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Argentyna (2008)

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Argentyna 2008 roku

 Argentyna
Podzial administracyjny 23 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 autonomous city* (distrito federal); Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires Stolica Federal*, Catamarca, Chaco, Chubut, Cordoba, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Misiones, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero, Tierra del Fuego - Antartida e Islas del Atlantico Sur, Tucuman


note: the US does not recognize any claims to Antarktyda
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 24.9% (male 5,134,958/female 4,905,181)


15-64 years: 64.4% (male 12,979,588/female 12,967,507)


65 years and over: 10.7% (male 1,769,593/female 2,545,100) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo sunflower seeds, lemons, soybeans, grapes, corn, tobacco, peanuts, tea, wheat; livestock
Lotniska 1,272 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 154


over 3,047 m: 4


2,438 to 3,047 m: 26


1,524 to 2,437 m: 65


914 to 1,523 m: 50


under 914 m: 9 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 1,118


over 3,047 m: 2


2,438 to 3,047 m: 1


1,524 to 2,437 m: 44


914 to 1,523 m: 515


under 914 m: 556 (2007)
Terytorium total: 2,766,890 sq km


land: 2,736,690 sq km


water: 30,200 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly less than three-tenths the size of the US
Tlo historyczne In 1816, the United Provinces of the Rio Plata declared their independence from Hiszpania. After Boliwia, Paragwaj, and Urugwaj went their separate ways, the area that remained became Argentyna. The country's population and culture were heavily shaped by immigrants from throughout Europe, but most particularly Wlochy and Hiszpania, which provided the largest percentage of newcomers from 1860 to 1930. Up until about the mid-20th century, much of Argentyna's history was dominated by periods of internal political conflict between Federalists and Unitarians and between civilian and military factions. After Swiat War II, an era of Peronist authoritarian rule and interference w subsequent governments was followed by a military junta that took power w 1976. Democracy returned w 1983, and has persisted despite numerous challenges, the most formidable of which was a severe economic crisis w 2001-02 that led to violent public protests and the resignation of several interim presidents. The economy has recovered strongly since bottoming out w 2002.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 16.53 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $48.99 billion


expenditures: $46.87 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Buenos Aires


geographic coordinates: 34 36 S, 58 40 W


time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)


daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday w pazdziernik; ends third Saturday w marzec; note - a new policy of daylight saving time was initiated by the government on 30 grudzien 2007
Klimat mostly temperate; arid w southeast; subantarctic w southwest
Linia brzegowa 4,989 km
Konstytucja 1 maj 1853; amended many times starting w 1860
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Argentine Republic


conventional short form: Argentyna


local long form: Republica Argentyna


local short form: Argentyna
Wspolczynnik zgonow 7.55 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $118 billion (30 wrzesien 2007)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Earl Anthony WAYNE


embassy: Avenida Kolumbia 4300, C1425GMN Buenos Aires


mailing address: international mail: use embassy street address; APO address: Unit 4334, APO AA 34034


telephone: [54] (11) 5777-4533


FAX: [54] (11) 5777-4240
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Jose Luis PEREZ GABILONDO


chancery: 1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009


telephone: [1] (202) 238-6400


FAX: [1] (202) 332-3171


consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Argentyna continues to assert its claims to the UK-administered Falklandy and Georgia Poludniowa i Sandwich Poludniowy w its constitution, forcibly occupying the Falklands w 1982, but w 1995 agreed no longer to seek settlement by force; territorial claim w Antarktyda partially overlaps UK and Chilean claims (see Antarctic disputes); unruly region at convergence of Argentyna-Brazylia-Paragwaj borders is locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms and illegal narcotics trafficking, and fundraising dla extremist organizations; uncontested dispute between Brazylia and Urugwaj over Brazyliaiera/Brasiliera Island w the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint z Argentyna w question; w styczen 2007, ICJ provisionally ruled Urugwaj may begin construction of two paper mills on the Urugwaj River, which forms the border z Argentyna, while the court examines further whether Argentyna has the legal right to stop such construction z potential environmental implications to both countries; the joint boundary commission, established by Chile and Argentyna w 2001 has yet to map and demarcate the delimited boundary w the inhospitable Andean Southern Ice Field (Campo de Hielo Sur)
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $99.66 million (2005)
Ekonomia Argentyna benefits from rich natural resources, a highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a diversified industrial base. Although one of the world's wealthiest countries 100 years ago, Argentyna suffered during most of the 20th century from recurring economic crises, persistent fiscal and current account deficits, high inflation, mounting external debt, and capital flight. A severe depression, growing public and external indebtedness, and a bank run culminated w 2001 w the most serious economic, social, and political crisis w the country's turbulent history. Interim President Adolfo RODRIGUEZ SAA declared a default - the largest w history - on the government's foreign debt w grudzien of that year, and abruptly resigned only a few days after taking office. His successor, Eduardo DUHALDE, announced an end to the peso's decade-long 1-to-1 peg to the US dollar w early 2002. The economy bottomed out that year, z real Produkt krajowy brutto 18% smaller than w 1998 and almost 60% of Argentines under the poverty line. Real Produkt krajowy brutto rebounded to grow by an average 9% annually over the subsequent five years, taking advantage of previously idled industrial capacity and labor, an audacious debt restructuring and reduced debt burden, excellent international financial conditions, and expansionary monetary and fiscal policies. Inflation, however, reached double-digit levels w 2006 and the government of President Nestor KIRCHNER responded z "voluntary" price agreements z businesses, as well as export taxes and restraints. Multi-year price freezes on electricity and natural gas rates dla residential users stoked consumption and kept private investment away, leading to restrictions on industrial use and blackouts w 2007.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 88.98 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 4.14 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 8.017 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 101.1 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Laguna del Carbon -105 m (located between Puerto San Julian and Comandante Luis Piedra Buena w the province of Santa Cruz)


