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Botswana (2001)

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Botswana 2001 year

Administrative divisions 10 districts and four town councils*; Central, Chobe, Francistown*, Gaborone*, Ghanzi, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng, Lobatse*, Ngamiland, North-East, Selebi-Pikwe*, South-East, Southern
Age structure 0-14 years:
40.3% (male 321,164; female 318,007)

15-64 years:
55.56% (male 423,954; female 457,227)

65 years and over:
4.14% (male 26,691; female 39,076) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products sorghum, corn, millet, pulses, groundnuts (peanuts), beans, cowpeas, sunflower seed; livestock
Airports 92 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:
1 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
22 (2000 est.)
Area total:
600,370 sq km

585,370 sq km

15,000 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Texas
Background Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name upon independence in 1966. The economy, one of the most robust on the continent, is dominated by diamond mining.
Birth rate 28.85 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$1.6 billion

$1.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $560 million (FY96)
Capital Gaborone
Climate semiarid; warm winters and hot summers
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution March 1965, effective 30 September 1966
Country name conventional long form:
Republic of Botswana

conventional short form:

Currency pula (BWP)
Death rate 24.18 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $455 million (2000)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador John E. LANGE

address NA, Gaborone

mailing address:
P. O. Box 90, Gaborone

[267] 353982

[267] 356947
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Kgosi SEEPAPITSO IV

1531-1533 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

[1] (202) 244-4990

[1] (202) 244-4164
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $73 million (1995)
Economy - overview Botswana has maintained one of the world's highest growth rates since independence in 1966. Through fiscal discipline and sound management, Botswana has transformed itself from one of the poorest countries in the world to a middle-income country with a per capita GDP of $6,600 in 2000. Diamond mining has fueled much of Botswana's economic expansion and currently accounts for more than one-third of GDP and for three-fourths of export earnings. Tourism, subsistence farming, and cattle raising are other key sectors. The government must deal with high rates of unemployment and poverty. Unemployment officially is 19%, but unofficial estimates place it closer to 40%. HIV/AIDS infection rates are the highest in the world and threaten Botswana's impressive economic gains.
Electricity - consumption 1.517 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 950 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 610 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
junction of the Limpopo and Shashe Rivers 513 m

highest point:
Tsodilo Hills 1,489 m
Environment - current issues overgrazing; desertification; limited fresh water resources
Environment - international agreements party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Tswana (or Setswana) 79%, Kalanga 11%, Basarwa 3%, other, including Kgalagadi and white 7%
Exchange rates pulas per US dollar - 5.4585 (January 2001), 5.1018 (2000), 4.6244 (1999), 4.2259 (1998), 3.6508 (1997), 3.3242 (1996)
Executive branch chief of state:
President Festus MOGAE (since 1 April 1998) and Vice President Seretse Ian KHAMA (since 13 July 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government:
President Festus MOGAE (since 1 April 1998) and Vice President Seretse Ian KHAMA (since 13 July 1998); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Cabinet appointed by the president

president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term; election last held 16 October 1999 (next to be held NA October 2004); vice president appointed by the president

election results:
Festus MOGAE elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - 54.3%
Exports 0 kWh (1999)
Exports $2.6 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Exports - commodities diamonds 72%, vehicles, copper, nickel, meat (1998)
Exports - partners EU 77%, Southern African Customs Union (SACU) 18%, Zimbabwe 3% (1998)
Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March
Flag description light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe in the center
GDP purchasing power parity - $10.4 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:

46% (including 36% mining)

50% (1998 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $6,600 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 6% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 22 00 S, 24 00 E
Geography - note landlocked; population concentrated in eastern part of the country
Highways total:
18,482 km

4,343 km

14,139 km (1996)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
Imports 950 million kWh (1999)
Imports $2.2 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Imports - commodities foodstuffs, machinery and transport equipment, textiles, petroleum products
Imports - partners Southern African Customs Union (SACU) 76%, Europe 10%, South Korea 5% (1998)
Independence 30 September 1966 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate 6.2% (2000 est.)
Industries diamonds, copper, nickel, coal, salt, soda ash, potash; livestock processing
Infant mortality rate 63.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 8.6% (2000 est.)
International organization participation ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 3 (2000)
Irrigated land 20 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch High Court; Court of Appeal; Magistrates' Courts (one in each district)
Labor force 235,000 formal sector employees (1995)
Labor force - by occupation 100,000 public sector; 135,000 private sector, including 14,300 who are employed in various mines in South Africa; most others engaged in cattle raising and subsistence agriculture (1995 est.)
Land boundaries total:
4,013 km

border countries:
Namibia 1,360 km, South Africa 1,840 km, Zimbabwe 813 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

6% (1993 est.)
Languages English (official), Setswana
Legal system based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law; judicial review limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch bicameral Parliament consists of the House of Chiefs (a largely advisory 15-member body consisting of the chiefs of the eight principal tribes, four elected subchiefs, and three members selected by the other 12) and the National Assembly (44 seats, 40 members are directly elected by popular vote and 4 appointed by the majority party; members serve five-year terms)

National Assembly elections last held 16 October 1999 (next to be held NA October 2004)

election results:
percent of vote by party - BDP 57.2%, BNF 26%, other 16.8%; seats by party - BDP 33, BNF 6, other 1
Life expectancy at birth total population:
37.13 years

36.77 years

37.51 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


59.9% (1995 est.)
Location Southern Africa, north of South Africa
Map references Africa
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military branches Botswana Defense Force (includes Army and Air Wing), Botswana National Police
Military expenditures - dollar figure $61 million (FY99)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.2% (FY99)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
380,152 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
199,995 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males:
19,479 (2001 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 30 September (1966)
Nationality noun:
Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)

Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
Natural hazards periodic droughts; seasonal August winds blow from the west, carrying sand and dust across the country, which can obscure visibility
Natural resources diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Political parties and leaders Botswana Democratic Party or BDP [Festus MOGAE]; Botswana National Front or BNF [Kenneth KOMA]; Botswana Congress Party or BCP [Michael DINGAKE]; Botswana Alliance Movement or BAM [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO]

main parties are: BDP, BNF, BCP; other minor parties joined forces in 1999 to form the Botswana Alliance Movement or BAM [Ephraim SETSHWAELO, chairman] but did not capture any parliamentary seats; the BAM parties are: the United Action Party [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO], the Botswana Peoples Party, the Independence Freedom Party [Motsamai MPHO], and the Botswana Progressive Union [D. K. KWELE]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 1,586,119

estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line 47% (2000 est.)
Population growth rate 0.47% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors none
Radio broadcast stations AM 7, FM 15, shortwave 5 (1998)
Radios 237,000 (1997)
Railways total:
888 km

narrow gauge:
888 km 1.067-m gauge (2000)
Religions indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 50%
Sex ratio at birth:
1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
0.93 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.68 male(s)/female

total population:
0.95 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment:
sparse system

small system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relay links, and a few radiotelephone communication stations

two international exchanges; digital microwave radio relay links to Zambia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 86,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular NA
Television broadcast stations 0 (1997)
Terrain predominantly flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari Desert in southwest
Total fertility rate 3.7 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 40% (2000 est.)
Waterways none
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