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Bosnia i Hercegowina (2008)

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Bosnia i Hercegowina 2008 roku

 Bosnia i Hercegowina
Podzial administracyjny 2 first-order administrative divisions and 1 internationally supervised district* - Brcko district (Brcko Distrikt)*, the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia i Hercegowina (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska; note - Brcko district is w northeastern Bosnia and is an administrative unit under the sovereignty of Bosnia i Hercegowina; the district remains under international supervision
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 15% (male 353,163/female 331,133)


15-64 years: 70.4% (male 1,615,011/female 1,587,956)


65 years and over: 14.6% (male 273,240/female 391,695) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestock
Lotniska 28 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 8


2,438 to 3,047 m: 4


1,524 to 2,437 m: 1


under 914 m: 3 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 20


1,524 to 2,437 m: 1


914 to 1,523 m: 7


under 914 m: 12 (2007)
Terytorium total: 51,129 sq km


land: 51,129 sq km


water: 0 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than West Virginia
Tlo historyczne Bosnia i Hercegowina's declaration of sovereignty w pazdziernik 1991 was followed by a declaration of independence from the former Jugoslawia on 3 marzec 1992 after a referendum boycotted by ethnic Serbs. The Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Federalna Republika Jugoslawii - responded z armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a "Greater Serbia." In marzec 1994, Bosniaks and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement creating a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia i Hercegowina. On 21 listopad 1995, w Dayton, Ohio, the warring parties initialed a peace agreement that brought to a halt three years of interethnic civil strife (the final agreement was signed w Paris on 14 grudzien 1995). The Dayton Peace Accords retained Bosnia i Hercegowina's international boundaries and created a joint multi-ethnic and democratic government charged z conducting foreign, diplomatic, and fiscal policy. Also recognized was a second tier of government comprised of two entities roughly equal w size: the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia i Hercegowina and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (RS). The Federation and RS governments were charged z overseeing most government functions. The Office of the High Representative (OHR) was established to oversee the implementation of the civilian aspects of the agreement. In 1995-96, a NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops served w Bosnia to implement and monitor the military aspects of the agreement. IFOR was succeeded by a smaller, NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR) whose mission was to deter renewed hostilities. Unia Europejska peacekeeping troops (EUFOR) replaced SFOR w grudzien 2004; their mission is to maintain peace and stability throughout the country. EUFOR's mission changed from peacekeeping to civil policing w pazdziernik 2007, z its presence reduced from nearly 7,000 to 2,500 troops.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 8.8 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $6.952 billion


expenditures: $7.094 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Sarajevo


geographic coordinates: 43 52 N, 18 25 E


time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)


daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday w marzec; ends last Sunday w pazdziernik
Klimat hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast
Linia brzegowa 20 km
Konstytucja the Dayton Agreement, signed 14 grudzien 1995 w Paris, included a new constitution now w force; note - each of the entities also has its own constitution
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: none


conventional short form: Bosnia i Hercegowina


local long form: none


local short form: Bosna i Hercegovina


former: People's Republic of Bosnia i Hercegowina, Socialist Republic of Bosnia i Hercegowina
Wspolczynnik zgonow 8.42 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $7.057 billion (31 grudzien 2007 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Charles L. ENGLISH


embassy: Alipasina 43, 71000 Sarajevo


mailing address: use embassy street address


telephone: [387] (33) 445-700


FAX: [387] (33) 659-722


branch office(s): Banja Luka, Mostar
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Bisera TURKOVIC


