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Trinidad and Tobago (2007)

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Trinidad and Tobago 2007 year

 Trinidad and Tobago
Administrative divisions 9 regional corporations, 2 city corporations, 3 borough corporations, 1 ward

regional corporations: Couva/Tabaquite/Talparo, Diego Martin, Mayaro/Rio Claro, Penal/Debe, Princes Town, Sangre Grande, San Juan/Laventille, Siparia, Tunapuna/Piarco

city corporations: Port-of-Spain, San Fernando

borough corporations: Arima, Chaguanas, Point Fortin

ward: Tobago
Age structure 0-14 years: 19.5% (male 105,994/female 100,156)

15-64 years: 71.6% (male 397,699/female 358,755)

65 years and over: 8.9% (male 42,039/female 51,965) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products cocoa, rice, citrus, coffee, vegetables; poultry
Airports 6 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 3

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 2 (2007)
Area total: 5,128 sq km

land: 5,128 sq km

water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Delaware
Background First colonized by the Spanish, the islands came under British control in the early 19th century. The islands' sugar industry was hurt by the emancipation of the slaves in 1834. Manpower was replaced with the importation of contract laborers from India between 1845 and 1917, which boosted sugar production as well as the cocoa industry. The discovery of oil on Trinidad in 1910 added another important export. Independence was attained in 1962. The country is one of the most prosperous in the Caribbean thanks largely to petroleum and natural gas production and processing. Tourism, mostly in Tobago, is targeted for expansion and is growing.
Birth rate 13.07 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: $6.096 billion

expenditures: $4.919 billion (2006 est.)
Capital name: Port-of-Spain

geographic coordinates: 10 39 N, 61 31 W

time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Climate tropical; rainy season (June to December)
Coastline 362 km
Constitution 1 August 1976
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Trinidad and Tobago

conventional short form: Trinidad and Tobago
Death rate 10.76 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $2.729 billion (2006 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Roy L. AUSTIN

embassy: 15 Queen's Park West, Port-of-Spain

mailing address: P. O. Box 752, Port-of-Spain

telephone: [1] (868) 622-6371 through 6376

FAX: [1] (868) 628-5462
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Marina Annette VALERE

chancery: 1708 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 467-6490

FAX: [1] (202) 785-3130

consulate(s) general: Miami, New York
Disputes - international in April 2006, the Permanent Court of Arbitration issued a decision that delimited a maritime boundary with Trinidad and Tobago and compelled Barbados to enter a fishing agreement that limited Barbadian fishermen's catches of flying fish in Trinidad and Tobago's exclusive economic zone; in 2005, Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago agreed to compulsory international arbitration under UNCLOS challenging whether the northern limit of Trinidad and Tobago's and Venezuela's maritime boundary extends into Barbadian waters; Guyana has also expressed its intention to include itself in the arbitration as the Trinidad and Tobago-Venezuela maritime boundary may extend into its waters as well
Economic aid - recipient $2.09 million (2005 est.)
Economy - overview Trinidad and Tobago, the leading Caribbean producer of oil and gas, has earned a reputation as an excellent investment site for international businesses. Tourism is a growing sector, although it is not proportionately as important as in many other Caribbean islands. The economy benefits from a growing trade surplus. Economic growth in 2006 reached 12.6% as prices for oil, petrochemicals, and liquefied natural gas remained high, and foreign direct investment continued to grow to support expanded capacity in the energy sector. The government is coping with a rise in violent crime.
Electricity - consumption 6.163 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - production 6.627 billion kWh (2005)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point: El Cerro del Aripo 940 m
Environment - current issues water pollution from agricultural chemicals, industrial wastes, and raw sewage; oil pollution of beaches; deforestation; soil erosion
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Indian (South Asian) 40%, African 37.5%, mixed 20.5%, other 1.2%, unspecified 0.8% (2000 census)
Exchange rates Trinidad and Tobago dollars per US dollar - 6.3107 (2006), 6.2842 (2005), 6.299 (2004), 6.2951 (2003), 6.2487 (2002)
Executive branch chief of state: President George Maxwell RICHARDS (since 17 March 2003)

head of government: Prime Minister Patrick MANNING (since 24 December 2001)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed from among the members of Parliament

elections: president elected by an electoral college, which consists of the members of the Senate and House of Representatives, for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 14 February 2003 (next to be held by January 2008); the president usually appoints as prime minister the leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives

election results: George Maxwell RICHARDS elected president; percent of electoral college vote - 43%
Exports 0 kWh (2005)
Exports $12.1 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports 13.44 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Exports NA bbl/day
Exports - commodities petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, steel products, fertilizer, sugar, cocoa, coffee, citrus, flowers
Exports - partners US 59.8%, Spain 5.3%, Jamaica 5.2% (2006)
Fiscal year 1 October - 30 September
Flag description red with a white-edged black diagonal band from the upper hoist side to the lower fly side
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 0.7%

