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Bialorus (2008)

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Bialorus 2008 roku

 Bialorus
Podzial administracyjny 6 provinces (voblastsi, singular - voblasts') and 1 municipality* (horad); Brest, Homyel', Horad Minsk*, Hrodna, Mahilyow, Minsk, Vitsyebsk


note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 14.7% (male 733,010/female 691,734)


15-64 years: 70.4% (male 3,327,119/female 3,520,690)


65 years and over: 14.9% (male 471,863/female 980,307) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo grain, potatoes, vegetables, sugar beets, flax; beef, milk
Lotniska 67 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 36


over 3,047 m: 2


2,438 to 3,047 m: 22


1,524 to 2,437 m: 4


914 to 1,523 m: 1


under 914 m: 7 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 31


2,438 to 3,047 m: 1


1,524 to 2,437 m: 1


914 to 1,523 m: 2


under 914 m: 27 (2007)
Terytorium total: 207,600 sq km


land: 207,600 sq km


water: 0 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than Kansas
Tlo historyczne After seven decades as a constituent republic of the USSR, Bialorus attained its independence w 1991. It has retained closer political and economic ties to Rosja than any of the other former Soviet republics. Bialorus and Rosja signed a treaty on a two-state union on 8 grudzien 1999 envisioning greater political and economic integration. Although Bialorus agreed to a framework to carry out the accord, serious implementation has yet to take place. Since his election w lipiec 1994 as the country's first president, Alexandr LUKASHENKO has steadily consolidated his power through authoritarian means. Government restrictions on freedom of speech and the press, peaceful assembly, and religion continue.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 9.5 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $15.35 billion


expenditures: $16.78 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Minsk


geographic coordinates: 53 54 N, 27 34 E


time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)


daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday w marzec; ends last Sunday w pazdziernik
Klimat cold winters, cool and moist summers; transitional between continental and maritime
Linia brzegowa 0 km (landlocked)
Konstytucja 15 marzec 1994; revised by national referendum of 24 listopad 1996 giving the presidency greatly expanded powers and became effective 27 listopad 1996; revised again 17 pazdziernik 2004 removing presidential term limits
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Bialorus


conventional short form: Bialorus


local long form: Respublika Byelarus'


local short form: Byelarus'


former: Belorussian (Byelorussian) Soviet Socialist Republic
Wspolczynnik zgonow 13.98 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $9.272 billion (30 czerwiec 2007)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Karen B. STEWART


embassy: 46 Starovilenskaya Street, Minsk 220002


mailing address: PSC 78, Box B Minsk, APO 09723


telephone: [375] (17) 210-12-83, 217-7347, 217-7348


FAX: [375] (17) 234-7853
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Mikhail KHVOSTOV


chancery: 1619 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009


telephone: [1] (202) 986-1604


FAX: [1] (202) 986-1805


consulate(s) general: New York
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje as of styczen 2007, ground demarcations of the boundaries z Lotwa and Litwa were complete and mapped z final ratification documentation w preparation; 1997 boundary delimitation treaty z Ukraina remains unratified over unresolved financial claims, preventing demarcation and diminishing border security
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $53.76 million (2005)
Ekonomia Bialorus has seen little structural reform since 1995, when President LUKASHENKO launched the country on the path of "market socialism." In keeping z this policy, LUKASHENKO reimposed administrative controls over prices and currency exchange rates and expanded the state's right to intervene w the management of private enterprises. Since 2005, the government has re-nationalized a number of private companies. In addition, businesses have been subject to pressure by central and local governments, e.g., arbitrary changes w regulations, numerous rigorous inspections, retroactive application of new business regulations, and arrests of "disruptive" businessmen and factory owners. A wide range of redistributive policies has helped those at the bottom of the ladder; the Gini coefficient is among the lowest w the world. Because of these restrictive economic policies, Bialorus has had trouble attracting foreign investment. Nevertheless, Produkt krajowy brutto growth has been strong w recent years, reaching nearly 8% w 2007, despite the roadblocks of a tough, centrally directed economy z a high, but decreasing, rate of inflation. Bialorus receives heavily discounted oil and natural gas from Rosja and much of Bialorus' growth can be attributed to the re-export of Rosjan oil at market prices. Trade z Rosja - by far its largest single trade partner - decreased w 2007, largely as a result of a change w the way the Value Added Tax (VAT) on trade was collected. Rosja has introduced an export duty on oil shipped to Bialorus, which will increase gradually through 2009, and a requirement that Bialorusian duties on re-exported Rosjan oil be shared z Rosja - 80% will go to Rosja w 2008, and 85% w 2009. Rosja also increased Bialorusian natural gas prices from $47 per thousand cubic meters (tcm) to $100 per tcm w 2007, and plans to increase prices gradually to world levels by 2011. Rosja's recent policy of bringing energy prices dla Bialorus to world market levels may result w a slowdown w economic growth w Bialorus over the next few years. Some policy measures, including tightening of fiscal and monetary policies, improving energy efficiency, and diversifying exports, have been introduced, but external borrowing has been the main mechanism used to manage the growing pressures on the economy.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 29.49 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 5.053 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 9.091 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 29.08 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Nyoman River 90 m


