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Greenland (2004)

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Greenland 2004 year

Administrative divisions 3 districts (landsdele); Avannaa (Nordgronland), Tunu (Ostgronland), Kitaa (Vestgronland)

note: there are 18 municipalities in Greenland
Age structure 0-14 years: 25.5% (male 7,344; female 7,029)

15-64 years: 68.5% (male 20,894; female 17,715)

65 years and over: 6% (male 1,585; female 1,817) (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products forage crops, garden and greenhouse vegetables; sheep, reindeer; fish
Airports 14 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 9

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 5 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 2 (2004 est.)
Area total: 2,166,086 sq km

land: 2,166,086 sq km (410,449 sq km ice-free, 1,755,637 sq km ice-covered) (2000 est.)
Area - comparative slightly more than three times the size of Texas
Background The world's largest island, Greenland is about 81% ice-capped. Vikings reached the island in the 10th century from Iceland; Danish colonization began in the 18th century and Greenland was made an integral part of Denmark in 1953. It joined the European Community (now the European Union) with Denmark in 1973 but withdrew in 1985 over a dispute over stringent fishing quotas. Greenland was granted self-government in 1979 by the Danish parliament. The law went into effect the following year. Denmark continues to exercise control of Greenland's foreign affairs.
Birth rate 15.96 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Budget revenues: $646 million

expenditures: $629 million, including capital expenditures of $85 million (1999)
Capital Nuuk (Godthab)
Climate arctic to subarctic; cool summers, cold winters
Coastline 44,087 km
Constitution 5 June 1953 (Danish constitution)
Country name conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Greenland

local long form: none

local short form: Kalaallit Nunaat
Currency Danish krone (DKK) is the official legal tender.
Death rate 7.7 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Debt - external $25 million (1999)
Dependency status part of the Kingdom of Denmark; self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark since 1979
Diplomatic representation from the US none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)
Diplomatic representation in the US none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)
Disputes - international uncontested dispute between Canada and Denmark over Hans Island in the Kennedy Channel between Canada's Ellesmere Island and Greenland
Economic aid - recipient $380 million subsidy from Denmark (1997)
Economy - overview The economy remains critically dependent on exports of fish and substantial support from the Danish Government, which supplies about half of government revenues. The public sector, including publicly-owned enterprises and the municipalities, plays the dominant role in the economy. Despite several interesting hydrocarbon and minerals exploration activities, it will take several years before production can materialize. Tourism is the only sector offering any near-term potential, and even this is limited due to a short season and high costs.
Electricity - consumption 227.9 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 245 million kWh (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Gunnbjorn 3,700 m
Environment - current issues protection of the arctic environment; preservation of the Inuit traditional way of life, including whaling and seal hunting
Ethnic groups Greenlander 88% (Inuit and Greenland-born whites), Danish and others 12% (January 2000)
Exchange rates Danish kroner per US dollar - 6.5877 (2003), 7.8947 (2002), 8.323 (2001), 8.083 (2000), 6.976 (1999)
Executive branch chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II of Denmark (since 14 January 1972), represented by High Commissioner Peter LAURITEEN (since NA 2002)

head of government: Prime Minister Hans ENOKSEN (since 14 December 2002)

cabinet: Home Rule Government is elected by the Parliament (Landstinget) on the basis of the strength of parties

elections: the monarchy is hereditary; high commissioner appointed by the monarch; prime minister is elected by Parliament (usually the leader of the majority party); election last held 3 December 2002 (next to be held December 2006)

election results: Hans ENOKSEN elected prime minister

note: government coalition - Siumut and Inuit Ataqatigiit
Exports 0 kWh (2001)
Exports $388 million f.o.b. (2002)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities fish and fish products 94% (prawns 63%)
Exports - partners Denmark 64.7%, Japan 14.2%, China 4.4% (2003)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a large disk slightly to the hoist side of center - the top half of the disk is red, the bottom half is white
GDP purchasing power parity - $1.1 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: NA

industry: NA

services: NA
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $20,000 (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 1.8% (2001 est.)
Geographic coordinates 72 00 N, 40 00 W
Geography - note dominates North Atlantic Ocean between North America and Europe; sparse population confined to small settlements along coast, but close to one-quarter of the population lives in the capital, Nuuk; world's second largest ice cap
Highways total: NA (there are no roads between towns) (2003)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA

