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New Caledonia (2007)

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 New Caledonia
Administrative divisions none (overseas territory of France); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 3 provinces named Province des Iles, Province Nord, and Province Sud
Age structure 0-14 years: 27.9% (male 31,578/female 30,270)

15-64 years: 65.3% (male 72,821/female 72,109)

65 years and over: 6.8% (male 7,047/female 8,118) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products vegetables; beef, deer, other livestock products; fish
Airports 25 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 12

over 3,047 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 9

under 914 m: 2 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 13

914 to 1,523 m: 7

under 914 m: 6 (2007)
Area total: 19,060 sq km

land: 18,575 sq km

water: 485 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than New Jersey
Background Settled by both Britain and France during the first half of the 19th century, the island was made a French possession in 1853. It served as a penal colony for four decades after 1864. Agitation for independence during the 1980s and early 1990s ended in the 1998 Noumea Accord, which over a period of 15 to 20 years will transfer an increasing amount of governing responsibility from France to New Caledonia. The agreement also commits France to conduct as many as three referenda between 2013 and 2018, to decide whether New Caledonia should assume full sovereignty and independence.
Birth rate 17.75 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: $996 million

expenditures: $1.072 billion (2001 est.)
Capital name: Noumea

geographic coordinates: 22 16 S, 166 27 E

time difference: UTC+11 (16 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Climate tropical; modified by southeast trade winds; hot, humid
Coastline 2,254 km
Constitution 4 October 1958 (French Constitution)
Country name conventional long form: Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies

conventional short form: New Caledonia

local long form: Territoire des Nouvelle-Caledonie et Dependances

local short form: Nouvelle-Caledonie
Death rate 5.72 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $79 million (1998 est.)
Dependency status territorial collectivity of France since 1998
Diplomatic representation from the US none (overseas territory of France)
Diplomatic representation in the US none (overseas territory of France)
Disputes - international Matthew and Hunter Islands east of New Caledonia claimed by France and Vanuatu
Economic aid - recipient $524.3 million annual subsidy from France (2004)
Economy - overview New Caledonia has about 25% of the world's known nickel resources. Only a small amount of the land is suitable for cultivation, and food accounts for about 20% of imports. In addition to nickel, substantial financial support from France - equal to more than 15% of GDP - and tourism are keys to the health of the economy. Substantial new investment in the nickel industry, combined with the recovery of global nickel prices, brightens the economic outlook for the next several years.
Electricity - consumption 1.403 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - production 1.508 billion kWh (2005)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mont Panie 1,628 m
Environment - current issues erosion caused by mining exploitation and forest fires
Ethnic groups Melanesian 42.5%, European 37.1%, Wallisian 8.4%, Polynesian 3.8%, Indonesian 3.6%, Vietnamese 1.6%, other 3%
Exchange rates Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique francs (XPF) per US dollar - 95.025 (2006), 95.89 (2005), 96.04 (2004), 105.66 (2003), 126.71 (2002)
Executive branch chief of state: President Nicolas SARKOZY (since 16 May 2007); represented by High Commissioner Yves DASSONVILLE (since 9 November 2007)

head of government: President of the Government Harold MARTIN (since 7 August 2007)

cabinet: Cabinet consisting of 11 members elected from and by the Territorial Congress

elections: French president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; high commissioner appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; president of the government elected by the members of the Territorial Congress for a five-year term (no term limits); note - last election held 7 August 2007 when Harold MARTIN was elected following the resignation of Marie-Noelle THEMEREAU as president on 24 July 2007 (next to be held in 2012)
Exports 0 kWh (2005)
Exports $1.085 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports NA bbl/day
Exports - commodities ferronickels, nickel ore, fish
Exports - partners Japan 17.8%, Taiwan 14.9%, France 13.7%, China 11.1%, Spain 9.7%, Belgium 7.5%, Italy 6.2%, Australia 4.7% (2006)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description the flag of France is used
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 15%