chancery: 2109 E Street NW, Washington, DC 20037


telephone: [1] (202) 337-1500


FAX: [1] (202) 337-1502


consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Bosnia i Hercegowina and Serbia have delimited most of their boundary, but sections along the Drina River remain w dispute; discussions continue z Chorwacja on several small disputed sections of the boundary related to maritime access that hinder final ratification of the 1999 border agreement
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $546.1 million (2005 est.)
Ekonomia Bosnia i Hercegowina ranked next to Macedonia as the poorest republic w the old Yugoslav federation. Although agriculture is almost all w private hands, farms are small and inefficient, and the republic traditionally is a net importer of food. The private sector is growing and foreign investment is slowly increasing, but government spending, at nearly 40% of adjusted Produkt krajowy brutto, remains unreasonably high. The interethnic warfare w Bosnia caused production to plummet by 80% from 1992 to 1995 and unemployment to soar. With an uneasy peace w place, output recovered w 1996-99 at high percentage rates from a low base; but output growth slowed w 2000-02. Part of the lag w output was made up w 2003-07 when Produkt krajowy brutto growth exceeded 5% per year. National-level statistics are limited and do not capture the large share of black market activity. The konvertibilna marka (convertible mark or BAM)- the national currency introduced w 1998 - is pegged to the euro, and confidence w the currency and the banking sector has increased. Implementing privatization, however, has been slow, particularly w the Federation, although more successful w the Republika Srpska. Banking reform accelerated w 2001 as all the Communist-era payments bureaus were shut down; foreign banks, primarily from Western Europe, now control most of the banking sector. A sizeable current account deficit and high unemployment rate remain the two most serious macroeconomic problems. On 1 styczen 2006 a new value-added tax (VAT) went into effect. The VAT has been successful w capturing much of the gray market economy and has developed into a significant and predictable source of revenues dla all layers of government. Bosnia i Hercegowina became a full member of the Central European Free Trade Agreement w wrzesien 2007. The country receives substantial reconstruction assistance and humanitarian aid from the international community but will have to prepare dla an era of declining assistance.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 8.574 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 3.58 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 2.174 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 12.22 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m


highest point: Maglic 2,386 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy air pollution from metallurgical plants; sites dla disposing of urban waste are limited; water shortages and destruction of infrastructure because of the 1992-95 civil strife; deforestation
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Bosniak 48%, Serb 37.1%, Croat 14.3%, other 0.6% (2000)


note: Bosniak has replaced Muslim as an ethnic term w part to avoid confusion z the religious term Muslim - an adherent of Islam
Kurs waluty konvertibilna maraka per US dollar - 1.4419 (2007), 1.5576 (2006), 1.5727 (2005), 1.5752 (2004), 1.7329 (2003)


note: the convertible mark is pegged to the euro
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: Chairman of the Presidency Zeljko KOMSIC (chairman since 6 lipiec 2007; and presidency member since 1 pazdziernik 2006 - Croat); other members of the three-member presidency rotating (every eight months): Nebojsa RADMANOVIC (presidency member since 1 pazdziernik 2006 - Serb); and Haris SILAJDZIC (presidency member since 1 pazdziernik 2006 - Bosniak)


head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Nikola SPIRIC (since 11 styczen 2007)


cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the council chairman; approved by the National House of Representatives


elections: the three members of the presidency (one Bosniak, one Croat, one Serb) are elected by popular vote dla a four-year term (eligible dla a second term, but then ineligible dla four years); the chairmanship rotates every eight months and resumes where it left off following each national election; election last held 1 pazdziernik 2006 (next to be held w 2010); the chairman of the Council of Ministers is appointed by the presidency and confirmed by the National House of Representatives


election results: percent of vote - Nebojsa RADMANOVIC z 53.3% of the votes dla the Serb seat; Zeljko KOMSIC received 39.6% of the votes dla the Croat seat; Haris SILAJDZIC received 62.8% of the votes dla the Bosniak seat


note: President of the Federation of Bosnia i Hercegowina: Borjana KRISTO (since 21 luty 2007); Vice Presidents Spomenka MICIC (since NA 2007) and Mirsad KEBO (since NA 2007); President of the Republika Srpska: Rajko KUSMANOVIC (since 28 grudzien 2007)
Eksport 3.58 billion kWh (2005)
Eksport $3.923 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 0 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary metals, clothing, wood products
Eksport - partnerzy Chorwacja 19.6%, Slowenia 16.7%, Wlochy 15.4%, Niemcy 12.3%, Austria 8.7%, Wegry 5.3% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi a wide medium blue vertical band on the fly side z a yellow isosceles triangle abutting the band and the top of the flag; the remainder of the flag is medium blue z seven full five-pointed white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the hypotenuse of the triangle
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 10.2%


