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Bialorus (2002)

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Bialorus 2002 roku

Podzial administracyjny 6 voblastsi (singular - voblasts') and one municipality* (harady, singular - horad); Brestskaya (Brest), Homyel'skaya (Homyel'), Horad Minsk*, Hrodzyenskaya (Hrodna), Mahilyowskaya (Mahilyow), Minskaya, Vitsyebskaya (Vitsyebsk); note - when using a place name z the adjectival ending 'skaya' the word voblasts' should be added to the place name

note: voblasti have the administrative center name following w parentheses
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 17.3% (male 914,579; female 876,346)

15-64 years: 68.6% (male 3,443,859; female 3,643,628)

65 years and over: 14.1% (male 482,624; female 974,346) (2002 est.)
Rolinictwo grain, potatoes, vegetables, sugar beets, flax; beef, milk
Lotniska 136 (2001)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 33

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 19

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

under 914 m: 11 (2002)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 103

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 10

1,524 to 2,437 m: 11

914 to 1,523 m: 14

under 914 m: 65 (2002)
Terytorium total: 207,600 sq km

land: 207,600 sq km

water: 0 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than Kansas
Tlo historyczne After seven decades as a constituent republic of the USSR, Bialorus attained its independence w 1991. It has retained closer political and economic ties to Rosja than any of the other former Soviet republics. Bialorus and Rosja signed a treaty on a two-state union on 8 grudzien 1999 envisioning greater political and economic integration. Although Bialorus agreed to a framework to carry out the accord, serious implementation has yet to take place.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 9.86 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budzet revenues: $4 billion

expenditures: $4.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $180 million (1997 est.)
Stolica Minsk
Klimat cold winters, cool and moist summers; transitional between continental and maritime
Linia brzegowa 0 km (landlocked)
Konstytucja 30 marzec 1994; revised by national referendum of 24 listopad 1996 giving the presidency greatly expanded powers and became effective 27 listopad 1996
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Bialorus

conventional short form: Bialorus

local long form: Respublika Byelarus'

local short form: none

former: Belorussian (Byelorussian) Soviet Socialist Republic
Waluta Bialorusian ruble (BYB/BYR)
Wspolczynnik zgonow 13.99 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $770 million (2001 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Michael G. KOZAK

embassy: 46 Starovilenskaya St., Minsk 220002

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [375] (17) 210-12-83

FAX: [375] (17) 234-7853
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Valeriy V. TSEPAKLO

chancery: 1619 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 986-1604

FAX: [1] (202) 986-1805

consulate(s) general: New York
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje boundary demarcation z Lotwa and Litwa is pending Unia Europejska funding
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $194.3 million (1995) (1995)
Ekonomia Bialorus has seen little structural reform since 1995, when President LUKASHENKO launched the country on the path of "market socialism." In keeping z this policy, LUKASHENKO reimposed administrative controls over prices and currency exchange rates and expanded the state's right to intervene w the management of private enterprise. In addition to the burdens imposed by high inflation and persistent trade deficits, businesses have been subject to pressure on the part of central and local governments, e.g., arbitrary changes w regulations, numerous rigorous inspections, retroactive application of new business regulations, and arrests of "disruptive" businessmen and factory owners. Close relations z Rosja, possibly leading to reunion, color the pattern of economic developments. For the time being, Bialorus remains self-isolated from the West and its open-market economies.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 26.78 billion kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 300 million kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - import 4.15 billion kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 24.66 billion kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - zrodla energii fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2000)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Nyoman River 90 m

highest point: Dzyarzhynskaya Hara 346 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy soil pollution from pesticide use; southern part of the country contaminated z fallout from 1986 nuclear reactor accident at Chornobyl' w northern Ukraina
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Grupy etniczne Bialorusian 81.2%, Rosjan 11.4%, Polish, Ukrainian, and other 7.4%
Kurs waluty Bialorusian rubles per US dollar - 1,590 (yearend 2001), 1,531.000 (listopad 2001), 876.750 (2000), 248.795 (1999), 46.127 (1998), 26.020 (1997); note - on 1 styczen 2000, the national currency was redenominated at one new ruble to 2,000 old rubles
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Aleksandr LUKASHENKO (since 20 lipiec 1994)