highest 10%: NA
Imports 0 kWh (2001)
Imports $445 million c.i.f. (2002)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, petroleum products
Imports - partners Denmark 82.6%, Norway 7.5%, Sweden 3.5% (2003)
Independence none (part of the Kingdom of Denmark; foreign affairs is the responsibility of Denmark, but Greenland actively participates in international agreements relating to Greenland)
Industrial production growth rate NA
Industries fish processing (mainly shrimp and Greenland halibut), handicrafts, hides and skins, small shipyards, mining
Infant mortality rate total: 16.31 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 17.62 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 14.96 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 1.6% (1999 est.)
International organization participation NC, NIB, UPU
Irrigated land NA sq km
Judicial branch High Court or Landsret (appeals can be made to the Ostre Landsret or Eastern Division of the High Court or Supreme Court in Copenhagen)
Labor force 24,500 (1999 est.)
Land boundaries 0 km
Land use arable land: 0%

permanent crops: 0%

other: 100% (2001)
Languages Greenlandic (East Inuit), Danish, English
Legal system Danish
Legislative branch unicameral Parliament or Landstinget (31 seats; members are elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held on 3 December 2002 (next to be held by NA December 2006)

election results: percent of vote by party - Siumut 28.7%, Inuit Ataqatigiit 25.5%, Atassut Party 20.4%, Demokratiit 15.6%, Katusseqatigiit 5.3%; seats by party - Siumut 10, Inuit Ataqatigiit 8, Atassut 7, Demokratiit 5, Katusseqatigiit 1

note: two representatives were elected to the Danish Parliament or Folketing on 20 November 2001 (next to be held 8 February 2005); percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Siumut 1, Inuit Ataqatigiit 1
Life expectancy at birth total population: 69.32 years

male: 65.75 years

female: 72.98 years (2004 est.)
Literacy definition: NA

total population: NA

male: NA

female: NA

note: similar to Denmark proper
Location Northern North America, island between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Canada
Map references Arctic Region
Maritime claims territorial sea: 3 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or agreed boundaries or median line

exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm or agreed boundaries or median line
Merchant marine total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 4,593 GRT/3,640 DWT

by type: cargo 2, passenger 1

foreign-owned: Denmark 1 (2004 est.)
Military - note defense is the responsibility of Denmark
National holiday June 21 (longest day)
Nationality noun: Greenlander(s)

adjective: Greenlandic
Natural hazards continuous permafrost over northern two-thirds of the island
Natural resources coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, molybdenum, gold, platinum, uranium, fish, seals, whales, hydropower, possible oil and gas
Net migration rate -8.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Political parties and leaders Atassut Party (Solidarity, a conservative party favoring continuing close relations with Denmark) [Augusta SALLING]; Demokratiit [Per BERTHELSEN]; Inuit Ataqatigiit or IA (Eskimo Brotherhood, a leftist party favoring complete independence from Denmark rather than home rule) [Josef MOTZFELDT]; Issituup (Polar Party) [Nicolai HEINRICH]; Kattusseqatigiit (Candidate List, an independent right-of-center party with no official platform [leader NA]; Siumut (Forward Party, a social democratic party advocating more distinct Greenlandic identity and greater autonomy from Denmark) [Hans ENOKSEN]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 56,384 (July 2004 est.)
Population below poverty line NA
Population growth rate -0.01% (2004 est.)
Ports and harbors Aasiaat (Egedesminde), Ilulissat (Jakobshavn), Kangerlussuaq, Nanortalik, Narsarsuaq, Nuuk (Godthab), Qaqortoq (Julianehab), Sisimiut (Holsteinsborg), Tasiilaq
Radio broadcast stations AM 5, FM 12, shortwave 0 (1998)
Religions Evangelical Lutheran
Sex ratio at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.18 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female

total population: 1.12 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: adequate domestic and international service provided by satellite, cables and microwave radio relay; totally digitalized in 1995

domestic: microwave radio relay and satellite

international: country code - 299; satellite earth stations - 12 Intelsat, 1 Eutelsat, 2 Americom GE-2 (all Atlantic Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 26,000 (2001)
Telephones - mobile cellular 16,747 (2001)
Television broadcast stations 1 publicly-owned station, some local low-power stations, and three AFRTS (US Air Force) stations (1997)
Terrain flat to gradually sloping icecap covers all but a narrow, mountainous, barren, rocky coast
Total fertility rate 2.42 children born/woman (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate 10% (2000 est.)
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