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Sierra Leone (2007)

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Sierra Leone 2007 year

 Sierra Leone
Administrative divisions 3 provinces and 1 area*; Eastern, Northern, Southern, Western*
Age structure 0-14 years: 44.8% (male 1,349,878/female 1,400,297)

15-64 years: 52% (male 1,531,763/female 1,664,996)

65 years and over: 3.2% (male 92,360/female 105,268) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products rice, coffee, cocoa, palm kernels, palm oil, peanuts; poultry, cattle, sheep, pigs; fish
Airports 10 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 1

over 3,047 m: 1 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 9

914 to 1,523 m: 7

under 914 m: 2 (2007)
Area total: 71,740 sq km

land: 71,620 sq km

water: 120 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than South Carolina
Background The government is slowly reestablishing its authority after the civil war from 1991 to 2002 that resulted in tens of thousands of deaths and the displacement of more than 2 million people (about one-third of the population). The last UN peacekeepers withdrew in December 2005 leaving full responsibility for security with domestic forces. A new civilian UN mission - the UN Integrated Office in Sierra Leone (UNIOSIL) - was established to support the government's efforts to consolidate peace. The most pressing long-term threat to stability in Sierra Leone is the potential for political insecurity surrounding elections in July 2007.
Birth rate 45.41 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: $96 million

expenditures: $351 million (2000 est.)
Capital name: Freetown

geographic coordinates: 8 30 N, 13 15 W

time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Climate tropical; hot, humid; summer rainy season (May to December); winter dry season (December to April)
Coastline 402 km
Constitution 1 October 1991; subsequently amended several times
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Sierra Leone

conventional short form: Sierra Leone

local long form: Republic of Sierra Leone

local short form: Sierra Leone
Death rate 22.64 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $1.61 billion (2003 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas N. HULL

embassy: Corner of Walpole and Siaka Stevens Streets, Freetown

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [232] (22) 515 000 or [232] (76) 515 000

FAX: [232] (22) 225471
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Ibrahim M. KAMARA

chancery: 1701 19th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 939-9261 through 9263

FAX: [1] (202) 483-1793
Disputes - international as domestic fighting among disparate ethnic groups, rebel groups, warlords, and youth gangs in Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone gradually abate, the number of refugees in border areas has begun to slowly dwindle; UN Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) has maintained over 4,000 peacekeepers in Sierra Leone since 1999; Sierra Leone considers excessive Guinea's definition of the flood plain limits to define the left bank boundary of the Makona and Moa rivers and protests Guinea's continued occupation of these lands including the hamlet of Yenga occupied since 1998
Economic aid - recipient $343.4 million (2005 est.)
Economy - overview Sierra Leone is an extremely poor nation with tremendous inequality in income distribution. While it possesses substantial mineral, agricultural, and fishery resources, its economic and social infrastructure is not well developed, and serious social disorders continue to hamper economic development. Nearly half of the working-age population engages in subsistence agriculture. Manufacturing consists mainly of the processing of raw materials and of light manufacturing for the domestic market. Alluvial diamond mining remains the major source of hard currency earnings accounting for nearly half of Sierra Leone's exports. The fate of the economy depends upon the maintenance of domestic peace and the continued receipt of substantial aid from abroad, which is essential to offset the severe trade imbalance and supplement government revenues. The IMF has completed a Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility program that helped stabilize economic growth and reduce inflation. A recent increase in political stability has led to a revival of economic activity such as the rehabilitation of bauxite and rutile mining.
Electricity - consumption 227.9 million kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - production 245 million kWh (2005)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Loma Mansa (Bintimani) 1,948 m
Environment - current issues rapid population growth pressuring the environment; overharvesting of timber, expansion of cattle grazing, and slash-and-burn agriculture have resulted in deforestation and soil exhaustion; civil war depleted natural resources; overfishing
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Ethnic groups 20 African ethnic groups 90% (Temne 30%, Mende 30%, other 30%), Creole (Krio) 10% (descendants of freed Jamaican slaves who were settled in the Freetown area in the late-18th century), refugees from Liberia's recent civil war, small numbers of Europeans, Lebanese, Pakistanis, and Indians
Exchange rates leones per US dollar - 2,961.7 (2006), 2,889.6 (2005), 2,701.3 (2004), 2,347.9 (2003), 2,099 (2002)
Executive branch chief of state: President Ernest Bai KOROMA (since 17 September 2007); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Ernest Bai KOROMA (since 17 September 2007)

cabinet: Ministers of State appointed by the president with the approval of the House of Representatives; the cabinet is responsible to the president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 11 August 2007 and 8 September 2007 (next to be held in 2012)