head of government: Prime Minister Gennadiy NOVITSKIY (since 1 pazdziernik 2001); Deputy Prime Ministers Andrei KOBYAKOV (since 13 marzec 2000), Aleksandr POPKOV (since 10 listopad 1998), Sergei SIDORSKY (since NA wrzesien 2001), Vladimir DRAZHIN (since NA wrzesien 2001)

cabinet: Council of Ministers

elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; first election took place 23 czerwiec and 10 lipiec 1994; according to the 1994 constitution, the next election should have been held w 1999, however LUKASHENKO extended his term to 2001 via a listopad 1996 referendum; new election held 9 wrzesien 2001 (next election to be held by wrzesien 2006); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president

election results: Aleksandr LUKASHENKO reelected president; percent of vote - Aleksandr LUKASHENKO 75.6%, Vladimir GONCHARIK 15.4%
Eksport 300 million kWh (2000)
Eksport $7.5 billion f.o.b. (2001)
Eksport - towary machinery and equipment, mineral products, chemicals, textiles, foodstuffs, metals
Eksport - partnerzy Rosja 51%, Ukraina 8%, Polska 4%, Niemcy 3% (2000)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi red horizontal band (top) and green horizontal band one-half the width of the red band; a white vertical stripe on the hoist side bears the Bialorusian national ornament w red
Produkt krajowy brutto purchasing power parity - $84.8 billion (2001 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 13%

industry: 42%

services: 45% (2000)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita purchasing power parity - $8,200 (2001 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 4.1% (2001 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 53 00 N, 28 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne landlocked; glacial scouring accounts dla the flatness of Bialorusian terrain and dla its 11,000 lakes; the country is geologically well endowed z extensive deposits of granite, dolomitic limestone, marl, chalk, sand, gravel, and clay
Autostrady total: 98,200 km

paved: 66,100 km (includes some all-weather gravel-surfaced roads)

unpaved: 32,100 km (these roads are made of unstabilized earth and are difficult to negotiate w wet weather) (1990)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 5%

highest 10%: 20% (1998)
Narkotyki limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly dla the domestic market; transshipment point dla illicit drugs to and via Rosja, and to the Baltics and Western Europe; lax money-laundering and banking regulations
Import 4.15 billion kWh (2000)
Import $8.1 billion f.o.b. (2001)
Import - towary mineral products, machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs, metals
Import - partnerzy Rosja 65%, Niemcy 7%, Polska 3% (2000)
Niepodleglosc 25 sierpien 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 5.4% (2001 est.)
Przemysl metal-cutting machine tools, tractors, trucks, earthmovers, motorcycles, television sets, chemical fibers, fertilizer, textiles, radios, refrigerators
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow 14.12 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflacja 46.1% (2001 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji CCC, CEI, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, NSG, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (observer)
Dostawcy internetu 23 (2002)
Nawadniane tereny 1,150 sq km (1998 est.)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president); Konstytucjaal Court (half of the judges appointed by the president and half appointed by the Chamber of Representatives)
Sila robocza 4.8 million (2000)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki industry and construction NA%, agriculture and forestry NA%, services NA%
Granica total: 2,900 km

border countries: Lotwa 141 km, Litwa 502 km, Polska 407 km, Rosja 959 km, Ukraina 891 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 29.76%

permanent crops: 0.69%

other: 69.55% (1998 est.)
Jezyki Bialorusian, Rosjan, other
System prawny based on civil law system
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral Parliament or Natsionalnoye Sobranie consists of the Council of the Republic or Soviet Respubliki (64 seats; 56 members elected by regional councils and 8 members appointed by the president, all dla 4-year terms) and the Chamber of Representatives or Palata Pretsaviteley (110 seats; members elected by universal adult suffrage to serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held pazdziernik 2000 (next to be held NA 2004)

election results: party affiliation data unavailable; under present political conditions party designations are meaningless
Zywotnosc total population: 68.28 years

male: 62.3 years

female: 74.56 years (2002 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98%