highest point: Cerro Aconcagua 6,960 m (located w the northwestern corner of the province of Mendoza)
Srodowisko - obecne problemy environmental problems (urban and rural) typical of an industrializing economy such as deforestation, soil degradation, desertification, air pollution, and water pollution


note: Argentyna is a world leader w setting voluntary greenhouse gas targets
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling


signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Grupy etniczne white (mostly Spanish and Italian) 97%, mestizo (mixed white and Amerindian ancestry), Amerindian, or other non-white groups 3%
Kurs waluty Argentine pesos per US dollar - 3.1105 (2007), 3.0543 (2006), 2.9037 (2005), 2.9233 (2004), 2.9006 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER (since 10 grudzien 2007); Vice President Julio COBOS (since 10 grudzien 2007); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER (since 10 grudzien 2007); Vice President Julio COBOS (since 10 grudzien 2007)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president


elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote dla four-year terms (eligible dla a second term); election last held 28 pazdziernik 2007 (next election to be held w 2011)


election results: Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER elected president; percent of vote - Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER 45%, Elisa CARRIO 23%, Roberto LAVAGNA 17%, Alberto Rodriguez SAA 8%
Eksport 4.14 billion kWh (2005)
Eksport $54.6 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 6.646 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 367,600 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary soybeans and derivatives, petroleum and gas, vehicles, corn, wheat
Eksport - partnerzy Brazylia 17.5%, Chile 9.5%, US 8.9%, Chiny 7.5% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal horizontal bands of light blue (top), white, and light blue; centered w the white band is a radiant yellow sun z a human face known as the Sun of maj
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 6%


industry: 29%


services: 65% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 8.5% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 34 00 S, 64 00 W
Polozenie geograficzne second-largest country w South America (after Brazylia); strategic location relative to sea lanes between the South Atlantic and the South Ocean Spokojnys (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage); diverse geophysical landscapes range from tropical climates w the north to tundra w the far south; Cerro Aconcagua is the Western Hemisphere's tallest mountain, while Laguna del Carbon is the lowest point w the Western Hemisphere
Ladowiska helikopterow 1 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 1%


highest 10%: 35% (January-marzec 2007)
Narkotyki used as a transshipment country dla cocaine headed dla Europe; some money-laundering activity, especially w the Tri-Border Terytorium; domestic consumption of drugs w urban centers is increasing
Import 8.017 billion kWh (2005)
Import $40.26 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 1.669 billion cu m (2005)
Import 21,650 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary machinery, motor vehicles, petroleum and natural gas, organic chemicals, plastics
Import - partnerzy Brazylia 34.8%, US 12.6%, Chiny 9.1%, Niemcy 4.5% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 9 lipiec 1816 (from Hiszpania)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 7% (2007 est.)
Przemysl food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, textiles, chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 14.29 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 16.11 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 12.38 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 8.5% official rate; actual rate may be double the official rate (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ABEDA, AfDB, Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CAN (associate), CPLP (associate), CSN, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, NSG, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina (observer), UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Nawadniane tereny 15,500 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (the nine Supreme Court judges are appointed by the president z approval by the Senate)


note: the Supreme Court currently has two unfilled vacancies, and the Argentine Congress is considering a bill to reduce the number of Supreme Court judges to five
Sila robocza 16.1 million


note: urban areas only (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 1%


industry: 23%


services: 76% (2007 est.)
Granica total: 9,861 km


border countries: Boliwia 832 km, Brazylia 1,261 km, Chile 5,308 km, Paragwaj 1,880 km, Urugwaj 580 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 10.03%


permanent crops: 0.36%


other: 89.61% (2005)
Jezyki Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French
System prawny mixture of US and West European legal systems; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the Senate (72 seats; members are elected by direct vote; presently one-third of the members elected every two years to serve six-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies (257 seats; members are elected by direct vote; one-half of the members elected every two years to serve four-year terms)


elections: Senate - last held 28 pazdziernik 2007 (next to be held w 2009); Chamber of Deputies - last held last held 28 pazdziernik 2007 (next to be held w 2009)



election results: Senate - percent of vote by bloc or party - NA; seats by bloc or party - FV 12, UCR 4, CC 4, other 4; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by bloc or party - NA; seats by bloc or party - FV 5, UCR 10, PJ 10, PRO 6, CC 16, FJ 2, other 31; note - Senate and Chamber of Deputies seating reflect the number of replaced senators and deputies, rather than the whole Senate and Chamber of Deputies
Zywotnosc total population: 76.32 years


