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Botswana (2004)

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Botswana 2004 year

Administrative divisions 9 districts and four town councils*; Central, Francistown*, Gaborone*, Ghanzi, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng, Lobatse*, Northwest, Northeast, Selebi-Pikwe*, Southeast, Southern
Age structure 0-14 years: 39.2% (male 310,282; female 302,452)

15-64 years: 56.2% (male 424,613; female 452,801)

65 years and over: 4.6% (male 30,896; female 40,929) (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products livestock, sorghum, maize, millet, beans, sunflowers, groundnuts
Airports 85 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 10

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 7

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 75

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 54

under 914 m: 18 (2004 est.)
Area total: 600,370 sq km

land: 585,370 sq km

water: 15,000 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Texas
Background Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name upon independence in 1966. Four decades of uninterrupted civilian leadership, progressive social policies, and significant capital investment have created one of the most dynamic economies in Africa. Mineral extraction, principally diamond mining, dominates economic activity, though tourism is a growing sector due to the country's conservation practices and extensive nature preserves. Botswana has one of the world's highest known rates of HIV/AIDS infection, but also one of Africa's most progressive and comprehensive programs for dealing with the disease.
Birth rate 24.71 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Budget revenues: $3.263 billion

expenditures: $3.283 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2003)
Capital Gaborone
Climate semiarid; warm winters and hot summers
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution March 1965, effective 30 September 1966
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Botswana

conventional short form: Botswana

former: Bechuanaland
Currency pula (BWP)
Death rate 33.63 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Debt - external $392 million (2003)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph HUGGINS

embassy: address NA, Gaborone

mailing address: Embassy Enclave, P. O. Box 90, Gaborone

telephone: [267] 353982

FAX: [267] 312782
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Lapologang Caesar LEKOA

chancery: 1531-1533 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 244-4990

FAX: [1] (202) 244-4164
Disputes - international established a commission with Namibia to resolve small residual disputes along the Caprivi Strip, including the Situngu marshlands along the Linyanti River; downstream Botswana residents protest Namibia's planned construction of the Okavango hydroelectric dam at Popavalle (Popa Falls); Botswana, Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe boundary convergence is not clearly defined or delimited
Economic aid - recipient $73 million (1995)
Economy - overview Botswana has maintained one of the world's highest growth rates since independence in 1966. Through fiscal discipline and sound management, Botswana has transformed itself from one of the poorest countries in the world to a middle-income country with a per capita GDP of $8,800 in 2003. Two major investment services rank Botswana as the best credit risk in Africa. Diamond mining has fueled much of the expansion and currently accounts for more than one-third of GDP and for nine-tenths of export earnings. Tourism, subsistence farming, and cattle raising are other key sectors. On the downside, the government must deal with high rates of unemployment and poverty. Unemployment officially is 21%, but unofficial estimates place it closer to 40%. HIV/AIDS infection rates are the highest in the world and threaten Botswana's impressive economic gains. Long-term prospects are overshadowed by the expected leveling off in diamond mining production.
Electricity - consumption 1.564 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 1.183 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 409.8 million kWh (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: junction of the Limpopo and Shashe Rivers 513 m

highest point: Tsodilo Hills 1,489 m
Environment - current issues overgrazing; desertification; limited fresh water resources
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Tswana (or Setswana) 79%, Kalanga 11%, Basarwa 3%, other, including Kgalagadi and white 7%
Exchange rates pulas per US dollar - 4.9499 (2003), 6.3278 (2002), 5.8412 (2001), 5.1018 (2000), 4.6244 (1999)
Executive branch chief of state: President Festus MOGAE (since 1 April 1998) and Vice President Seretse Ian KHAMA (since 13 July 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Festus MOGAE (since 1 April 1998) and Vice President Seretse Ian KHAMA (since 13 July 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term; election last held 16 October 1999 (next to be held NA October 2004); vice president appointed by the president