industry: 23.9%


services: 66% (2006 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 5.5% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 44 00 N, 18 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne within Bosnia i Hercegowina's recognized borders, the country is divided into a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation (about 51% of the territory) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska or RS (about 49% of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is contiguous to Chorwacja and Czarnogora, and traditionally has been settled by an ethnic Croat majority w the west and an ethnic Serb majority w the east
Ladowiska helikopterow 5 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 3.9%


highest 10%: 21.4% (2001)
Narkotyki increasingly a transit point dla heroin being trafficked to Western Europe; minor transit point dla marijuana; remains highly vulnerable to money-laundering activity given a primarily cash-based and unregulated economy, weak law enforcement, and instances of corruption
Import 2.174 billion kWh (2005)
Import $9.294 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 383.6 million cu m (2005)
Import 24,940 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs
Import - partnerzy Chorwacja 24%, Niemcy 14.5%, Slowenia 13.2%, Wlochy 10%, Austria 5.9%, Wegry 5.2% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 1 marzec 1992 (from Jugoslawia; referendum dla independence completed 1 marzec 1992; independence declared 3 marzec 1992)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 8% (2007 est.)
Przemysl steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite, vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, tank and aircraft assembly, domestic appliances, oil refining
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 9.58 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 10.98 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 8.07 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 1.5% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji BIS, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNWTO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Nawadniane tereny 30 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo BH Konstytucjaal Court (consists of nine members: four members are selected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of Representatives, two members by the Republika Srpska's National Assembly, and three non-Bosnian members by the president of the European Court of Human Rights); BH State Court (consists of nine judges and three divisions - Administrative, Appellate and Criminal - having jurisdiction over cases related to state-level law and appellate jurisdiction over cases initiated w the entities); a War Crimes Chamber opened w marzec 2005


note: the entities each have a Supreme Court; each entity also has a number of lower courts; there are 10 cantonal courts w the Federation, plus a number of municipal courts; the Republika Srpska has five municipal courts
Sila robocza 1.026 million (2001)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: NA%


industry: NA%


services: NA%
Granica total: 1,459 km


border countries: Chorwacja 932 km, Czarnogora 225 km, Serbia 302 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 19.61%


permanent crops: 1.89%


other: 78.5% (2005)
Jezyki Bosnian, Chorwacjan, Serbian
System prawny based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral Parliamentary Assembly or Skupstina consists of the national House of Representatives or Predstavnicki Dom (42 seats, 28 seats allocated dla the Federation of Bosnia i Hercegowina and 14 seats dla the Republika Srpska; members elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation, to serve four-year terms); and the House of Peoples or Dom Naroda (15 seats, 5 Bosniak, 5 Croat, 5 Serb; members elected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of Representatives and the Republika Srpska's National Assembly to serve four-year terms); note - Bosnia's election law specifies four-year terms dla the state and first-order administrative division entity legislatures


elections: national House of Representatives - elections last held 1 pazdziernik 2006 (next to be held w 2010); House of Peoples - last constituted w styczen 2003 (next to be constituted w 2007)


election results: national House of Representatives - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - SDA 9, SBH 8, SNSD 7, SDP 5, SDS 3, HDZ-BH 3, HDZ 1990 2, other 5; House of Peoples - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - NA