industry: 59.8%

services: 39.4% (2006 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 11.7% (2006 est.)
Geographic coordinates 11 00 N, 61 00 W
Geography - note Pitch Lake, on Trinidad's southwestern coast, is the world's largest natural reservoir of asphalt
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Illicit drugs transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US and Europe; producer of cannabis
Imports 0 kWh (2005)
Imports $6.843 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2005)
Imports NA bbl/day
Imports - commodities machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured goods, food, live animals
Imports - partners US 30.6%, Brazil 12%, Venezuela 6.8%, Gabon 4.8%, Colombia 4.6% (2006)
Independence 31 August 1962 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate 17% (2006 est.)
Industries petroleum, chemicals, tourism, food processing, cement, beverage, cotton textiles
Infant mortality rate total: 24.33 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 26.15 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 22.43 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 8.3% (2006 est.)
Irrigated land 40 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Court of Judicature (comprised of the High Court of Justice and the Court of Appeals; the chief justice is appointed by the president after consultation with the prime minister and the leader of the opposition; other justices are appointed by the president on the advice of the Judicial and Legal Service Commission); High Court of Justice; Caribbean Court of Appeals member; Court of Appeals; the highest court of appeal is the Privy Council in London
Labor force 625,000 (2006 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 9.5%, manufacturing, mining, and quarrying 14%, construction and utilities 12.4%, services 64.1% (1997 est.)
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land: 14.62%

permanent crops: 9.16%

other: 76.22% (2005)
Languages English (official), Caribbean Hindustani (a dialect of Hindi), French, Spanish, Chinese
Legal system based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (31 seats; 16 members appointed by the ruling party, nine by the President, six by the opposition party to serve a maximum term of five years) and the House of Representatives (41 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: House of Representatives - last held on 5 November 2007 (next to be held in 2012)

election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote - PNM 46%, UNC 29.7%; seats by party - PNM 26, UNC 15

note: Tobago has a unicameral House of Assembly with 12 members serving four-year terms; last election held in January 2005; seats by party - PNM 11, DAC 1
Life expectancy at birth total population: 66.85 years

male: 65.87 years

female: 67.87 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98.6%

male: 99.1%

female: 98% (2003 est.)
Location Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Venezuela
Map references Central America and the Caribbean
Maritime claims measured from claimed archipelagic baselines

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to the outer edge of the continental margin
Merchant marine total: 9 ships (1000 GRT or over) 27,599 GRT/8,081 DWT

by type: passenger 2, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 2

foreign-owned: 1 (US 1)

registered in other countries: 1 (Bahamas 1, unknown 1) (2007)
Military branches Trinidad and Tobago Defense Force: Ground Force, Coast Guard (includes air wing) (2004)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 0.3% (2006)
National holiday Independence Day, 31 August (1962)
Nationality noun: Trinidadian(s), Tobagonian(s)

adjective: Trinidadian, Tobagonian
Natural hazards outside usual path of hurricanes and other tropical storms
Natural resources petroleum, natural gas, asphalt
Net migration rate -11.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Pipelines condensate 253 km; gas 1,278 km; oil 571 km (2006)
Political parties and leaders Congress of the People [Winston DOOKERAN]; Democratic Action Congress or DAC [Hochoy CHARLES] (only active in Tobago); Democratic National Alliance or DNA [Gerald YETMING] (coalition of NAR, DDPT, MND); Movement for National Development or MND [Garvin NICHOLAS]; National Alliance for Reconstruction or NAR [Dr. Carson CHARLES]; People's National Movement or PNM [Patrick MANNING]; United National Congress or UNC [Basdeo PANDAY]
Political pressure groups and leaders Jamaat-al Muslimeen [Yasin BAKR]
Population 1,056,608 (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line 21% (1992 est.)
Population growth rate -0.883% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 4, FM 18, shortwave 0 (2001)
Religions Roman Catholic 26%, Hindu 22.5%, Anglican 7.8%, Baptist 7.2%, Pentecostal 6.8%, Muslim 5.8%, Seventh Day Adventist 4%, other Christian 5.8%, other 10.8%, unspecified 1.4%, none 1.9% (2000 census)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.058 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.109 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.809 male(s)/female

total population: 1.068 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: excellent international service; good local service

domestic: NA

international: country code - 1-868; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Barbados and Guyana
Telephones - main lines in use 325,500 (2006)
Telephones - mobile cellular 1.655 million (2006)
Television broadcast stations 6 (2005)
Terrain mostly plains with some hills and low mountains
Total fertility rate 1.74 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate 7% (2006 est.)
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