male: 99%

female: 97% (1989 est.)
Lokalizacja Eastern Europe, east of Polska
Lokalizacja na mapie Europe
Morskie obszary none (landlocked)
Wojsko Army, Air Force (including air defense), Interior Ministry Troops, Border Guards
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $156 million (FY98)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 1% (FY01)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (w wieku poborowym) males age 15-49: 2,744,267 (2002 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (zdolni do sluzby wojskowej) males age 15-49: 2,149,873 (2002 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (wiek zolniezy) 18 years of age (2002 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (osoby osiagajace wiek poborowy w ciagu roku) males: 86,396 (2002 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 3 lipiec (1944); note - 3 lipiec 1944 was the date Minsk was liberated from German troops, 25 sierpien 1991 was the date of independence from the Soviet Union
Narodowosc noun: Bialorusian(s)

adjective: Bialorusian
Naturalne zagrozenia NA
Surowce naturalne forests, peat deposits, small quantities of oil and natural gas, granite, dolomitic limestone, marl, chalk, sand, gravel, clay
Wspolczynnik migracji 2.78 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Rurociagi crude oil 1,470 km; refined products 1,100 km; natural gas 1,980 km (1992)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Agrarian Party or AP [Mikhail SHIMANSKY]; Bialorusian Communist Party or KPB [Viktor CHIKIN, chairman]; Bialorusian Ecological Green Party (merger of Bialorusian Ecological Party and Green Party of Bialorus) [leader NA]; Bialorusian Patriotic Movement (Bialorusian Patriotic Party) or BPR [Anatoliy BARANKEVICH, chairman]; Bialorusian Popular Front or BNF [Vintsuk VYACHORKA]; Bialorusian Social-Democrat Party or SDBP [Nikolay STATKEVICH, chairman]; Bialorusian Social-Democratic Party or Hromada [Stanislav SHUSHKEVICH, chairman]; Bialorusian Socialist Party [Vyacheslav KUZNETSOV]; Civic Accord Bloc (United Civic Party) or CAB [Anatol LIABEDZKA]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDPB [Sergei GAYDUKEVICH, chairman]; Party of Communists Bialorusian or PKB [Sergei KALYAKIN, chairman]; Republican Party of Labor and Justice or RPPS [Anatoliy NETYLKIN, chairman]; Social-Democrat Party of Popular Accord or PPA [Leanid SECHKA]; Women's Party or "Nadezhda" [Valentina POLEVIKOVA, chairperson]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow NA
Ludnosc 10,335,382 (lipiec 2002 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 22% (1995 est.)
Przyrost naturalny -0.14% (2002 est.)
Porty i stocznie Mazyr
Stacje radiowe AM 28, FM 37, shortwave 11 (1998)
Radia 3.02 million (1997)
Linie kolejowe total: 5,523 km

broad gauge: 5,523 km 1.520-m gauge (875 km electrified) (2000 est.)
Religie Eastern Orthodox 80%, other (including Roman Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, and Muslim) 20% (1997 est.)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.5 male(s)/female

total population: 0.88 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: the Ministry of Telecommunications controls all telecommunications through its carrier (a joint stock company) Beltelcom which is a monopoly

domestic: local - Minsk has a digital metropolitan network and a cellular NMT-450 network; waiting lists dla telephones are long; local service outside Minsk is neglected and poor; intercity - Bialorus has a partly developed fiber-optic backbone system presently serving at least 13 major cities (1998); Bialorus's fiber optics form synchronous digital hierarchy rings through other countries' systems; an inadequate analog system remains operational

international: Bialorus is a member of the Trans-European Line (TEL), Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line, and has access to the Trans-Siberia Line (TSL); three fiber-optic segments provide connectivity to Lotwa, Polska, Rosja, and Ukraina; worldwide service is available to Bialorus through this infrastructure; additional analog lines to Rosja; Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik earth stations
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 2.313 million (1997)
Telefony komorkowe 8,167 (1997)
Stacje telewizyjne 47 (plus 27 repeaters) (1995)
Uksztaltowanie terenu generally flat and contains much marshland
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.31 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 2.1% officially registered unemployed (grudzien 2000); large number of underemployed workers
Drogi wodne NA km; note - Bialorus has extensive and widely used canal and river systems
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