election results: second round results; percent of vote - Ernest Bai KOROMA 54.6%, Solomon BEREWA 45.4%
Exports 0 kWh (2005)
Exports $185 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports NA bbl/day
Exports - commodities diamonds, rutile, cocoa, coffee, fish
Exports - partners Belgium 52.1%, US 19.1%, Netherlands 6.8% (2006)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of light green (top), white, and light blue
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 49%

industry: 31%

services: 21% (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 7.1% (2006 est.)
Geographic coordinates 8 30 N, 11 30 W
Geography - note rainfall along the coast can reach 495 cm (195 inches) a year, making it one of the wettest places along coastal, western Africa
Heliports 2 (2007)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 0.5%

highest 10%: 43.6% (1989)
Imports 0 kWh (2005)
Imports $531 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Imports NA bbl/day
Imports - commodities foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, fuels and lubricants, chemicals
Imports - partners Cote d'Ivoire 9.3%, US 7.7%, China 7.7%, Brazil 6.9%, UK 6.7%, Netherlands 5.5%, South Africa 4.5%, India 4.3%, France 4.2% (2006)
Independence 27 April 1961 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate NA%
Industries diamond mining; small-scale manufacturing (beverages, textiles, cigarettes, footwear); petroleum refining, small commercial ship repair
Infant mortality rate total: 158.27 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 175.39 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 140.65 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 1% (2002 est.)
Irrigated land 300 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Court; Appeals Court; High Court
Labor force 1.369 million (1981 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: NA%

industry: NA%

services: NA%
Land boundaries total: 958 km

border countries: Guinea 652 km, Liberia 306 km
Land use arable land: 7.95%

permanent crops: 1.05%

other: 91% (2005)
Languages English (official, regular use limited to literate minority), Mende (principal vernacular in the south), Temne (principal vernacular in the north), Krio (English-based Creole, spoken by the descendants of freed Jamaican slaves who were settled in the Freetown area, a lingua franca and a first language for 10% of the population but understood by 95%)
Legal system based on English law and customary laws indigenous to local tribes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral Parliament (124 seats; 112 members elected by popular vote, 12 filled by paramount chiefs elected in separate elections; to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held on 11 August 2007 (next to be held in 2012)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - APC 59, SLPP 43, PMDC 10
Life expectancy at birth total population: 40.58 years

male: 38.36 years

female: 42.87 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write English, Mende, Temne, or Arabic

total population: 35.1%

male: 46.9%

female: 24.4% (2004 est.)
Location Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea and Liberia
Map references Africa
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm
Merchant marine total: 113 ships (1000 GRT or over) 314,549 GRT/419,409 DWT

by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 85, chemical tanker 4, combination ore/oil 1, container 4, liquefied gas 1, livestock carrier 1, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 4, petroleum tanker 7, roll on/roll off 4

foreign-owned: 47 (Belgium 1, China 8, Greece 1, Romania 2, Russia 5, Syria 8, Turkey 7, Ukraine 8, UAE 7) (2007)
Military branches Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces (RSLAF): Army (includes Air Wing, Navy (Maritime Wing)) (2007)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2.3% (2006)
National holiday Independence Day, 27 April (1961)
Nationality noun: Sierra Leonean(s)

adjective: Sierra Leonean
Natural hazards dry, sand-laden harmattan winds blow from the Sahara (December to February); sandstorms, dust storms
Natural resources diamonds, titanium ore, bauxite, iron ore, gold, chromite
Net migration rate 0.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population

note: refugees currently in surrounding countries are slowly returning (2007 est.)
Political parties and leaders All People's Congress or APC [Ernest Bai KOROMA]; Peace and Liberation Party or PLP [Darlington MORRISON]; People's Movement for Democratic Change or PMDC [Charles MARGAI]; Sierra Leone People's Party or SLPP [Solomon BEREWA]; numerous others
Political pressure groups and leaders trade unions and student unions
Population 6,144,562 (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line 70.2% (2004)
Population growth rate 2.292% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 1, FM 9, shortwave 1 (2001)
Religions Muslim 60%, Christian 10%, indigenous beliefs 30%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 0.964 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.877 male(s)/female

total population: 0.938 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: marginal telephone and telegraph service

domestic: the national microwave radio relay trunk system connects Freetown to Bo and Kenema

international: country code - 232; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2000)
Telephones - main lines in use 24,000 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular 113,200 (2003)
Television broadcast stations 2 (1999)
Terrain coastal belt of mangrove swamps, wooded hill country, upland plateau, mountains in east
Total fertility rate 6.01 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate NA%
Waterways 800 km (600 km year round) (2005)
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