election results: Festus MOGAE elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - 54.3%
Exports 0 kWh (2001)
Exports $2.544 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities diamonds, copper, nickel, soda ash, meat, textiles
Exports - partners European Free Trade Association (EFTA) 87%, Southern African Customs Union (SACU) 7%, Zimbabwe 4% (2000)
Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March
Flag description light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe in the center
GDP purchasing power parity - $14.2 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 4%

industry: 48.7% (including 36% mining)

services: 52% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $9,000 (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 7.2% (2003 est.)
Geographic coordinates 22 00 S, 24 00 E
Geography - note landlocked; population concentrated in eastern part of the country
Highways total: 10,217 km

paved: 5,619 km

unpaved: 4,598 km (1999)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA

highest 10%: NA
Imports 1.183 billion kWh (2001)
Imports $1.753 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities foodstuffs, machinery, electrical goods, transport equipment, textiles, fuel and petroleum products, wood and paper products, metal and metal products
Imports - partners Southern African Customs Union (SACU) 74%, EFTA 17%, Zimbabwe 4% (2000)
Independence 30 September 1966 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate 7.3% (2003 est.)
Industries diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash; livestock processing; textiles
Infant mortality rate total: 69.98 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 70.96 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 68.96 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 9.2% (2003 est.)
Irrigated land 10 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch High Court; Court of Appeal; Magistrates' Courts (one in each district)
Labor force 264,000 formal sector employees (2000)
Labor force - by occupation NA
Land boundaries total: 4,013 km

border countries: Namibia 1,360 km, South Africa 1,840 km, Zimbabwe 813 km
Land use arable land: 0.65%

permanent crops: 0.01%

other: 99.34% (2001)
Languages English (official), Setswana
Legal system based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law; judicial review limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch bicameral Parliament consists of the House of Chiefs (a largely advisory 15-member body consisting of the chiefs of the eight principal tribes, four elected subchiefs, and three members selected by the other 12 members) and the National Assembly (44 seats, 40 members are directly elected by popular vote and 4 are appointed by the majority party; members serve five-year terms)

elections: National Assembly elections last held 30 October 2004 (next to be held NA October 2009)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - BDP 44, BNF 12, BCP 1
Life expectancy at birth total population: 30.76 years

male: 30.99 years

female: 30.53 years (2004 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 79.8%

male: 76.9%

female: 82.4% (2003 est.)
Location Southern Africa, north of South Africa
Map references Africa
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military branches Botswana Defense Force (including an Air Wing)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $298.9 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 3.6% (2003)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 381,801 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 202,176 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 20,651 (2004 est.)
National holiday Independence Day (Botswana Day), 30 September (1966)
Nationality noun: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)

adjective: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
Natural hazards periodic droughts; seasonal August winds blow from the west, carrying sand and dust across the country, which can obscure visibility
Natural resources diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Political parties and leaders Botswana Democratic Party or BDP [Seretse Ian KHAMA]; Botswana National Front or BNF [Otswoletse MOUPO]; Botswana Congress Party or BCP [Mokgweetsi KGOSIPULA]; Botswana Alliance Movement or BAM [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO]

note: a number of minor parties joined forces in 1999 to form the BAM but did not capture any parliamentary seats; the BAM parties are: the United Action Party [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO], the Independence Freedom Party or IFP [Motsamai MPHO], and the Botswana Progressive Union [D. K. KWELE]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 1,561,973

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2004 est.)
Population below poverty line 47% (2002 est.)
Population growth rate -0.89% (2004 est.)
Ports and harbors none
Radio broadcast stations AM 8, FM 13, shortwave 4 (2001)
Railways total: 888 km

narrow gauge: 888 km 1.067-m gauge (2003)
Religions indigenous beliefs 85%, Christian 15%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: the system is expanding with the growth of mobile cellular service and participation in regional development

domestic: small system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relay links, and a few radiotelephone communication stations; mobile cellular service is growing fast

international: country code - 267; two international exchanges; digital microwave radio relay links to Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 142,400 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular 435,000 (2002)
Television broadcast stations 1 (2001)
Terrain predominantly flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari Desert in southwest
Total fertility rate 3.17 children born/woman (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate 40% (official rate is 21%) (2001 est.)
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