highest point: Dzyarzhynskaya Hara 346 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy soil pollution from pesticide use; southern part of the country contaminated z fallout from 1986 nuclear reactor accident at Chornobyl' w northern Ukraina
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Bialorusian 81.2%, Rosjan 11.4%, Polish 3.9%, Ukrainian 2.4%, other 1.1% (1999 census)
Kurs waluty Bialorusian rubles per US dollar - 2,145 (2007), 2,144.6 (2006), 2,150 (2005), 2,160.26 (2004), 2,051.27 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Aleksandr LUKASHENKO (since 20 lipiec 1994)


head of government: Prime Minister Sergey SIDORSKIY (since 19 grudzien 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Vladimir SEMASHKO (since grudzien 2003)


cabinet: Council of Ministers


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; first election took place 23 czerwiec and 10 lipiec 1994; according to the 1994 constitution, the next election should have been held w 1999, however, Aleksandr LUKASHENKO extended his term to 2001 via a listopad 1996 referendum; subsequent election held 9 wrzesien 2001; an pazdziernik 2004 referendum ended presidential term limits and allowed the president to run w a third election, which was held on 19 marzec 2006; prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president


election results: Aleksandr LUKASHENKO reelected president; percent of vote - Aleksandr LUKASHENKO 82.6%, Aleksandr MILINKEVICH 6%, Aleksandr KOZULIN 2.3%; note - election marred by electoral fraud
Eksport 5.053 billion kWh (2005)
Eksport $22.91 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 249,900 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Eksport - towary machinery and equipment, mineral products, chemicals, metals, textiles, foodstuffs
Eksport - partnerzy Rosja 34.7%, Holandia 17.7%, UK 7.5%, Ukraina 6.3%, Polska 5.2% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi red horizontal band (top) and green horizontal band one-half the width of the red band; a white vertical stripe on the hoist side bears Bialorusian national ornamentation w red
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 8.7%


industry: 40.6%


services: 50.6% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 6.9% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 53 00 N, 28 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne landlocked; glacial scouring accounts dla the flatness of Bialorusian terrain and dla its 11,000 lakes
Ladowiska helikopterow 1 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 3.4%


highest 10%: 23.5% (2002)
Narkotyki limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly dla the domestic market; transshipment point dla illicit drugs to and via Rosja, and to the Baltics and Western Europe; a small and lightly regulated financial center; new anti-money-laundering legislation does not meet international standards; few investigations or prosecutions of money-laundering activities
Import 9.091 billion kWh (2005)
Import $27.05 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 19.31 billion cu m (2005)
Import 378,200 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Import - towary mineral products, machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs, metals
Import - partnerzy Rosja 58.6%, Niemcy 7.5%, Ukraina 5.5% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 25 sierpien 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 5% (2007 est.)
Przemysl metal-cutting machine tools, tractors, trucks, earthmovers, motorcycles, televisions, chemical fibers, fertilizer, textiles, radios, refrigerators
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 6.63 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 7.67 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 5.53 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 8.3% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji BSEC (observer), CEI, CIS, EAEC, EAPC, EBRD, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, NSG, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Nawadniane tereny 1,310 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president); Konstytucjaal Court (half of the judges appointed by the president and half appointed by the Chamber of Representatives)
Sila robocza 4.3 million (31 grudzien 2005)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 14%


industry: 34.7%


services: 51.3% (2003 est.)
Granica total: 3,098 km


border countries: Lotwa 141 km, Litwa 502 km, Polska 605 km, Rosja 959 km, Ukraina 891 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 26.77%


permanent crops: 0.6%


other: 72.63% (2005)
Jezyki Bialorusian, Rosjan, other
System prawny based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral National Assembly or Natsionalnoye Sobranie consists of the Council of the Republic or Soviet Respubliki (64 seats; 56 members elected by regional councils and eight members appointed by the president, to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Representatives or Palata Predstaviteley (110 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)


elections: last held 17 and 31 pazdziernik 2004; international observers widely denounced the elections as flawed and undemocratic based on massive government falsification; pro-LUKASHENKO candidates won every seat after many opposition candidates were disqualified dla technical reasons


election results: Soviet Respubliki - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Palata Predstaviteley - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA
Zywotnosc total population: 70.05 years