industry: 8.8%

services: 76.2% (2003)
GDP - real growth rate NA%
Geographic coordinates 21 30 S, 165 30 E
Geography - note consists of the main island of New Caledonia (one of the largest in the Pacific Ocean), the archipelago of Iles Loyaute, and numerous small, sparsely populated islands and atolls
Heliports 6 (2007)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Imports 0 kWh (2005)
Imports $1.78 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports NA bbl/day
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, fuels, chemicals, foodstuffs
Imports - partners France 38.9%, Singapore 15.3%, Australia 11.4%, NZ 4.8% (2006)
Independence none (overseas territory of France); note - a referendum on independence was held in 1998 but did not pass; a new referendum is scheduled for 2014
Industrial production growth rate -0.6% (1996)
Industries nickel mining and smelting
Infant mortality rate total: 7.42 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 8.12 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 6.69 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 1.4% (2000 est.)
International organization participation ITUC, PIF (observer), SPC, UPU, WFTU, WMO
Irrigated land 100 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; County Courts; Joint Commerce Tribunal Court; Children's Court
Labor force 78,990 (2004)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 20%

industry: 20%

services: 60% (2002)
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land: 0.32%

permanent crops: 0.22%

other: 99.46% (2005)
Languages French (official), 33 Melanesian-Polynesian dialects
Legal system based on French civil law; the 1988 Matignon Accords grant substantial autonomy to the islands
Legislative branch unicameral Territorial Congress or Congres du territoire (54 seats; members belong to the three Provincial Assemblies or Assemblees Provinciales elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 9 May 2004 (next to be held in 2009)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RPCR-UMP 16, AE 16, UNI-FLNKS 8, UC 7, FN 4, others 3

note: New Caledonia currently holds one seat in the French Senate; by 2010, New Caledonia will gain a second seat in the French Senate; elections last held 24 September 2001 (next to be held not later than September 2007); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - UMP 1; New Caledonia also elects two seats to the French National Assembly; elections last held 10 and 17 June 2007 (next to be held on June 2012); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - UMP 2
Life expectancy at birth total population: 74.5 years

male: 71.52 years

female: 77.63 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 96.2%

male: 96.8%

female: 95.5% (1996 census)
Location Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Australia
Map references Oceania
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Merchant marine total: 2 ships (1000 GRT or over) 3,566 GRT/2,543 DWT

by type: cargo 1, passenger/cargo 1 (2007)
Military - note defense is the responsibility of France
Military branches no regular indigenous military forces; French Armed Forces (includes Army, Navy, Air Force, Gendarmerie); Police Force
Military expenditures - percent of GDP NA
National holiday Bastille Day, 14 July (1789)
Nationality noun: New Caledonian(s)

adjective: New Caledonian
Natural hazards cyclones, most frequent from November to March
Natural resources nickel, chrome, iron, cobalt, manganese, silver, gold, lead, copper
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population

note: there has been steady emigration from Wallis and Futuna to New Caledonia (2007 est.)
Political parties and leaders Alliance pour la Caledonie or APLC [Didier LE ROUX]; Caledonian Union or UC; Federation des Comites de Coordination des Independantistes or FCCI [Francois BURCK]; Front National or FN [Guy GEORGE]; Front Uni de Liberation Kanak or FULK [Ernest UNE]; Kanak Socialist Front for National Liberation or FLNKS (includes PALIKA, UNI, UC, and UPM); Parti de Liberation Kanak or PALIKA [Paul NEAOUTYINE and Elie POIGOUNE]; Rally for Caledonia in the Republic (anti independence) or RPCR-UMP [Jacques LAFLEUR]; The Future Together or AE [Harold MARTIN]; Union Nationale pour l'Independance or UNI [Paul NEAOUTYINE]; note - may no longer exist, but Paul NEAOUTYINE has since become a president of Parti de Liberation Kanak or PALIKA; Union Progressiste Melanesienne or UPM [Victor TUTUGORO]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 221,943 (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 1.203% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 0 (1998)
Religions Roman Catholic 60%, Protestant 30%, other 10%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.043 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.868 male(s)/female

total population: 1.009 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: NA

domestic: NA

international: country code - 687; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 55,300 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular 134,300 (2005)
Television broadcast stations 6 (plus 25 repeaters) (1997)
Terrain coastal plains with interior mountains
Total fertility rate 2.25 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate 17.1% (2004)
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