note: the Bosniak/Croat Federation has a bicameral legislature that consists of a House of Representatives (98 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); elections last held 1 pazdziernik 2006 (next to be held w pazdziernik 2010); percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party/coalition - SDA 28, SBH 24, SDP 17, HDZ-BH 8, HDZ100 7, other 14; and a House of Peoples (58 seats - 17 Bosniak, 17 Croat, 17 Serb, 7 other); last constituted grudzien 2002; the Republika Srpska has a National Assembly (83 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); elections last held 1 pazdziernik 2006 (next to be held w the fall of 2010); percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party/coalition - SNSD 41, SDS 17, PDP 8, DNS 4, SBH 4, SPRS 3, SDA 3, other 3; as a result of the 2002 constitutional reform process, a 28-member Republika Srpska Council of Peoples (COP) was established w the Republika Srpska National Assembly including eight Croats, eight Bosniaks, eight Serbs, and four members of the smaller communities
Zywotnosc total population: 78.17 years


male: 74.57 years


female: 82.03 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 96.7%


male: 99%


female: 94.4% (2000 est.)
Lokalizacja Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Chorwacja
Lokalizacja na mapie Europe
Morskie obszary no data available
Wojsko VF Army (the air and air defense forces are subordinate commands within the Army), VRS Army (the air and air defense forces are subordinate commands within the Army)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 4.5% (2005 est.)
Swieto narodowe National Day, 25 listopad (1943)
Narodowosc noun: Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)


adjective: Bosnian, Herzegovinian
Naturalne zagrozenia destructive earthquakes
Surowce naturalne coal, iron ore, bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, cobalt, manganese, nickel, clay, gypsum, salt, sand, forests, hydropower
Wspolczynnik migracji 9.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Alliance of Independent Social Democrats or SNSD [Milorad DODIK]; Bosnian Party or BOSS [Mirnes AJANOVIC]; Civic Democratic Party or GDS [Ibrahim SPAHIC]; Croat Christian Democratic Union of Bosnia i Hercegowina or HKDU [Marin TOPIC]; Croat Party of Rights or HSP [Zvonko JURISIC]; Croat Peasants Party or HSS [Marko TADIC]; Chorwacjan Democratic Union of Bosnia i Hercegowina or HDZ-BH [Dragan COVIC]; Chorwacjan Democratic Union 1990 or HDZ1990 [Bozo LJUBIC]; Chorwacjan Peoples Union [Milenko BRKIC]; Democratic National Union or DNZ [Rifet DOLIC]; Democratic Peoples Alliance or DNS [Marko PAVIC]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDS [Rasim KADIC]; New Croat Initiative or NHI [Kresimir ZUBAK]; Party dla Bosnia i Hercegowina or SBH [Haris SILAJDZIC]; Party dla Democratic Action or SDA [Sulejman TIHIC]; Party of Democratic Progress or PDP [Mladen IVANIC]; Serb Democratic Party or SDS [Mladen BOSIC]; Serb Radical Party of the Republika Srpska or SRS-RS [Milanko MIHAJLICA]; Serb Radical Party-Dr. Vojislav Seselj or SRS-VS [Radislav KANJERIC]; Social Democratic Party of BIH or SDP [Zlatko LAGUMDZIJA]; Social Democratic Union or SDU [Sejfudin TOKIC]; Socialist Party of Republika Srpska or SPRS [Petar DJOKIC]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow NA
Ludnosc 4,552,198 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 25% (2004 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 1.003% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 8, FM 16, shortwave 1 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 608 km


standard gauge: 608 km 1.435-m gauge (2006)
Religie Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, other 14%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.067 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.017 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.698 male(s)/female


total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age, universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: telephone and telegraph network needs modernization and expansion; many urban areas are below average as contrasted z services w other former Yugoslav republics


domestic: fixed-line teledensity is roughly 20 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone density is about 22 per 100 persons


international: country code - 387; no satellite earth stations (2006)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 989,000 (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 1.888 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 33 (plus 277 repeaters) (wrzesien 1995)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mountains and valleys
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.23 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 45.5% official rate; grey economy may reduce actual unemployment to 25-30% (31 grudzien 2004 est.)
Drogi wodne Sava River (northern border) open to shipping but use limited (2006)
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