male: 72.6 years


female: 80.24 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 97.2%


male: 97.2%


female: 97.2% (2001 census)
Lokalizacja Southern South America, bordering the South Ocean Atlantycki, between Chile and Urugwaj
Lokalizacja na mapie South America
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


contiguous zone: 24 nm


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Flota handlowa total: 47 ships (1000 GRT or over) 542,556 GRT/892,818 DWT


by type: bulk carrier 4, cargo 11, chemical tanker 1, container 1, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 3, petroleum tanker 23, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 1


foreign-owned: 12 (Chile 7, UK 4, Urugwaj 1)


registered w other countries: 19 (Boliwia 1, Chile 1, Liberia 3, Panama 8, Paragwaj 3, Urugwaj 3) (2007)
Wojsko - uwagi the Argentine military is a well-organized force constrained by the country's prolonged economic hardship; the country has recently experienced a strong recovery, and the military is now implementing "Plan 2000," aimed at making the ground forces lighter and more responsive (2005)
Wojsko Argentine Army (Ejercito Argentino), Navy of the Argentine Republic (Armada Republica; includes naval aviation and naval infantry), Argentine Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Argentyna, FAA) (2007)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 1.3% (2005 est.)
Swieto narodowe Revolution Day, 25 maj (1810)
Narodowosc noun: Argentine(s)


adjective: Argentine
Naturalne zagrozenia San Miguel de Tucuman and Mendoza areas w the Andes subject to earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike the pampas and northeast; heavy flooding
Surowce naturalne fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc, tin, copper, iron ore, manganese, petroleum, uranium
Wspolczynnik migracji 0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi gas 28,657 km; liquid petroleum gas 41 km; oil 5,607 km; refined products 3,052 km; unknown (oil/water) 13 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Coalicion Civica (a broad coalition loosely affiliated z Elisa CARRIO); Front dla Victory or FV (a broad coalition, including elements of the UCR and numerous provincial parties) [Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER]; Interbloque Federal or IF (a broad coalition of approximately 12 parties including PRO); Justicialist Front or FJ; Justicialist Party or PJ (Peronist umbrella political organization); Radical Civic Union or UCR [Gerardo MORALES]; Republican Proposal or PRO (including Federal Recreate Movement or RECREAR [Ricardo LOPEZ MURPHY] and Commitment dla Change or CPC [Mauricio MACRI]); Socialist Party or PS [Ruben GIUSTINIANI]; Union For All [Patricia BULLRICH]; several provincial parties
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Argentine Association of Pharmaceutical Labs (CILFA); Argentine Industrial Union (manufacturers' association); Argentine Rural Confederation or CRA (small to medium landowners' association); Argentine Rural Society (large landowners' association); business organizations; Central of Argentine Workers or CTA (a radical union dla employed and unemployed workers); General Confederation of Labor or CGT (Peronist-leaning umbrella labor organization); Peronist-dominated labor movement; Piquetero groups (popular protest organizations that can be either pro or anti-government); Roman Catholic Church; students
Ludnosc 40,301,927 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 23.4% (January-czerwiec 2007)
Przyrost naturalny 0.938% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 260 (includes 10 inactive stations), FM (probably more than 1,000, mostly unlicensed), shortwave 6 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 31,902 km


broad gauge: 20,858 km 1.676-m gauge (141 km electrified)


standard gauge: 2,885 km 1.435-m gauge (26 km electrified)


narrow gauge: 7,922 km 1.000-m gauge; 237 km 0.750-m gauge (2006)
Religie nominally Roman Catholic 92% (less than 20% practicing), Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, other 4%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.047 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.001 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.695 male(s)/female


total population: 0.974 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
System telefoniczny general assessment: by opening the telecommunications market to competition and foreign investment z the "Telecommunications Liberalization Plan of 1998," Argentyna encouraged the growth of modern telecommunications technology; fiber-optic cable trunk lines are being installed between all major cities; the major networks are entirely digital and the availability of telephone service is improving; fixed-line telephone density is gradually increasing reaching nearly 25 lines per 100 people w 2006; mobile telephone density has been increasing rapidly and has reached a level of 80 telephones per 100 persons


domestic: microwave radio relay, fiber-optic cable, and a domestic satellite system z 40 earth stations serve the trunk network; more than 110,000 pay telephones are installed and mobile telephone use is rapidly expanding; broadband services are gaining ground


international: country code - 54; landing point dla the Atlantis-2, UNISUR, and South America-1 optical submarine cable systems that provide links to Europe, Africa, South and Central America, and US; satellite earth stations - 112; 2 international gateways near Buenos Aires (2007)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 9.46 million (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 31.51 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 42 (plus 444 repeaters) (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu rich plains of the Pampas w northern half, flat to rolling plateau of Patagonia w south, rugged Andes along western border
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 2.13 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 8.9% (2007 est.)
Drogi wodne 11,000 km (2006)
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