male: 64.31 years


female: 76.14 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 99.6%


male: 99.8%


female: 99.4% (1999 census)
Lokalizacja Eastern Europe, east of Polska
Lokalizacja na mapie Europe
Morskie obszary none (landlocked)
Wojsko Bialorus Armed Forces: Land Force, Air and Air Defense Force (2008)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 1.4% (2005 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 3 lipiec (1944); note - 3 lipiec 1944 was the date Minsk was liberated from German troops, 25 sierpien 1991 was the date of independence from the Soviet Union
Narodowosc noun: Bialorusian(s)


adjective: Bialorusian
Naturalne zagrozenia NA
Surowce naturalne forests, peat deposits, small quantities of oil and natural gas, granite, dolomitic limestone, marl, chalk, sand, gravel, clay
Wspolczynnik migracji 0.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi gas 5,250 km; oil 1,528 km; refined products 1,730 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy pro-government parties: Agrarian Party or AP [Mikhail SHIMANSKY]; Bialorusian Communist Party or KPB; Bialorusian Patriotic Movement (Bialorusian Patriotic Party) or BPR [Nikolay ULAKHOVICH, chairman]; Liberal Democratic Party of Bialorus [Sergey GAYDUKEVICH]; Party of Labor and Justice [Viktor SOKOLOV]; Social-Sports Party [Vladimir ALEXANDROVICH]


opposition parties: Bialorusian Christian Democracy Party (unregistered) [Pavel SEVERINETS]; Bialorusian Party of Communists or PKB [Sergey KALYAKIN]; Bialorusian Party of Labor (unregistered) [Aleksandr BUKHVOSTOV, Leonid LEMESHONAK]; Bialorusian Popular Front or BPF [Vintsyuk VYACHORKA]; Bialorusian Social-Democratic Gramada [Stanislav SHUSHKEVICH]; Bialorusian Social Democratic Party Hramada (People's Assembly) or BSDPH [Aleksandr KOZULIN; Anatoliy LEVKOVICH, acting]; Green Party [Oleg GROMYKO]; Party of Freedom and Progress (unregistered) [Vladimir NOVOSYAD]; United Civic Party or UCP [Anatoliy LEBEDKO]; Women's Party "Nadezhda" [Valentina MATUSEVICH, chairperson]


other opposition includes: Christian Conservative BPF [Zyanon PAZNIAK]; Ecological Party of Greens [Mikhail KARTASH]; Party of Popular Accord [Sergey YERMAKK]; Republican Party [Vladimir BELAZOR]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Assembly of Pro-Democratic NGOs [Sergey MATSKEVICH]; Bialorusian Congress of Democratic Trade Unions [Aleksandr YAROSHUK]; Bialorusian Helsinki Committee [Tatiana PROTKO]; Bialorusian Organization of Working Women [Irina ZHIKHAR]; Charter 97 [Andrey SANNIKOV]; For Freedom (unregistered) [Aleksandr MILINKEVICH]; Lenin Communist Union of Youth (youth wing of the Bialorusian Party of Communists or PKB); National Strike Committee of Entrepreneurs [Aleksandr VASILYEV, Valery LEVONEVSKY]; Partnership NGO [Nikolay ASTREYKA]; Perspektiva kiosk watchdog NGO [Anatol SHUMCHENKO]; Vyasna [Ales BYALATSKY]; Women's Independent Democratic Movement [Ludmila PETINA]; Youth Front (Malady Front) [Dmitriy DASHKEVICH, Sergey BAKHUN]; Zubr youth group [Vladimir KOBETS]
Ludnosc 9,724,723 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 27.1% (2003 est.)
Przyrost naturalny -0.41% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 28, FM 37, shortwave 11 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 5,512 km


broad gauge: 5,497 km 1.520-m gauge (874 km electrified)


standard gauge: 15 km 1.435 m (2006)
Religie Eastern Orthodox 80%, other (including Roman Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, and Muslim) 20% (1997 est.)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 0.945 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.481 male(s)/female


total population: 0.873 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: Bialorus lags behind its neighbors w upgrading telecommunications infrastructure; state-owned Beltelcom is the sole provider of fixed-line local and long distance service; fixed-line teledensity of 33 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone density of 58 per 100 persons; modernization of the network progressing z roughly two-thirds of switching equipment now digital


domestic: fixed-line penetration is improving although rural areas continue to be underserved; 4 GSM wireless networks are experiencing rapid growth; strict government controls on telecommunications technologies


international: country code - 375; Bialorus is a member of the Trans-European Line (TEL), Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line, and has access to the Trans-Siberia Line (TSL); 3 fiber-optic segments provide connectivity to Lotwa, Polska, Rosja, and Ukraina; worldwide service is available to Bialorus through this infrastructure; additional analog lines to Rosja; Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik earth stations (2007)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 3.368 million (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 5.96 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 47 (plus 27 repeaters) (1995)
Uksztaltowanie terenu generally flat and contains much marshland
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.22 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 1.6% officially registered unemployed; large number of underemployed workers (2005)
Drogi wodne 2,500 km (use limited by location on perimeter of country and by shallowness) (2003)
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