens for the Development of Burkina Faso or UVDB [Ram OVEDRAGO]
Political pressure groups and leaders Burkinabe General Confederation of Labor or CGTB; Burkinabe Movement for Human Rights or MBDHP; Group of 14 February; National Confederation of Burkinabe Workers or CNTB; National Organization of Free Unions or ONSL; watchdog/political action groups throughout the country in both organizations and communities
Population 12,603,185

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2002 est.)
Population below poverty line 45% (2001 est.)
Population growth rate 2.64% (2002 est.)
Ports and harbors none
Radio broadcast stations AM 3, FM 17, shortwave 3 (2002)
Radios 394,020 (2000)
Railways total: 622 km (517 km from Ouagadougou to the Cote d'Ivoire border and 105 km from Ouagadougou to Kaya)

narrow gauge: 622 km 1.000-m gauge (1995 est.)
Religions indigenous beliefs 40%, Muslim 50%, Christian (mainly Roman Catholic) 10%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Suffrage universal
Telephone system general assessment: all services only fair

domestic: microwave radio relay, open wire, and radiotelephone communication stations

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 53,200 (2000)
Telephones - mobile cellular 25,200 (2000)
Television broadcast stations 1 (2002)
Terrain mostly flat to dissected, undulating plains; hills in west and southeast
Total fertility rate 6.26 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate NA%
Waterways none
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